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LONDON : ^' ' 






;^ The labours of the Editor of The Herald and Gene- 
^ ALOGIST are ended, and the work is brought to a close by the 
^ completion of the present Volume. Nearly the whole of it was 
^ already in type and had been revised by him before his death. 
^ One or two articles more or less advanced were found in manu- 
; script among his papers and have been finished in accordance 
^1 with the hints derived from his notes. Little else has been 
^ added except the Memoir of his Life, in which the writer has 
^ endeavoured, to the best of his power, to give a succinct account 
^ of the work in which he had been engaged without intermission 
?• from an early age until his lamented death. It is hoped that 
I the circumstances will be held to be a sufficient excuse for any 
i imperfection which may be found in those articles which have 
not had the benefit of his final revision. 

The ei<'-ht volumes of The Herald and Genealogist 
have, it is believed, fully redeemed the promises made at their 
commencement. The genealogical articles are of sterling value, 
and such topics connected with either heraldry or genealogy as 
the events of the day have brought into prominence have been 
treated in a manner which will give them something more than 
a temporary interest. 

Above all things strict historical truth has been the chief aim 
of the Editor of this publication, and, if in aiming at this he has 


felt bound to refuse to sanction unsubstantiated claims, it has 
been from no desire to give offence, but from tliat conscientious 
devotion to Fact without which the labour of the Herald or 
Genealogist is worse than wasted and more contemptible than 
vanity itself 

25, Pakliament Street, 
Ajfril 18, 1874. 

(^\\([ gemli iiml (^nxulo^mi 


In tlie relofn of Georcre II. tliere were three distinct families of 
the name of Walter, who had large estates in Surrey. 1. Walter 
of Bury Hill in Dorking and of Stalbridge in Dorset. 2. Walter 
of Worcester Park in Maldon. 3. Walter of Godalming. 

Manning and Bray's History of Surrey contains some scattered 
notices of all these families, but gives no connected account of 
any of them. I have therefore put together what notes I have 
about them, in the hope of eliciting further information from 
some one with better opportunities of research. 

I. Walter of Bury Hill. 

Peter Walter the usurer is one of those unhappy persons 
who are doomed to immortal infamy, for his meanness will never 
be forgotten whilst Fielding and Pope are read. He is portrayed 
by Fielding as Peter Pounce, the knavish clerk of a West-country 
justice of the peace, and Pope, in. a well-known couplet, asso- 
ciates him with some notorious rascals and the devil. It would 
seem that his infamy was not limited to the vices inherent in his 
odious profession, for, if we may trust the editor of the Parlia- 
mentary History of England, he barely escaped the pillory in 
1737 on a change of downright forgery, which was almost 
brought home to him. It must be doubted, however, whether 
Peter Walter was so contemptible a character as we suppose in 
the eyes of his contemporaries : for it is certain that he was a man 
of good education and connexions, was a Member of three Parlia- 
ments, and clerk of the peace for Middlesex, and resided at Stal- 
bridge Park, a noble seat in Dorsetshire, which he purchased 
from the Earl of Cork. 

The first notice that I have found of Peter Walter is in 1693, 
when he was scarcely thirty years old. He was then the clerk of 
Richard Newman, esq. of Fifehcad ]\Iagdalcn in Dorset, and the 



husband of his niece Diana. Richard Newman, esq. was one of 
the principal gentry of Dorset and a justice of the peace, and he 
must have had a good opinion of his nephew-in-law, for in 1694 
he made him the executor of his wilh I cannot identify Diana 
from the printed pedigrees of Newman, but it is significant that 
the christian name of her only son was Paget, ^ and that her 
grandson Peter Walter devised Stalbridge in remainder to Lord 
Paget of Beaudesert. 

Peter Walter sat in the two Parliaments of George I. as M.P. 
for Bridport, and in the first Parliament of George II. as M.P- 
for Winchelsea. During his twenty years of Parliamentary life 
he steadily supported the King's Ministers by his votes, for he 
was a staunch Protestant and a friend of the Hanoverian succes- 
sion. His political patron was the Duke of Newcastle, who made 
him the steward and auditor of his estates, and rewarded his 
services in 1724 with the lucrative place of Clerk of the Peace 
for Middlesex. His being allowed to retain this quasi-judicial 
office until his death makes one hope, for the honour of the public 
service, that he was not so notoriously guilty of perjury as the 
editor of the Parliamentary History of England (ix. 483) would 
have us believe. But that same generation had seen Sir John 
Trevor presiding at the Rolls for many years after he had been 
expelled from the House of Commons for scandalous dishonesty. 

Peter Walter died 19 Jan. 1746, at the age of 82, leaving an 
estate which was computed at 3C0,000Z. an enormous sum in 
those days. His only child Paget Walter had died in his life- 
time, and his five children inherited their grandfather's wealth. 

Peter Walter^ the eldest of these grandchildren, was the 
principal heir, and had been M.P. for Shaftesbury since 1741. 
He enlarged the park at Stalbridge, and inclosed it with a stone 
wall five miles in circumference. He died in 1753, at the age of 
36, and left a daughter Anne, then 15 years old. But by the 
provisions of his will she did not succeed to his estate, for he 
devised Stalbridge Park to his brother Edward in tail male, with 
remainder to Henry Bayly, afterwards Lord Paget and Earl of 
Uxbridge. Anne Walter, thus disinherited, married Joseph 

' He is misnamed Peter in the new edition of Hutchins's History of Dorset, 
vol. iii, p. 671. 


Bullock, esq. of Caversfield, Bucks, and died 2 Aug. 1828, at the 
age of 89. She too had an only daughter Amelia, the heiress of 
Caversfield, who married the Honble. and Rev. Jacob ^larsham, 
and was the mother of the present Dr. Bullock Marsham, the 
Warden of Merton College, Oxford. 

Edavard Walter succeeded to his grandfather's estates in 
Surrey, where he built the mansion of Bury Hill, near Dorking. 
He was M.P. for Milborne Port 1754-76, and married Harriet, 
daughter and coheir of George Lord Forrester of Scotland. He 
succeeded to Stalbridge in 1753; but, as his sons all died young, 
Stalbridge Park, on his death in 1780, passed under his brother 
Peter's will to the Earl of Uxbridge. It remained with that 
family until 1854, when the Marquess of Anglesey sold it to the 
Marquess of Westminster. Edward Walter left an only child, 
Harriet, who married 28 July, 1774, James 3rd Viscount Grims- 
ton, and their son was created Earl of Yerulam. 

The other members of this family are sufficiently set forth in 
the pedigree annexed: — 

Peter Walter, esq. of Stalbridge, Clerk of=pDiana, niece of Richard 

the Peace for Middlesex 1723; M.P. for 

Bridport 1714-27, and for Winchelsea 

1727-34; died 19 Jan. 1745-6, aged 82 ; 

bur. at Stalbridge 29 Jan. Will dat. 26 

Dec. 1744, proved 29 Jan. 1746. 

NewTnan, esq, of Fifehead 
Magdalen, Dorset ; occ. 
wife 1693. 

Paget Walter, esq. son and heir apparent; died=pEIizabeth, sister of Sheldon Mer- 
in his father's lifetime. I vyn, esq. of Manston, Dorset. 

Peter Walter,; 
esq. grand- 
son and heir, 
of Stalbridge, 
M.P. for 
1741; bur. 13 
Oct. 1753, at 

dau. of 
. . . died 
31st Dec. 
aged 78, 
M.I. at 

Edward Wal-: 
ter, esq. bro- 
ther and heir, 
of Stalbridge; 
M.P. for Mil- 
borne Port 
died 25 Oct. 

Anne Walter,=y=Joseph 

dau. and heir, j Bullock, 

aged 15 in 

1753; died 

2 Aug. 1828, 

aged 89. 


esq. of 
field; died 
13 April, 
aged 75. 

of Caversfield, Bucks. 

dau. and 
coheir of 
ter of 

I James 

esq. of 
CO. Corn- 
wall ; died 
. . . Jan. 
1751 un- 

Mary Walter, 
died unmar. ; 
bur. 6 March, 
1751, at Stal- 

unmar. 1745, 

Harriet Wal-^ 
ter, dau. and 
heir; mar. 28 
July, 1774; 
died 7 Nov. 

Earls of Verulam. 



II. Walter of Worcester Park. 

John Walter, Esq. the steward of the Duke of Grafton, 
purchased from his Grace in 1731 the estate of Worcester Park, 
in the parish of Maldon. He may have been related to his con- 
temporary Peter Walter, to whom he bore a singular resemblance 
in many circumstances of his career. Peter and John Walter 
were both attorneys and stewards of great noblemen, both were 
money- scriveners and grew rich by usury, both lost their only 
sons and were succeeded by their grandchildren, and both died 
in old age within a few months of each other. It may be added 
that both used the same arms, a fess dancettee between three 
eao-les displayed, the ancient coat of the Walters of Wimbledon 
and the Baronets of Sarsden. 

It has been supposed by some editors of Pope that John 
Walter of Worcester Park was the person intended in the well- 
known lines: 

*' The fool, the vain, the mad, the evil. 
To Ward, to Waters, Chartres, and the Devil." 

because the name is here spelled Waters without any exigences 
of rhyme, whereas in another passage, where Peter A\^alter is 
clearly intended, Pope says: 

*' What's property, dear Swift? you see it alter 
From you to me, from me to Peter Walter." 

But no inference can safely be drawn from the mere spelling, for 
all the families of Walter constantly spelled their names Waters. 
The marriage of Sir John Walter, Lord Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer, is thus entered in the register of Isleworth : " 1622. 
July 18, Sir John Waters, Kt. and Lady An Bigs maryed." 
And there are many other similar instances in the 17th and 18th 
centuries. This naturally rose from the fact that the I in the 
name of Walter has from time immemorial been silent in the 
pronunciation. Readers of Shakespeare will remember that Lord 
Suffolk started at the name of Walter Whitmore, because it had 
been prophecicd that " by Water he should die." (Henry VI. 
Part II. Act iv.) 


John Walter died at Worcester Park 14 April, 1745, when 
his estate descended to his two granddaughters. His only son, 
Sir George Walter, had died in his father's lifetime on 2 Aug. 
1742. He was knighted at the coronation of George II., at 
which he walked in the procession as Duke of Aquitaine. He 
had three wives, of whom the second was Catharine, dauo-hter of 
Sir William Bough ton, Bart, who died in 1733 and has a 
monument at Maldon, but his first wife was the mother of his 
two daughters who inherited their grandfather's estate. The 
younger of these coheiresses died unmarried 8 July, 1749. Her 
sister Frances Walter married in 1742 the Rev. Joseph Clarke, 
an author of some reputation, who sold Worcester Park, and died 
30 Dec. 1750, leaving nine children. 

John Walter, esq. Steward of the Duke of= 
Grafton, bought Worcester Park in Maldon, 
CO. Surrey, in 1731; died 14 April, 1745. 


1 \v.=p 2 w. Catherine, dau. of=Sir George Walter, Kt. son and=. . . . Cowper, 
Sir William Boughton, heir-apparent, knighted at the mar. 22 Sept. 
Bart.; died 1 Nov. 1733, coronation of George II.; died 1738. 
aged 33, M. I. at Maldon. 2 Aug. 1742. 

Walter, Frances Walter, co-=pRev. Joseph Clarke, son of Rev. Joseph 

Clarke, D.D. Rector and Patron of 
Long Ditton ; died 30 Dec. 1750. 
Sold Worcester Park. 

coheir; died heir; mar. settlement 

unmar. 8 July, dated 8 Sept. 1742. 

III. Walter of Godalming. 

John Walter, esq. of Granada Hall, in Barbadoes, settled 
in England in the reign of Queen Anne, and bought large estates 
in Surrey. His chief purchases were at Busbridge, Godalming, 
and Bisley, where he bought the Duke of Cleveland's estates in 
1715. He was elected M.P. for Surrey in 1719 and again in 
1722, and died 12 May, 1736. His wife Lucy Alleyne belonged 
to one of the principal families in Barbadoes ; and he had many 
children, of whom John Abel Walter, his eldest son, married 
Jane Nevill, the daughter of Lord Abergavenny. The pedigree 
of this family is included in Berry's Genealogies of Hampshire, 
and therefore need not be repeated here. 

Edmond Chester AVaters. 

Upton Park, Poole, 5 Dec. 1872. 


The representation of this family in the male line has been 
claimed for the present Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, Bart, in 
^^ The Stirlings of Keir, and their family papers ^^^ compiled by 
Mr. William Fraser, and printed for private circulation in 1858. 

To establish this claim it would be necessary to prove, first, 
that John de Strivelin (of Rathoran, jure uxoris), living A.D. 1338, 
grandfather of Luke, who acquired half of Keir in 1448, was son 
and heir of Sir William, a younger brother of Cadder; second, 
that no descendants in the male line exist of any of the eight 
lords of Cadder from Sir Alexander, who swore fealty to Edward I. 
of England in 1296, to Andrew, last of Cadder, who died in 

A counter claim is made for the family of Stirling of Drum- 
pellier, and in 1818 its representative was served heir male of 
his ancestor Robert Stirling of Lettyr and Bankeir, said to be 
identical with the Robert Stirling who at his death in 1537 was 
confessedly heir male of Cadder. This identity was strongly 
argued, and much telling evidence adduced by the late John 
Riddell, advocate, in his '* Comments in refutation of pretensions 
advanced for the first time, and statements in a recent work, 
* The Stirlings of Keir and their family papers,' with an Expo- 
sition of the right of the Stirlings of Drumpellier to the repre- 
sentation of the ancient Stirlings of Cadder," 1860, also printed 
for private circulation. 

Mr. Andrew Stirling of Drumpellier had his status as heir 
male recognised in 1818 in the Lyon Court, and the undiffer- 
enced coat of Cadder, with supporters, allowed to him. This 
iudgment of the Lord Lyon, fortified by prescription, must be 
held valid ; at any rate, my object is not to enter into the details 
of this vexata gucestioj but to point out what has hitherto been 
entirely overlooked, that there may be direct descendants of the 
unfortunate lady of Cadder in existence. 

The ward and marriage of Janet, only child of Andrew 
Stirling of Cadder, she being in pupillarity and her mother dead, 
were granted in 1529 to Sir John Stirling of Keir, the concur- 
rence of Robert Stirling, her nearest kinsman on the father's 


side, having been obtained. In 1534, Sir John married her to 
his eldest son James. This alliance was evidently forced upon 
the lady, for in a few months she presented, a petition to the 
Lords of Council, in which she speaks of her '*' pretendit matri- 
mony," and complains that her husband and his father had 
compelled her to alienate part of her lands, and kept her in con- 
finement. In July 1535 a decreet in her favour was pro- 
nounced, finding all such alienations invalid. 

In January 1541, by a decree of the Commissaries of St. 
Andrew's, the marriage was declared null and void, on the ground 
of consanguinity, and a few weeks after Janet became the wife 
of Thomas Bishop. She had by James, afterwards Sir James 
Stirling of Keir, a son, John of Wester Bankeir, who was de- 
prived of the succession to Keir, and, although twice married, 
seems to have left no issue. 

It has been said that Bishop was a tailor, a servant of the 
Keir family, and paramour of Janet Stirling during the sub- 
sistence of her first marriage. Of the last allegation there is no 
actual proof, and probably the other statements are made too 

He was son of a burgess of Edinburgh, possessed of some pro- 
perty in the locality, where the family had resided for a length 
of time. The name is an uncommon one in Scotland, and I 
have only found the following scanty notices : 

John Bischape or Bisschop appears as owner of land in the 
Canongate of Edinburgh 1426, 1437, 1447. 

Mr. Eiddell quotes a charter by James Stirling of Keir in 
1540 to Mr. Thomas Marjoribanks, afterwards Lord Clerk Re- 
gister, of lands near Ratho in the county of Edinburgli, there 
partly held by Thomas Bischop : I find Burnewynd in the parish 
of Ratho, probably the same lands, held in 1611 by James 
Bischop, as appears from a charter by Alexander Dalmahoy of 
that ilk. 

In 1561 James Bischope witnesses at Edinburgh a charter by 
the Master, Prebendaries and Chaplains of Trinity College. 

A century later Mr. David Bishop was master of the Grammar 
School of the Canongate, and in 1658 his wife Barbara was 
served heir of her father, John M' Michael, merchant-burgess of 


I. Robert Bishop alias Huntroddis, burgess of Edin- 
burgh, father of Thomas, may perhaps have been a tailor, although 
that designation is not given to him in any notice I have met 
with. He held lands in the Canongate, possibly by inheritance 
from John Bishop living in 1426, and had at least two children, 



Mr. Riddell quotes a crown charter of the year 1575, granting 
certain lands to Agnes Bishop, which had belonged to her 
brother Thomas, and were vested in the Crown by his forfeiture, 
and calls her " probably his heir and last of his race." There is 
nothing in the document or in the nature of the transaction to 
warrant such an inference. Thomas was alive, but an outlawed 
traitor and in exile, and the Regent, as an act of grace and 
favour, granted part of his property to his maiden sister, who, it 
may be presumed, led a life more in accordance with her birth 
and position as daughter of a citizen of Edinburgh than with the 
adventurous career of her brother. She was alive as late as 
1611, when there is a special service of Agnes Bishop alias 
Huntroddis to her father Robert Huntroddis alias Bischop, bur- 
gess of Edinburgh, in a piece of land there. 

II. Thomas Bishop, who does not seem to have used the 
name of Huntroddis, was a notary public, sheriif clerk of the 
county of Dumbarton, and " servitor " to Stirling of Keir. He 
was a man of education and ability, and, as we shall see, rose to 
fortune first in Scotland and again in England. His position, 
as an agent employed by Stirling of Keir, made him acquainted 
with the lady whom he afterwards married; and w^e find first a 
disposition of the lands of Ochiltree in his favour by Keir, at the 
desire of Janet Stirling, who had resigned them into the hands 
of her superior, who then granted infeftment to James Stirling 
of Keir, but under the condition that Bishop shall resign them 
in favour of Janet Stirling as soon as sentence of divorce is 
pronounced between her and James Stirling. Next, in February 
1541, a disposition by this James to " Thomas Bischop, his servi- 
tor, spouse affidat of the said Jonet Stirling," of the same lands, 
with sums of money, &c., and the marriage of the said Janet, as 
a consideration " for his help and labour in solliciting and fur- 
thering the conveyansc made by her of her heritage to the said 


James." Keir also promises to use his diligence for getting a 
remission from the King to Bishop *' for his alledgcd lying with 
the said Jonet whilst she was the said James's wife." 

Bishop next appears as secretary to the Earl of Lennox, who, 
after being defeated at Glasgow by the Regent Arran, sent him 
to England with offers to aid Henry VIII. in bringing about a 
marriage between his son the Prince of Wales and the Queen of 
Scotland. On this occasion Bishop negotiated the marriage of 
his master with Lady Margaret Douglas, the King's niece, and 
obtained letters of naturalization in England 1544, July 6, in 
which he is designed armiger. He was at this time outlawed for 
not appearing to be tried " for the slauchter of umquhile Andrew 
Johnston," and his open espousal of English interests led to his 
forfeiture in Scotland 1545, October 1. His wife followed his 
fortunes and had a licence from the Regent to travel to England ; 
her moveable property was afterwards escheat; but they seem to 
have retained some hold on the estate of Ochiltree, as there were 
actions as late as 1562-3, Stirling of Keir against " Thomas 
Bischop pretendit heritable possessor of the lands of Uchiltree." 
In June 1567 Bishop seems to have intended to go to Scotland 
in the retinue of the Earl of Lennox, as Robert Melville, in a 
letter to Cecil, mentions this and speaks favourably of him. 

He next appears as having frequent intercourse with the Bishop 
of Ross and Lord Boyd, adherents of the captive Queen Mary; 
and in February 1569 the Earl of Shrewsbury caused him to be 
arrested near Burton-on-Trent when going to Lichfield, and sent 
him up to London to be examined before the Privy Council. In 
his answers he spoke of his frequent public employment by Henry 
VI II. and protested his loyalty to Elizabeth. 

Bishop was sent to the Tower, and while there interrogated as 
to his share in the authorship of a poem in defence of the Queen 
of Scots against the Regent Moray. His imprisonment lasted till 
1576, when Walsingham wrote to the Lieutenant of the Tower, 
saying that the Queen had consented to his release. 

In January 1581 he addressed a letter to the Secretary of 
State, with suggestions as to the affairs of Scotland and France. 

After the execution of Mary, Bishop had a remission from 
James VL, returned to Scotland, and was dead before 1611, 


the date of the service of his sister Agnes, by which she com- 
pleted her title to the heritable estate of her father. 

Notices of Bishop's public life are given by Mr. Kiddell, in his 
work already mentioned, in Rymer's Foedera, Sir Robert Mel- 
ville's Memoirs, Sir James Balfour's Annals, and elsewhere; but 
it is to the Heralds' Visitations of the county of York that we 
are indebted for an account of his descendants. He acquired the 
position of a landowner there by a grant made by Henry VIII. 
of the manor of Pocklington to his " well-beloved servant '* 
Thomas Bishop and his heirs male. His wife, the mother of his 
children, is in the Visitation of 1584 called " widow of the Lord 
Kerr in Scotland," and in that of 1612 '* relect of the Lord 
Skeere of Scotland," while Bishop is said to be " descended out 
of Scotland," and " descended of the familie of his sirname in 
Scotland," so that of the identity of both there is no room for 
doubt. They had issue — 

1. Robert. 

2. Francis, died s. p. 

3. Thomas, died s. p. 

1. Margaret, married Edward Conyers of Heskett in Black- 
more, CO. York. 

III. Robert Bishop of Pocklington married a lady of the name 
of Norton from Suffolk, and had — 

1. John. 

2. Robert, married the widow of — Hyde of Elvington, co- 

1. Mary. 

IV. John Bishop was four years of age in 1584, married Isa- 
bella, daughter of Roger Southaby of Pocklington, and had four 
children living in 1612 — 

1. Thomas. 

2. James. 

1. Ann. 

2. Margaret. 

No arms were entered. 

Perhaps some one familiar with the local and family history of 
Yorkshire may be able to add to the preceding genealogy. My 
opportunities of investigation being confined to Scotland, I can 


only, before concluding, point out two errors connected with the 
Bishops of Pocklington. Thomas has been said to have been at 
one time a trader at Yarmouth; this has probably arisen from 
identifying him with a family of Bishop whose pedigree for six 
generations is entered in the Visitation Books for Norfolk, and at 
least three of whose members, contemporaries of Thomas of 
Pocklington, resided at Yarmouth. In 1610 " Captain Bischop," 
an English pirate, is mentioned in the trial before the Court of 
Justice of the Admiralty at Edinburgh of thirty pirates who had 
been taken, and were all convicted and hanged; this may have 
been one of the Yarmouth family. 

When Sir Edward Bishopp, whose father was created a Baronet 
in 1620, entered his pedigree at the Visitation of Sussex in 1634, 

he went no further back than his great-grandfather " Bishop 

from Yorkshire," father of Thomas of Henfield, attorney to 
Robert Sherburne Bishop of Chichester,^ 1508-35, who died in 
1552. His son Sir Thomas, first Baronet, had a grant of arms 
from Cooke Clarenceux King of Arms reg. Elizabeth, and the 
family is now extinct in the male line, but represented as heir- 
general by Lord de la Zouche. 

In Betham's Baronetage and Play fair's British Family Antiquity 
appeared a pedigree of much greater pretension, which has appar- 
ently been arranged for the family by some complaisant geneal- 
ogist, who at least knew that Pocklington had been possessed by 
their namesakes. The nameless immigrant from Y^orkshire 
appears as William, town clerk of Chichester, eleventh in descent 

' Bishop Sherburne, who became prebendary of Henfield in 1499, annexed that 
prebend to his bishopric, and demised the estate to Thomas Bishop, in whose family 
it has descended to the present day. Parham was purchased by Thomas Bishop of 
Henfield, afterwards the first Baronet, in 1597. (Cartwright's Rape of Bramber, 
p. 269, and Dallaway''s Rape of Arundel, p. 202.) The first Baronet died in 1626, 
at the age of Q%, according to the pedigree, ibid. p. 205, but according to Wotton's 
Baronetage, 1741, vol. i. p. 406, he was born in " 1549 (1548 ?) 4 Edw. VI." which 
would make him 78 at his death. His father, " Thomas Byshopp, esquire," who 
was buried at Henfield in 1552 (Rape of Bramber, p. 272), is identified in the pedi- 
gree with Bishop Sherburne's attornatus ad jus regni. If this was so, the old lawyer 
must have married late in life. His wife was Elizabeth, widow of William Scott of 
Essex, and natural daughter of Sir Edward Belknap, Privy Councillor to King 
Henry VII. The first Baronet was knighted by King James I. at Theobalds, May 7, 
1603, not by Queen Elizabeth, as stated in the Baronetages. 


from Robert Bishopp of Pockllngton, son of Walter Bisliopp 
who came from Ga.^cony to England with Henry 11. and married 
the daiio-hter and heiress of Sir John Pocklington of Pocklington, 
of Saxon descent ! Intermarriages of these Bishopps, but with a 
total absence of dates and a great paucity of Christian names, 
with Metham, Hedworth, Conyers, Fenwick, Talboys, &c. are 
then paraded. 

The true origin of the connection of the Bishops with the 
manor of Pocklington, already given, refutes this fiction. 

Q * * * 


By Sir Bernard Burke, C.B., LL.D., Ulster Kiug of Arms, Author 
of Vicissitudes of Families, cfc. London : Longmans, Green, and Co, 
1873. Post 8vo. pp. 3ri. 

No one has attained the art of writing in a popular manner upon 
heraldic subjects more successfully than the present Ulster Kiug of 
Arms, and no existing writer has had greater experience in such 
matters, or has access to better sources of information. His name is 
now equally distinguished for books of pleasant reading, as it has long 
been for books of necessary reference, and the present volume of mis- 
cellanies will be a very acceptable sequel to those which his friends 
and admirers have before perused. 

It consists of essays, stories, and anecdotes — the stories true stories, 
but all the more interesting because they are true — the most important 
being the story of Pamela, the wife of Lord Edward Fitzgerald ; 
" The Aberdeen Romance," a recent very romantic piece of family 
history ; *' The Midwife's Curse," an episode of the great Rebellion, 
relating to the Jersey family of Payne ; and " The Forester's 
Daughter," the title of an unequal and secret match made in the 
South of Ireland during the last century. In all these we are glad to 
recognise rather a conscientious care for accuracy in particulars than 
an inclination t(; sacrifice truth for the sake of effect. 

The subjects of the more important essays are — " The Rise of Great 
Families," " The Extinction of the Posterity of Illustrious Men " 
♦• Rival Pretensions at various Periods," " The Perplexities of Pre- 
cedence;" and " Historical Galleries," the last suggested by the very 
successful Loan-collection lately foimed at Dublin. 


To the Portrait Gallery of the Dublin Exhibition of 1872 pictures were sent 
of men heretofore scarcely realised, and considered by many as mythical as the 
earlv annals of Ireland. The Dublin Portrait Gallery was a great success. For 
once, at all events, there was formed a neutral meeting-place in Ireland, where all 
parties and all creeds, northern and southern Irishmen, lovers of art and of 
their countrv's intellectual greatness, from Belfast and Cork, from Derry and 
Kilkenny could come together around a common centre of national mterest, 
admiration, and instruction. The birthplace of Ussher, Berkeley, Swift, Burke, 
Goldsmith, Sheridan, Plunket,andMoore; of Ormonde, Sarsfield,and Wellington; 

of Grattan and O'Connell ; the laud of adoption of Raleigh and Spenser, Bedell, 
Petty, and Ware, and the field of distinction of Sidney, Mountjoy, Strafford, 
and'Cornwallis-Irelandwas rich in materials, and no pains were omitted to 
render those materials available. It was as encouraging as it was gratifying 
that Eno-land, not less than Ireland, contributed with unsparing hand. Althorp 
in Northamptonshire, Knowle in distant Kent, Howick in Northumberland, 
Bowood, Knowsler, and Chatsworth vied with the Irish provinces m helping on 
the national effort. The mansions of the resident nobility sent up valuable por- 
traits the more secluded homes of the gentry enriched the collection with pictures 
that had never before left their owner's halls, and even America contributed 
from across the Atlantic. Nor did the O'Donnells, of Spain, forget the land 
from whence they sprang. In the words of an accomplished critic, the Dublin 
Portrait Gallerj' " for the first time did justice to the genius of Ireland." 

Inspired by this triumphant success, Sir Bernard Burke starts the 
idea of a comprehensive national historic gallery in each of the 
Metropolitan cities, London, Dublin, and Edinburgh, commemorative 
of great events and great men; and then he proceeds to make a pro- 
position which may be more easy of accomplishment, particularly as it 
is now one that has ah^-ady been productive, in several instances, of 

very gratifying results. 

The success of the Loan Portrait Galleries of South Kensington and Dublin 
su-gests another more extended application of the idea-the formation of Local 
Lo'kn Portrait Exhibitions in the chief towns of our most important counties, 
each countv to exhibit portraits of personages of distinction, county-men by 
birth or parentage. Who can turn over the pages of our grand County Histories, 
the folios of Surtees, Oi-merod, Nichols, or Whitaker, and not at once admit that 
such Local Portrait Galleries could be formed ? Yorkshire, Cheshire, Oxford- 
shire Durham, Somersetshire, Lancashire, Kent, and Northumberland, will eacli 
afford ample materials ; and Devon is so rich in eminent persons bom within 
her precincts that it required a whole volume by Prince to record her U orthus. 
Many a curious storv of neglected biography would bo illustrated, and many a 
name, associated with some stirring event, now almost forgotten, would be 
advantageously recalled to people's minds. There would thus be diffused 
among all classes, the educated and uneducated alike, a taste for and knowledge 
of the\istory of their countrv. From the peculiar pride which every English- 
man feels in his own locality, from that feudal attachment which is still his 
characteristic, I am satisfied that, if the plan which I suggest were once ori- 
ginated, it would readily be carried out. 


These suggestions deserve general attention ; and looking forward, 
in particular, to the meeting of the British Arch^ological Institute at 
Exeter in the present year, we trust that, on that occasion, the por- 
traitures of the worthies of Prince will be well represented, accompanied 
by the many other Devonian worthies who have flourished since Prince 

Among those portions of Ulster's volume which consist of detached 
anecdote, there is much that is of original value. We would particu- 
larly point to the paper on the Duke of Wellington— his birth, birth- 
place, and early home. His early home was Dangan Castle, in the 
county of Meath, regarding which some highly interesting historical 
particulars are collected, including a description of its present desolated 
and ruinous state, written by Mr. John P. Prendergast, after a visit 
paid in July 1872. Dangan Castle has been often named as the 
locality of the great Duke's birth ; otherwise his nativity has been 
assigned to the town of Trim ; and again to two distinct houses in 
Dublin. His birthday also has been doubtful, and, what is more, has 
been mistaken even by the Duke himself. 

The 1st of May 1769 has been heretofore universally accepted as the Duke's 
birthday, and was kept as such, the present Duke of Wellington informs me, by 
his father. In consequence of this, one of the Koyal princes, bom on that par- 
ticular day, has been named Arthur, in graceful compliment, I believe, to the 
Duke. , Besides, in 1815, the Countess of Mornington, the Duke's mother, in 
answer to an inquiry, states that her son Arthur was bom on the 1st of May 
1769 ; and in the pedigree registered in the Lords' Entries, Ulster's Ofl&ce, the 
same date, 1st of May 1769, is given as that of the Duke's birth. 

Strange that all this testimony should be contradicted ! but so it 
is ; for the following entry has been found in the parish register of 
St. Peter's, Dublin, authenticated by the signature of Isaac Mann, 
Archdeacon : — 

Christenings. 1769, April 30th, Arthur son of the Eight Hon. Earl and 
Countess of Mornington. 

llie child must have been born before he was christened ; and it 
follows that there is no reason to discredit an announcement in 
Exshaw's Magazine^ that assigns his birth to the 29th of April • 
which is further confirmed by an entry in an apothecary's day-book 
showing that medicine was furnished for him on the 30th. So then 
let all chronologers henceforward place the birth of Arthur Duke of 
Wellington on the 29th April, 1769. By other investigations Ulster 
lias ascertained that the actual place of the hero's birth was No. 24 
Upper Merrion Street, Dublin, — a house still standing, and now 


occupied by the Commissioners of Church Temporalities, — of which 
a vignette view is presented to us. 

In p. 348 we are sorry to find Ulster speaking of the general 
'* neglect and loss of Parish Registers " in Ireland. This, and the 
destruction of public and private documents in times of civil commo- 
tion, impedes the investigation of Irish personal and family histoiy. 
The great storehouse of information is the Bermingham Tower at 
Dublin Castle. 

This Tower is the only remnant of antiquity in the Castle, and was formerly 
its prison. Here in one room is shown the very cell from which Hugh Roe 
O'Donnell, Prince of Tyrconnel, effected his escape in 1591. With all the tra- 
ditions clustering around its mediasval walls, the place has been wisely chosen 
for its present use, and is appropriately the home of the documents which refer 
to the public and private history of the country. 

Of the records of Ulster's Office I may be permitted to say a few words. 
Among them is to be found a series of MSS. entitled The Records of the RollSy 
compiled about one hundred years ago by the famous John Lodge, Keeper of 
the Bermingham Tower, which contains, in twelve folio volumes, a description 
of all the grants of land in Ireland made by the sovereign to the subject. The 
actual grant is not only given, but the full description of the grantee, the sub- 
denominations of the lands, the acreage, the conditions, &c. In proof of title 
to land, tithes, fisheries, &c. and often in proof of pedigree, this collection is 
invaluable, guiding the litigant to the best sources of evidence. 

Another valuable series of volumes is entitled Will Boolis, and includes 
pedigrees of persons named in the wills preserved in Dublin from the earliest 

One of the most curious of the purely heraldic MSS. is the collection of 
Funeral Entries} In former times, and up to the end of the seventeenth 
century, when a great personage died, a funeral entry was made, giving many 
important genealogical facts. Some of these entries are illustrated by heraldic 
drawings and emblems, and by contemporary representations of processions, 
costumes, &c. 

Several modern cavses celehres have been settled by reference to the records 
of Ulster's Office. The protracted litigation for the Tintern Abbey estates in the 
CO. Wexford, and the various contests the late Mr. Rossborough Colclough had 
to go through, attracted much public attention. After years of law and trouble, 
and enormous expense, Mr. Colclough was well nigh in despair, when, at the 
eleventh hour, a clue was discovered in The Book of Converts in the Office of 
Arms, which led to the required evidence establishing the legality of the mar- 
riage of an ancestor, and thus finally determining the case. 

Again, the heirship of the undevised property of the late Sir Charles Hastings, 
Bart, of Willesley, co. Derby, was traced through Ulster's Office to a poor 
farmer in Westmeath, who recovered and divided with his cousins the propertv 
in dispute. 

' Several examples, relating to the Temple family, will be seen in our vol. iii. 
p. 404. (Edit. H. and G.) 


Still more recently, after the death of the late Mrs. Gerrartl, of Gibbstown, 
infonnation which discovered her heirs turned up among Ulster's records. 

The succession to Irish Peerages is invariably established by the proofs 
derived from Tlie Lords' Entries in the Irish Office of Arms. Indeed, in many 
instances without such evidence it would be impossible to satisfy the Committee 
for Privileges, or any legal tribunal. In the Taaffe case, which was tried a 
few years ago, Lord Taaffe would have been considered an alien, and no deci- 
sion could have been had, unless a statement made by his ancestor, Nicholas, 
Viscount Taaffe, in these Lords' Entries, in the year 1766, had been forth- 
coming, to the effect that both his sons were born in London, a statement which 
took the claimant out of the category of aliens. 

Eegarding the Irish Peerage in general, Sh* Bernard Burke en- 
courages, more than we would have anticipated, views of a radical 
change : — 

Of all Peerage institutions, none requires more urgently the attention of the 
Legislature than the Peerage of Ireland. At present, the Whig Lords, being in 
a minority, have no share whatever in the representation of the Irish Peerage, 
although that representation was given to them as compensation for the loss of 
their seats in the House of Lords. Possibly such a plan as this might remedy 
the evil : No new election of Irish representative Peers should be held until there 
were three vacancies, and then each Irish Peer should be allowed two votes only. 
This arrangement would enable the minority, about one-third in number, to 
elect one out of the three representative Lords to be chosen. 

Again, no more Irish Peers should be created. Far from being a boon, such 
creation is an injmy. It is the shadow instead of the substance. An English- 
man or a Scotchman meriting a peerage is made a Peer of the United Kingdom, 
with a seat in the House of Lords ; but an Irishman of equal desert is (when 
there happens to be a vacancy) given an Irish title, that operates, like the 
sentence of a court martial, to disqualify him from future public service. 

Justice Avill never be fully done until every Scotch and Irish Peer is restored 
to a seat in the House of Lords, a right granted in his original patent. To this 
object legislation ought to be directed. 

In reply to a portion of these arguments we think it might be 
urged that '* an Irishman of equal desert " to those English or Scotch- 
men who are summoned to the House of Lords, is^ usually, created a 
Peer of the United Kingdom ; and as recent examples, which have 
occurred during the present reign, there are all the following: — 

1839. Mr. Villiers-Stuart created Lord Decies. 

]\Ir. Brownlow created Lord Lurgan. 

■ Mr. Spring-Eice created Lord Monteagle of Brandon. 

Sir John Keane created Lord Keane. 

Mr. French created Lord de Freyne, and again in 1851."^ 

* Lord de Freyne obtained a second patent of peerage, also of the United 
Kingdom, in 1851, with remainder to his brothers, who both succeeded to the 


1841. Sir John Parnell created Lord Congleton. 
1863. Mr. White created Lord Annaly. 

1867. Sir Hugh Cairns created Lord Cairns. 

1868. The Hev. William O'Neill created Lord O'Neill. 

1869. Mr. Fitzpatrick created Lord Castletown, 

Mr. Greville-Niigent created Lord Greville. 

1870. Lord Chancellor O'Hagan created Lord O'Hagan. 

Sir John Young created Lord Lisgar. 

All these eminent Irishmen have been created Peers of the United 
Kingdom by Her Majesty Queen Victoria. 

Must we not therefore conclude that the Peerages of Ireland are 
bestowed upon Irishmen having certain claims to that distinction, but 
not " of equal desert " with those men, whether Irish, Scotch, or 
English, most eligible for the function of active senators ? Again, 
in several instances, an Irish peerage, even of very new creation, has 
proved an introduction to a peerage of the United Kingdom, as — Lord 
Talbot de Malahide, created a peer of Ireland in 1831, a peer of Parlia- 
ment (as Lord Furnival de Malahide) in 1839, and again (his nephew 
the present peer) in 1856 ; Lord Carew, a peer of Ireland in 1834, a 
peer of Parliament in 1838 ; Lord Clermont, a peer of Ireland in 1852, 
a peer of Parliament in 1866 ; Lord Athlumny, a peer of Ireland in 
1863, a peer of Parliament in 1866 ; besides some dozen or fifteen 
other cases in which an Irish peerage of older date than those now 
mentioned has become the stepping-stone to the House of Lords, 
during the present reign, a feature of the royal prerogative which, it 
appears to us, would be unwisely terminated by the wholesale and 
indiscriminate admission of all the peers of Ireland at once. 

Thus an Irish peerage, being ab initio the legal qualification for the 
post of a Representativ^e Peer, is proved to be also otherwise no irre- 
parable disqualification for " future public service " in the House of 
Lords ; whilst, as eveiybody knows, from the prominent example of 
our late Premier, Lord Palmcrston, if not from other instances of 
continual occurrence, an Irish Peer may act a very important part in 
the House of Commons, though he cannot be returned by an Irish 

Only a page before the extract we have given, is this passage : — 

A remarkable circumstance in the Peerage is the frequent occurrence among 

dignity, and his nephew the present Baron is consequently the fourth peer of the 
creation of 1851 : the first peerage having become extinct on the death of the 
grantee in 1856. 



the Peei-s of Ireland of EnglisJi, Welsh, and Scotch families holding Irish titles, 
and designating those titles from places in Ireland, where they do not possess an 
acre of land ; for instance, the descendant of the Scottish house of Duff bears 
the title of Earl of Fife in Ireland ; the representative of the ancient Sussex 
family of Tumom' holds an Irish Earldom under the designation of Winterton 
of Govt, although Winterton is in Norfolk, and Gort in Galway, where the 
Tumours nerer had a footing ; and the Yorkshire Dawnays, of Cowick, were 
created centuries ago [in 1680] Viscounts Downe, although then or since no 
Irish land owned a Dawnay for its lord. 

The truth is that there was once a time when an Irish title was a 
peerage in partibus, conferred as a mere titular distinction, regarded as 
of somewhat higher estimation than a baronetcy, much as in more 
recent times the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, or at present the Order 
of St. Michael and St. George, may be ranked as something better 
than ordinary knighthood. But snrely no " justice to Ireland," or to 
themselves, requires that these hybrid titular peers should be pitch- 
forked indiscriminately into the House of Lords. 

There are some ancient Peerages of Ireland which are considered 
rather dormant than extinct, and the revival of which Ulster appears 
to contemplate, in addition to those now upon his Roll. The main 
doubt in regard to them is whether they belong of right to the Heir 
General, like the ancient Baronies by Writ in England, or to the 
Heir Male. Upon these dignities the following remarks are made : — 

If the disputed question as to Irish baronies in fee he ever decided by the 
House of Lords, the precedents of the Slane and other similar titles incline one 
to think that judgment will be given for the Heir Male. Should this antici- 
pation be borne out, many an ancient dignity would be restored to the peerage 
of Ireland. Delvin would fall to the Earl of Westmeath ; a Bermingham 
would inherit Atheney; and LordDunboyne become Lord le Botiller, of a 
creation as old as 1324. Other old baronies might be claimed and established. 

The Barony of Power, of Curraghmore, created by patent 13th September, 
1535, seems to belong to Mr. de la Poer of Gurteen, M.P. for co. Waterford. 
The title was assumed and borne so late as 1725. In TTie Historical Register 
of that year is this announcement : — " 20 August, dyed at Paris, the Lord 
Power, a Peer of the Realm of Ireland, aged about eighty years," This is the 
same person that Dr. King mentions in the Anecdotes of his Own Times, a 
curious gossiping book, written when the doctor was seventy-five years old, in 
1760. " I r'^member (says King) a Lord Poer, a Roman Catholic peer of Ireland, 
who lived upon a small pension which Queen Anne had granted him ; he was a 
man of honour and well esteemed, and had formerly been an officer of some 
distinction in the service of France. The Duke of Ormonde had often invited 
him to dinner, and he as often excused himself. At last the Duke kindly 
expostulated with him, and would know the reason why he so constantly refused 
to be one of his guests. My Lord Poer then honestly confessed that he could 
not afford it ; ' but (says he) if your Grace will put a guinea into my hand as 


often as you are pleased to invite me to dine,' I will not decline the honour of 
waiting on you.' This was done, and my Lord was afterwards a frequent guest 
in St. James's Square," 

In regard to another reform suggested by Ulster King of Arms, 
in which political considerations have no part, we shall not show that 
want of gallantry as to offer a word of objection to his proposals, but 
which on the contrary we heartily indorse : — 

It has always struck me that the churlish regulation of modern heraldry, 
which precludes a Knight from bearing his wife's arms within the ribbon or 
collar of his order, is an anomaly. The wife of a knight shares the precedence 
title, and dignity of her husband. "Why then should she be debarred participa- 
tion in the heraldic bearings and the beautiful garter that encircles them? This 
exclusion is not of ancient date. The old stall-plates of the knights afford proof 
of the contrary, and give several instances of husband's and wife's arms impaled 
witliin the garter. 

In the monument at Stanton Harcourt there is not only the garter tied round 
Lady Harcourt's left arm, but at the head of the tomb appear the bearings of 
her husband, impaling within a garter the lady's own arms. 

What time could be more appropriate for the revival of the old usage than the 
present ? The return of ladies to our national chivalry would be emblematic of 
a Royal Lady's rule, and then* decoration would impart brilliancy to the British 

Her Majesty, in granting to the widows of the gallant men who fall in their 
country's service the style and precedence of the dignity and rank that their 
husbands had fairly merited, and would have got had they lived, has already 
prepared the way for the restoration I venture to suggest. My proposal is, that 
each of the wives and widows of the Knights of the various chivalrous orders of 
this empire shall be accorded the privilege of wearing an Aemlet of velvet, 
coloured as the ribbon, and embroidered with the motto, of the Order of her 

Elsewhere (p. 61) Ulster renews the claim of Baronets to some 
'' designating mark of distinction " — worn at present only by that 
smaller division of those who are Baronets of ISTova Scotia. Tliis, 
particularly if it was accompanied by the authoritative confirmation of 
all true baronetcies, and the expulsion of those which are surrep- ' 
titiously assumed, would be a measure to be hailed with general 
acceptation and approval. 

' This anecdote now seems to require the explanation, that it was owing to 
the tyrannous custom of rales being exacted by a numerous troop of greedy 
servants that a poor man, in the early part of the last century, could not easily 
afford to share in the hospitality of great houses. 

C 2 



IN 1604. Transcribed from the original MS. in the Bodleian Library, 
and edited with Genealogical Notes by Edwaed Peacock, F.S.A., Editor 
of the " Army Lists of the Roundheads and Cavaliers, 1642," &c. London : 
John Camden Hotten, 74 and 75, Piccadilly. 1872. Small 4to. pp. viii. 168. 

This list of Kecusants and Noncommunicants in Yorkshire in the 
year 1604 is preserved among the Kawlinson collection in the Bodleian 
Library, we presume a contemporary MS., though the Editor does not 
distinctly say so. He states, however, that he is not aware of any 
other existing copy. Of the authenticity of the record there can be 
no doubt, nor of its historical and genealogical value. 

The Editor does not appear to have ascertained any information of 
the particular circumstances under which the return was compiled. 
The inquiry would probably be made under the joint authority of the 
Council of the North and the Archbishop of York. In an account of 
the arrest and martyrdom of Robert Thor2:)e, a priest who was executed 
at York in 1591 (quoted by Mr. Peacock in p. 125), the narrator, a 
Lady Babthorpe, who relates the story nearly thirty years after, when she 
was a nun at Louvaine, says, " To my remembrance it is twenty-nine 
years since we were committed to Sheriff Hutton Castle : the President 
(of the North) was then the Earl of Huntingdon, and the Archbishop's 
name was Piers, who had been a priest." 

At the date of the record before us Dr. Piers had been succeeded as 
Archbishop (in 1594) by Dr. Matthew Hutton, but the zealously 
Protestant Earl of Huntingdon continued Lord President, and the 
following passage in Hunter's South Yorkshire^ which Mr. Peacock 
evidently has not met with, presents a remarkable picture of the 
position of those who remained faithful to Rome, in the North of 
England, at the close of the fifteenth century. 

Richard Fenton, esquire,' who lived at Burgh Wallis in the latter years of Eliza- 
beth, was a sufferer on account of his religious profession. He was one of upwards of 
fifty Catholics of Yorkshire who were prisoners in the Castle at York in 1600. Many 
of them were gentlemen of principal account, — Middleton of Stockeld, Stillington of 
Kelfield, Danby of Cave, Rosse of Ingmanthorpe, Gascoign of Thorp. It was the 
policy of the Lord President of the time [the Earl of Huntingdon] to compel these 
gentlemen to attend Protestant preachers in the Castle Yard, on the points of con- 
troversy between the Catholic and the Reformed. Sometimes the Archbishop [Hutton] 

' At p. 55 of the volume before us, but without any marginal note, there occurs 
among the residents of the town of Doncaster the name of '* Jennet Fenton, 
wedow, late wief of Richard Fenton, esq. deceased, recusant of late years." The 
date of Mr. Fenton 's death is not mentioned by Hunter. 


himself preached. There is a curious account preserved of their behaviour. It is 
printed in the Appendix to the Memoirs of Alissionary Priests. Mr. Fenton, at the 
conclusion of one of the sermons, stood up, and in the name of himself and his 
brethren desired the Lord President that he would allow them, being laymen, the 
assistance of a learned man of their own persuasion to reply to the preachers. This 
not unreasonable request was ultimately declined. 

It is vain to look, in the annals of those clays, for ideas that will 
harmonise with our modern conceptions of toleration ; but, if the whole 
subject is viewed historically, it will be perceived it was not only the 
evil example of Rome herself as it had been developed in England in 
the reign of Mary, but it was also the unceasing machinations of the 
Spanish interest that provoked this repression and retaliation, and that 
it was only by constant vigilance, if not by equal severity, that Eliza- 
beth was able to maintain her throne, for, even when she had been 
seated thereon for thirty years, Spain launched forth its armada 
against her. The Editor in his preface condemns the severity of the 
penal laws, which fell cruelly enough, no doubt, upon individuals, but 
which were continually provoked by their religious and political ad- 
visers, confining himself to some general reflections of this complexion, 
and to making the two following particular remarks : — 

Firstly, that although this list does not include the whole of the places within 
the county of York, almost all the old historical families of the shu-e are repre- 
sented therein ; and, secondly, that the inquisitorial proceedings of the govern- 
ment officials were not confined, as so many fancy them to have been, to persons 
who from their high position had it in their power factiously to oppose the 
government in Church and State, but that poor farm-labourers, servant-maids, 
tailors, and fishermen were, as much as their social sujDeriors, the objects of strict 

This latter practice appears strange to us now merely because our 
state of society is so very different. At the commencement of the 
reign of James the First all the bonds of feudal dependence were much 
stronger than at present, as well with tenants and tradespeople, and 
with servants of every grade ; and the strength and influence of a 
great man still consisted much in the number of his humble neigh- 
bours who were ready to rise at his bidding. Little more than thirty 
years had then elapsed since " the Northern Earls " had raised the 
standard of rebellion ; and, prevailing through all the ramifications of 
their kinsfolk and adherents for some months, had generally restored 
in the circuit of their own influence all those observances of the Church 
of Rome which were an obvious symbol of their political objects. 

The term '' reteyned,''^ which occurs in nearly every page of the 


present record, is significant of this feature of feudal dependence. It 
is applied to persons lodged or harboured in the house, as we should 
now say, either children or visitors, workpeople or servants, and among 
them, no doubt, were many of those Jesuits or missionary priests who, 
under feigned names and in disguised characters, then travelled from 
place to place to encourage and console the persecuted adherents of 
the ancient faith, and to obstruct and resist in every possible manner 
the efforts made by the constituted authorities, ecclesiastical or civil, 
to enforce a general conformity to the Established Church. Thus, in 
the parish of Ripley — 

They present that there hath beene at dyvers tymes within these xij monthes 
resort of strangers, as it is verily thought of Semynary priests, to Newton Hall. 
And one of y^ priestes is named by the name of Salter, and to that honse do 
resort in great companys many of the recusantes aforesaid. In which house it is 
thought there be sundry conveyances and secret dennes. (p. 49.) 

Again, at Newland in Howdenshire, there was living one Thomas 

Killingbecke, " an obstinate recusant and dangerous seducer." 

And there hath resorted to the said Thomas Killingbeckes honse one Ellis 
professinge himself e a joiner, but likely to be a Jesuite or Semenarie, by his 
seducinge of the people, and the reverent confidence which thes persones reposed 
in him. 

At Sherborne, in the West Riding, one " Agnes Rawson, widow," 
supposed by Mr. Peacock to have been the daughter and heiress of 
William Gascoigne, esq. of Shipley, who was married to William 
Rawson of Bradford, is reported as " a notorious Recusant," and " a 
nourisher and maynteyner of Recusants." This zealous lady is pre- 
sented as having 

had semynaries or Jesuytes dyvers tymes resorting to her house, and that some 
of her servants have confessed that they have found dyvers things in her bame, 
as cope, challice, bookes, and such like thinges as they use for masse, but the 
names of the preistes they know not. 

The whole return from Brandesby will give a more perfect idea of 
the substance of the record : — 


Mrs. Vrseley Cholmeley, Richard Cholmley esquier, William Eawden, Anne 
his wife, Isabell Martyn wife of Ralph Martin laborer, Jane Eston servant to the 
said Mr. Cholmley, Edward Chapman, Recusantes many yeares. 

Elizabeth Martyn servant to William Rawden, Roger Best, William Martin, 
Jane Ellis servant to Richard Cholmley esquier, Rachell wife to Xpofer Hebden 
yeoman, Thomas Masterman, Sissaley Rawden widow, Elizabeth wife of Richard 
Thornton laborer, Edward Chapman servant to Richard Cholmley, Bridgett 


Aslaby servant to Richard Cholmley, William Duke apprentice to Richard 
Houlswathe, Anne Cottingham, Anne Wardell servants to Vrseley Cholmley, — 
Recusants since 25 Marcii 1603 [i.e. the day of the King's accession] ' and not 

Strang persons reteyned, Memorandum that many straing persons repaire to 
the house of M''®» Vrsaley Cholmley which come not to the churche, and there 
hath been Seminaryes kept in her house. 

Secret Marriage, Richard Cholmley Esquier maryed with Mary Hungate in 
the presence of John Wilson, William Martin, Hugh Hope, and Christopher 
Danyell, in a fell, with a popishe priest, as they heare. 

Here we have a very characteristic incident of those days of per- 
secution. The marriage had been " secret," not, so far as appears, 
to the relations of either bride or bridegroom, but to the community 
at large, in order that it might be celebrated by some venerated priest, 
who would have incurred personal risk by coming openly to the 
nuptials. He was probably watched at the time by spies, and he 
therefore consented to a meeting with the bridal party " in a fell " or 
unfrequented moor of the neighbouring country, and there the wedding 
knot was " secretly " tied. 

The bride was one of the daughters of William Hungate esquire, of 
Saxton, near Pontefract, and sister to Sir William and Sir Philip 
Hungate, the former knighted when King James I. visited York in 
1617, and the latter subsequently created a Baronet in 1642 ; and the 
present contemporary record confirms the point that her name was 
really Mary, although other genealogical accounts are very con- 
tradictory in that respect. In the Yorkshire Visitation of 1665-6 
we read that Richard Cholmeley, second son of Roger Cholmeley 
esquke of Brandesby, "married Mary daughter of Will. Saxton [_an 
error for Hungate] of Saxton, in co. Ebor. obijt sine prole" (Surtees 
Soc. edit. p. 220) ; but in the pedigree of Hungate {ibid. p. 296) the 
daughters of William Hungate, esquire, are described as : 1. Eliz. 
wife of Gilbert Stapleton, of Carleton in co. Ebor., esquire. 2. Mary, 
wife of Sir Henry Browne, of Kiddington, in co. Oxon. hart. 3o Catha- 
rine, wife of Cholmeley of Bransby in co. Ebor. ; afterward 

of Sir William Howard, younger son to the L^ William Howard, of 
Naworth Castle, in co, Cumbr." Upon which these remarks may be 
made, 1. That Elizabeth is not named in the pedigree of Stapleton 
(p. 265), where the wife of Gilbert Stapleton esquire, by whom he 
continued the line of the family, is Eleanor (in p. 289 called Helen) 

* At Melsonby (p. 86) are named fourteen persons, *' all fallen awaie since the 
deathe of y« late Queues Majestic." 


daughter of Sir John Gascoigne of Barnbow. 2. The Visitation is 
certainly wrong in styling fSir Henry Browne a baronet, for he was the 
grandfather of the first baronet of Kiddington; and, 3, the names of 
all the three sisters are certainly transposed. 

For we find, on more substantial evidence than that of a Heralds' 
Visitation, that the daughters of William Hungate, esq. by his wife 
Margaret, daughter and heir of Roger Sotheby, gent, of Pocklington, 
and their respective marriages, were as follow: 1. Elizabeth, married 
first to Sir Marmaduke Grimston, knt. of Grimston and Goodmanham, 
knt., who died in 1 604 ; and secondly to Sir Henry Browne, of Kid- 
dington, CO. Oxford, knt.^; 2. Mary, married first to Richard Chol- 

' Sir Henry Browne, who was one of the younger sons of Anthony Lord Vis- 
count Montague by his second wife Magdalen, daughter of William Lord Dacre 
of Gillesland, according to the Baronetage of 1741 (iii. 9) " married two wives ; 
1. Anne, daughter of Sir William Catesby, of Ashby Legers in com. North'ton, 
Knt., by whom he had no male issue. His second lady was Mary, daughter of 
Sir Philip Hungate, of Saxton, in co. Ebor., Bart, relict of Sir Marmaduke Grim- 
ston, of Grimston in Holderness, in com. Ebor. Knt., by whom he had a son, Sir 
Peter Browne, Knt., who died at Oxford, of his wounds received at the battle of 
Naseby, in the service of King Charles I., leaving issue, by Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Henry Knollys, of Grove Place, in com. South'ton, knight, two sons, Henry 
and Francis." To the words " Mary " and " Naseby " in this passage, is appended 
this marginal testimony, Ex \nfor. Dom. Car. Browne, Bar. 1727 ; but it is 
remarkable that if Sir Charles Browne, who was the great-grandson of Sir Henry, 
stated his great-grandmother to have been Mary, and the daughter instead of 
the sister of Su- Philip Hungate, he thereby committed two errors, whereas in 
Wotton's English Baronets, printed in the year specified (1727, vol. ii. p. 5), 
she had been correctly named Elizabeth, though incorrectly described as *' Eliza- 
beth Lady Hungate." 

The marriages of two of the sisters Hungate are further proved by the following 
passage from the will of their uncle Robert Hungate of York, and Sand Hutton, esq. 

10 May, 1619, Robert Hungate, esq. councillor-at-law. Item, I give to the 
honourable knight Sir Henry Browne my nephew, and to the Lady Elizabeth 
Browne his wife, my neice, to either of them a double jacobin as a remembrance 
of my love, and to their two daughters, my neeces, my golde cheyne equallie to be 
devided betwene them, and to Peter Browne, their sonne and heire apparent, 50 
double jacobins towardes the furnishing him with bookes. To my nephew 
Cholmelay of Bransby esquier, and to my neece his wife, or either of them, one 
double jacobin." 

For these important evidences, so clearly unravelling statements heretofore 
much confused and entangled, our readers are indebted to the collections of R. 
H. Skaife, esq. of York. It should be admitted, however, that the pedigree of 
Hungate in Thorcsby's Ducatus Leodiensis is in the main coiTCct, whilst later 
books have not followed its accuracy : more particularly, in Burke's Extinct 


meley, of Braiidsbj, esq. wlio died intestate 1G04 (administration 
3 April, 1604), and secondly to Sir William Howard, of Brafferton, 
CO. York, knt. who died in 1644 ; and 3. Catharine, who died without 
issue ; the wife of Gilbert Stapleton, of Carleton, escj. who died in 
1636, haying married secondly Elenor Gascoigne, as already men- 

When the return before us was made, Sir Marmaduke Grimston 
was not yet dead, though his will was proved on the loth August in 
the same year, 1604 ;^ and it is now clear that " The Ladie Grimston " 
his wife, wdio had been " non-Communicant for one yeare past," 
(p. 136) was one of the Hungate sisters, and afterwards became Lady 
Browne of Kiddington. 

At this time also, from Saxton, Margaret the wife of William 
Hungate, esq. William Hungate, gent. Johanna his wife, (who was 
daughter of George Middleton, of Leighton, co. Lane.) Philipp Hun- 
gate, and Katheren Hungate were returned as Recusants, and Wil- 
liam Hungate, esq. (the father) as a Xoncommunicant (p. 25). The 
youngest daughter, w^e see, was as yet at home, unmarried : and before 
leaving the family we have now further to say that Mr. Peacock has 
fallen into a mistake in stating in his note that " She married Chris- 
topher Babthorp of Drax." This confuses her with her aunt of the 
same uame.^ 

Baronets the three ladies fii'st named are placed as daughters of Sir Philip Hun- 
gate instead of sisters. 

' It is dated 26 Nov. 160.3. Marmaduke Griniston, of Grimston, knight. My 
manor of Little Smeaton to " my most deare, faithfull and loviuge wife dame 
Elizabeth Grimston." AW my manors, lands, &c. in Yox'kshire and elsewhere, to 
Thomas Grimston, my next brother and heir, remainder to my nephew Marma- 
duke G., son of my brother John G., rem. to my heirs male. '*! give unto my 
father Hungate and my mother either of them two augells ; to my brother Mr. 
Wm. Hungate a black stoned colt w"^^ now runneth in my parke ; to my sister 
Hungate, my sister Chamlay, and my sister Katheren, either of them an angell ; 
to my brethren Philip, Roger, and Robert Hungate, everie one an angell. I give 
unto my kinde aunt Farfaxe [Jane Hungate, wife of Nicholas Fairfax] a spur- 
riall." Executors, my wife and my uncle Edmund Hungate, esq. [Fro. 13 Aug. 
1604, by the executors.] 

The utter inaccuracy of the pedigree of Grimston in the Yorkshire Visitation 
of 1665 (Surtees Soc. edit. p. 121) is shown by its containing nothing in corre- 
spondence with the data here presented. In fact, a generation of the family is 

2 The daughters of William Hungate, esq. of Saxton, (will dated 8 Feb, 
1582-3, proved 28 March 1583) by his wife Anne daughter of Thomas Stilling- 
ton, esq. of Acastcr Selby, were: — 1. Catherine, wife of Christopher Babthorpe ; 


The returns of " secret marriages " abound throughout the book. 
In one case Cp. 107) William Sympson, cordwayner, of Lofthouse, and 
" Elizabeth Gibson, his supposed wife," had been ^'marryed (as them- 
selves confes) by a priest in York Castell," — that is to say, as we 
understand it, by one of the priests that were now prisoners at York ; 
not, as the editor is inclined to heighten the picture by imagining, that 
the marriage took place within the prison whilst the parties themselves 
were confined there, and which the plain construction of the entry may 
be taken to imply. In another case (p. 115), " Xp'ofer Butiman, a 
poore man, Barbara his wife, confes they were maryed, but will not 
tell where;" and continually married couples are reported, the time 
and place of whose marriage were unknown to their Protestant neigh- 

In like manner there are many entries of Private Baptisms ; — 

Francis Yong of Arkenden and Margaret his wief (secretlye marreyed) hath had 
V children secretlye baptised, (p. 33.) 

Robert Thomson (of Danby) had a child secretly baptized, after the popishe 
manner as is supposed, but where, when, or by whom they cannot tell. (p. 103.) 

Alexander Wilson caused a child to be baptized secretly and not at the churche, 
but wher, when, or by whom they knowe not. {Ihid.^ 

Robert Hoggard, of Lockerhouse, had a childe named Joan baptized about the 
first of the month by a popish priest, as is supposed, for he confesseth there was 
water and salt used. (p. 96.) 

At Rokeby a married woman is denied her due designation, for her 
name is first returned as '' Katherine Cootes, spinster, a recusant 
since Martinmas 1602 ;" and afterwards these entries ensue: — 

Secret Ilariag. — Thomas Brenche reporteth he is married to the said Katherine 
Cootes, but by whome or when they know not. 

Private JSaptisme. — Thoma,s Rookebie, knight, and his lady had a young 
childe within these 3 monethes. Thomas Brenche and his said supposed wife had 
a young child within these 3 monethes : neither of these baptized at the parishe 

Sir Thomas Rokeby, of Rokeby and Mortham, had married Mar- 
garet, daughter of Sir Ralph Lawson, of Brough. They were both 
included in the same return as Recusants. John Rokeby, esquire, the 
father of Sir Thomas, had been in the Fleet Prison, religionis causdj 
in 1584. 

At Naburne, near York, was resident John Palmes esquire, who 

2. Margaret, wife of William Paver ; 3. Jane, wife of Nicholas Faii-fax ; 
4. Isabel, wife of Leonard Foster of Smawes near Tadcaster; and 5. Anne wife 
of John Anlaby of Etton. His sons were, 1. William ; 2. Robert, whose will 
has been quoted ; 3. Edmund ; and 4. Ralph, who married and had is^^sue. 


Tpith his wife Johan, daughter of Sir George Dawney of Seazey, were 
Recusants, and among those " retained " in their house was Sir 
George Palmes, their son, and Katherine his wife, daughter of Sir 
Ralph Babthorpe of Osgodby. 

The said George Palmes, knighte, and Lady Katherin his wife have bene 
called by waie of Sitacons into the Consistorie courte at Yorke, to prove there 
mariage, vehemently suspected to have been married by some popishe priest, but 
how it is it is not knowen, and they are presented to have bene secretlie married. 

Their continued adherence to the Church of Rome is shown by two 
of their daughters being described as nuns in Flanders at the time of 
the Yorkshire Visitation in 1665. 

At Osgodby, in 1604, Sir Ralph Babthorpe (who was knighted when 
King James first arrived at York in 1603), and Sir William Babthorpe 
(when knighted we do not find), were both non -communicants, together 
with Grace, wife of the former,^ and Ursula, wifeof the latter (p. 1-40). 
Many others of the same family occur in this volume. 

At Thornton Stewart, in Richmondshire, are returned as recusants, 
" Mrs. Margaret Scrope wedowe, Henry Scrope, Xpofer Scrope gentle- 
men ;" and, among the widow's servants, " Marie Beseley." After- 
wards follows this sentence — 

Secret Mariage. — Xpofer Scrope, Marie Beseley. It is reported they should be 
marryed, but by whom or who were present not known, (p. 64.) 

Now the widow was Margaret, daughter and heiress of Simon 
Conyers, of Danby upon Yore ; and Henry and Christopher were two 
of her younger sons. Her late husband, Henry Scrope, of Speni- 
thorn, CO. York, was a grandson of Henry Lord Scrope of Bolton by 
his marriage with Lady Elizabeth Percy, daughter of Henry third 
Earl of Northumberland. The marriage of Christopher Scrope with 
Mary Beseley (of Skelton) certainly took place, for it is recorded in 
the Visitation of Yorkshire, 1665, though she is there named " Mar- 
garet Beesley;" and the subsequent Scropes of Danby descended from 
this marriage. 

In another page (118) we find more of the Beseley family. It is at 
Overton near Sheriff Hutton : — 

^ Grace was dau. and heir of William Burnard of Knaresborough. After Sir 
Ralph's death, in 1617, she became a nun at Louvaine. She is the Lady Bab- 
thorpe mentioned in our introductory remarks. Ursula was a daughter of Robert 
Tyrwhitt, of Kettleby. co. Lincoln, esq. Sir William Babthorpe, her husband, 
disgusted with his condition at home, sold his estates, went into the Spanish 
service, and is said to have been slain in an action with the French, near Arch-es 
in 1635. See the Babthorpe pedigree in Bm-ton's Monasticon Ebor. p. 437. 


Xpofer Baine, Jane his wife, Bridget wife of Echvard Beseley gentleman, Re- 
cusants for 20 years last. 

Katheren wife of Richard Tarte, a Recusant 3 yeares. 

Secj'et mariage. William Beisley, Anne his wife, secretly marryed about 
Lammas last. 

Edward Beseley gentleman, William Beseley, Anne his wife, Recusantes since 
25° Marcii 1603, and not before. 

Recusant reteyned. Edward Beseley reteyneth Edward Whalley alias Good- 
reck, a Recusant, since Lammas last. 

Now, this seems to unfold a case where the influence of Rome was 
increasing. The mother had long been a Recusant, — for twenty years 
or more ; but her husband, and William, who was probably her son, 
had been only recovered to the fold during the new reign, and not 
improbably influenced by the alliance which the son had formed with 
a popish bride. Edward Whalley alias Goodreck was very likely the 
priest who had been harboured in the house ever since that mariiage 
was made. 

On the whole there seems reason to suspect that this Visitation 
originated from a belief that since the accession of the new King the 
Roman Catholics were again holding up their heads in the North, and 
again growing in number : and there are several passages in the re- 
turns which show that such a belief was in some measure founded on 

We have now stated enough to indicate to the genealogist the value 
of this volume, to which the editor, by the aid of his two daughters, has 
appended complete indices. We ought not to omit to notice with 
commendation the editor's valuable genealogical notes, and also 
several on the etymology of personal names, which are remarkable 
for the novel information they convey. 

It may be added that in the volume of the works of the Surtees 
Society entitled Depositions from York Castle, published in 1861, there 
are several Lists of Yorkshire Recusants indicted in the reign of Charles 
the Second. They are dated March 25, 1664 (p. 119); July 17, 1665 
(p. 133) ; March 1665-6 (p. 136) ; July 6, 1669 (p 166) ; July 8, 
1670 (p. 179); for Northumberland, 1677 (p. 226); and lastly, the 
most interesting of all, a List of Prisoners at York, March 10, 
1684-5, written on the accession of James the Second, and saying all 
that could be said in their favour. 


[The plan upon which this Chronicle is compiled is set forth in our Vol. II. p. 363. 
It does not undertake to record merely personal honours ; but is confined to the 
Creations, Revivals, and Extinctions of Hereditary Dignities; the Extinctions of 
Ancient Families; Changes of Surname and Arms ; the deaths or promotions of 
Heralds, with brief biographical notices of them and of other eminent Genealogists; 
and other matters immediately connected with Heraldry and Genealogy.] 

Jan. 1. A new rate of taxation came into force in regard to Armorial 
Bearings, of which these are the particulars : — 

Every person wearing or using any Armorial Bearing, Crest, or Ensign, 
by whatever name called, and whether registered in the College of Arms 
or not, is liable to the payment of Duty, as follows — 

<£ s. d. 
If painted, marked, or affixed on, or to, any Carriage 2 2 
If otherwise worn or used . . . . . 110 

Any person keeping a Carriage hired by Mm is liable to payment of the 
higher duty for any Armorial Bearings thereon. Payment of the higher 
duty of £2 25. will authorize the use of Armorial Bearings in any manner. 
Exemption. It is not necessary for the Licensed Proprietor of a Public 
Stage or Hackney Carriage to take out a License for the use of the 
Armorial Bearings painted on such Carriage.^ 

* In this and some other of the conditions of this law it would seem as if a studied 
contempt was cast upon hereditary Armorial Bearings, and on any personal or exclu- 
sive right thereto. Any person is licensed to display what arms he pleases, " whether 
Registered in the College of Arms or not," so long as he pays the tax to the Exche- 
quer. Any Trader, bearing the name of Campbell, Hamilton, or Howard, or any 
other equally proud name, — which, at the same time, he may assume at his pleasure, 
— may usurp the Armorial Bearings of an ancient house, and even be exempt from 
tax on that account, so long as he confines himgelf to dragging it through the dirt 
as a Trade Mark ! Alas, for these degenerate days of rampant Liberalism ! The 
following letter, published in The Times, further illustrates the spirit of the govern- 
mental authorities : — 

"Inland Revenue, Somerset House, 
'• London, W.C. Jan. 8, 1S71. 

" Sir, — The Board having had before them your application of the -ith inst. sub- 
mitting specimens of devices in the nature of armorial bearings used in the course of 
trade, I am directed to acquaint you that, if the use of these devices be strictly con- 
fined to trade purposes, the Board will not insist upon the party taking out a licence 
to use armorial bearings in respect of such uses only. 

" It is to be understood, however, that if any devices of the character in question 
be used on private address cards, on letter paper for general correspondence, or in 
any manner apart from trade purposes, licences to use armorial bearings must be 

taken out. I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 
" Christopher Pedler, Esq. " \V. ]\i. Rossetti. 

" Mayor of Bideford." 


The Commissioners of Inland Revenue do not require Licenses to be 
taken out by any officer, or individual member, of a Company, Corporation, 
or Society using officially any Armorial Bearings for the use of which the 
Company, Corporation, or Society have taken out a License. Xor by any 
Trader in respect of the use of Armorial Bearings or Devices solely as 
trade marks, and in the course of trade. 

Jan. 24. Died, in his 58th year, Henry Harrod, esq. F.S.A. author of 
Gleanings among the Castles and Convents of Norfolk. 1857. 8vo. He 
was a native of Aylsham in that county, for many years a solicitor at 
Norwich, and for twelve years hon. secretary of the Norfolk and Norwich 
Arch geological Society: to whose Papers he made various contributions. 
Latterly he had communicated several valuable memoirs to the Society of 
Antiquaries of London (see further in Lord Stanhope's Anniversary 
Address of April 23, 1871). 

Jan. 24. The Queen has been pleased to approve of the appointment of 
Gilbert-Henry Lord Aveland to exercise the office of Lord Great Cham- 
berlain OF England, as Deputy to Clementina Elizabeth dowager Lady 
Aveland and Charlotte Augusta Annabella dowager Lady Carrington. 

Feh. 2. Ralph Carr, of Hedgeley, Northumberland, and Dunstan hill, 
CO. Durham, esq. D.L. eldest son of John Carr, of Dunstan hill, esq. by 
Hannah, daughter of Henry Ellison, of Hebburn Hall, co. Durham, all 
deceased, in compliance with the will of his cousin Cuthbert George 
Ellison, of Hebburn Hall, esq. Lieut.- Colonel in the army, to take the 
name of Ellison after Carr, and bear the arms of Ellison quarterly with 

Feh. 16. John Sanderson of "Wakefield, gent, and Sarah Anne his wife, 
daughter of Henry Greaves, late of Hemsworth, by Mary his wife, only 
sister of David Smirthwaite, late of Wakefield, esq. all deceased, to take 
the name of Smirthwaite only. 

Feb. 28. William Thomas Jonas Alcock-Stawell, second son of "William 
St. Leger Alcock-Stawell, of Kilbrittain Castle, co. Cork, esq. Lieut. - 
Colonel North Cork Rifle Militia, to take the name of Riversdale after 
the surnames of Alcock-Stawell, and to bear the arms of Riversdale 
quarterly with the arms of Alcock-Stawell, in compliance with the testa- 
mentary injunction of the Right Hon. Ludlow, Lord Riversdale, Bishop of 
Killaloe, deceased. {Registered in Ulster's Office at Dublin.) 

March 4. Raymond Saville Browne of Aughentain, co. Tyrone, esq. to 
take the surname of Leckt after Browne, and use the arms of Lecky, in 
compliance with the testamentary injunction of his grand-uncle, Conolly 
McCausland, of the city of Londonderry, esq. deceased. {Registered in 
Ulster's Office.) 

March 13. William Tournay Allen, of Brockhill, in par. of Saltwood, 
Kent, gent, in compliance with the will of his maternal aunt Mary Tournay, 
late of Brockhill, to take the name of Tournay instead of Allen, and bear 
the arms of Tournay. 



March. 21. Jonas Lindow Burns^ of Hazel Holme, in the parish of Kin- 
niside, co. Cumberland, esq. only surviving son and heir of Isaac Burns, of 
Ingwell, in the parish of Hensingham, esq. by Agnes, youngest daughter 
of Jonas Lindow, of Cleator, and sister of Samuel Lindow, late of Ingwell, 
esq. deceased, to take the name of Lindow after Burns, and bear the arms 
of Lindow. 

March 27. Thomas Sell^ of "Westminster Road, Lambeth, gent, son of 
Thomas Sell, of Finsbury Pavement, deceased, by Mary Ann, his wife 
(formerly Mary Ann Peters, spinster, now relict of William Collins, de- 
ceased,) in compliance with the will of the said William Collins, to take 
the name of Collins after Sell. 

March 29. Hannah Georgina Elizabeth d'Audebert, wife of Alfred 
d'Audebert, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, gent, and late widow of Augustus 
de Butts, Colonel Madras Engineers, on behalf of her only son Augustus 
Edward de Butts, Cornet 17th Lancers, that he, in compliance with the 
will of William Wharton Burdon, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, esq. shall take 
the name of Bdkdon instead of de Butts, and bear the arms of Burdon 
quarterly with de Butts. 

March 30. William Amhurst Tyssen-Daniel-Amhurst, of Amhurst, co. 
Kent, and of Didlington Hall, Norfolk, esq., Francis Tyssen-Daniel-Am- 
hurst, of the Inner Temple, barrister-at-law, and Amelia Tyssen-Daniel- 
Amhurst, of Didlington Hall, spinster, to discontinue the surname of 
Daniel and continue to bear the surnames of Tyssen-Amhurst only. 

April 19. Thomas Edward John Jones-Parry, a minor of 14 years, only 
son and heir of Robert Lloyd Jones-Parry, late of Aberdunant, co. Car- 
narvon, and of Lincoln's Inn, barrister-at-law, M.A. Oxon, D.L. and High 
Sheriff of Anglesey 1862, who was the eldest son of Thomas Parry Jones- 
Parry, late of Llwyn Onn, co. Denbigh, Commander R.N. and Margaret 
Hooper his wife, only child of Robert Lloyd, of Tregayan, co. Anglesey, 
esq. Vice-Admiral R.N. in compliance with the will of the last-named to 
take the name of Lloyd only instead of Jones-Parry, and bear the arms 
of Lloyd. 

April 20. Hamilton Llewellyn Jackson, of Upway, co. Dorset, esq. son 
of Thomas Jackson, late of Fanningstown, co. Limerick, esq. in compliance 
with the will of his aunt Catherine Barbara Jackson, of Fleettiouse, co. 
Dorset, spinster, to take the name of Gould only, and bear the arms of 
Gould quarterly with Jackson. 

April 24. Reginald AVindsor Sackville-West, Baron Buckhurst, to dis- 
continue the name of West and bear that of Sackville only; and to bear 
the arms of Sackville. 

May 4. The Rev. John Maunsell Massy, of Barna, co. Limerick, and 
St. Hubert's, co. Cavan, Rector of Kinawley, and Emily Sarah, his wife, 
elder daughter and now senior co-heiress of the late Rev. John Isaac 
Beresford, to take and use the surname of Beresford in addition to and 
before the surname of Massy, and bear the arms of Beresford quarterly 
with the arras of Massy, in compliance with the testamentary injunction of 


the said Emily Sarah's late brother, George Robert Beresford, of Macble 
Hill, CO. Peebles, esq. late Captain 88th Regiment, Knight of the Legion 
of Honour. {Registei^ed in Ulster s Office.) 

May 12. Rowland Heathcote, of Hatfield, co. York, gent, in compliance 
with the will of his uncle Lieut.-Col. Rowland Heathcote-Hacker (formerly 
Heathcote,) of East Bridgeford, co. Notts, and Chesterfield, co. Derby, to 
take the name of Hacker after Heathcote, and bear the arms of Hacker. 

May 17. Created a Baronet of the United Kingdom: the Right Hon. 
James Moncrieff, of Kildufi", co. Kinross, Justice Clerk and President of 
the Second Division of the Court of Session in Scotland. 

May 19. Robert Briggs, of Accrington, co. Lane. gent, and Mai-y his 
wife, only dau. and heir expectant of Samuel Bury of Accrington, gent, to 
take the name of Bury after Briggs. 

May 22. Sir Robert Edward Wilmot, of Osmaston and Catton, co. Derby, 
Bart, eldest son and heir of Sir Robert John Wilmot Horton (formerly 
Wilmot), Bart, by Anne-Beating, eldest daughter and co-heir of Eusebius 
Horton, of Catton, esq. (in compliance with the will of the said Eusebius 
Horton) to take the name of Horton after Wilmot, and bear the arms of 
Horton in the first quarter with those of Wilmot. 

May 24. Created a Baroness of the United Kingdom, Angela Georgina 
Burdett-Coutts, of Stratton Street, and of Holly Lodge, Highgate, both 
in the county of Middlesex, spinster, youngest daughter of the late Sir 
Francis Burdett, of Foremark, co. Derby, and Ramsbury, co. Wilts, 
Bart, by Sophia, youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts, esq. — by the title of 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts, of Highgate and Brookfield, co. Middlesex. 

May 31, George William Mounsey, of Brunswick Gardens, Kensington, 
CO. Middlesex, Borran's Hill in the parish of Sebergham, Cumberland, and 
of Lincoln's Inn, esq. barrister-at-law, son of George Gill Mounsey, of 
Castletown House, in the parish of Rockliffe, co. Cumberland, esq. by 
Isabella his wife, daughter of John Heysham of Carlisle, M.D., and sister 
of James Heysham of Borran's Hill, esq. (in compliance with the will of 
said James Heysham) to take the name of Heysham after Mounsey. 

June 6. Robert Thompson, esq. Capt. R. Art. Assistant Commissioner of 
Berar, Bengal, son of John Thompson formerly of Westport, co. Mayo,. 
now of the Grange, Stillorgan, co. Dublin, gent, and grandson of Robert 
Thompson, of Ardkill, co. Londonderry, by Martha Smyth his wife, sister 
of Samuel Smyth of Westport aforesiid, esq. J. P. to take the surname of 
Smyth before Thompson. {Registered in Ulster s Office.) 

June 12. Richard Roney, esq. Lieut -Colonel in the army and Fort Major 
and Adjutant at Jersey, and Rose Anne Roney, his wife, second but eldest 
surviving daughter of John Dougal, of Ratho, co. Edinb. esq. (in com- 
pliance with a deed of entail made by the said John Dougal,) to take the 
name of Dougal after Roney and the designation of Dougal of Ratho, 
and bear the arms of Dougal. 

(To be continued in our ne.vt Part.) 

Bj W. H. Dyer Longs taffe. 

At the dissolution of monasteries there were in the first window 
of the south aisle of the choir of Durham Cathedral four escu- 
cheons, viz.: (1) S. Cuthbert's, (2) S. Oswald's, (3) Our Lady's, and 
(4) S. George's, under figures of those saints.^ 

Tonge, in his Visitation of 1530,^ gives the following coats: — 

1. B. a cross pato/ice 0. between four lions rampant A. " These ben the armes of 
the monastery of Durham— and these armis present ys tt)C ai'ttlC?' Of .^aint ^Tutft- 


2. G. a lolain cross between four lions rampant 0. " These be t\)t ^XXnz^ of 
.^apnt <05ttJOtD, and the armes to the monastery of Saynt Oswold " [Nostel]. 

Dugdale in 1666,^ in describing the Durham glass " in australi 
fenestra alas australis," does not mention either of the above coats, 
but he does give these two : 

3. A. a plain cross G. as usually depicted as t'i)t arttt]^ Of .^aint George, 

4. B. a heart G. vnnged 0. transfixed by a sivord in pale proper, prima facie t\^t 
arm^ of »0ur HaDp. 

(1). The bearings ascribed to S. Cuthbert are also impaled by 
Tonge with B. three cotnbs A. as " the armes of the reverend 
father in God Cuthbert Thunstall, Bysshop of Duresme." The 
cross is consistent with the " cross of yeallowe cloth, called Sancte 
Cuthhert^s cross" which the fugitives to his sanctuary wore on 
their black gowns,^ and with a simpler shield, B. a cross patonce 0. 
found on the neck-band of one of the Durham copes.^ And the full 
coat was with Bishop Neville's in Leake church,^ and is in the hall 
window of the prior's house at Durham, now the deanery. 

(2). The bearings ascribed to S. Oswald are consistent with the - 
arms of " S. Oswald" in the windows of Xostel Priory;'' with the 
arms of the monastery of Oswald's-tree, hodie Oswestry;^ with a 
shield found in company with Nos. 1 and 4 in Durham deanery, 

' Rites of Durham (Surtees Society), Appendix, p. 97. 
^ Printed for the Surtees Society, 1862. 

3 Church notes in Heralds' College, ■* Rites of Durham, p. 36. 

^ Preserved in the Dormitory. ^ Dugdale's notes of the glass there. 

' Hunter from Dodsworth. ^ See the Dictionaries. 



formerly the prior's house, and with the arms given for " Dunelm," 
in the episcopal heraldry on Archbishop Chicheley's monument in 
Canterbury Cathedral.' 

(3). The red cross of S. George needs no comment. 

(4). Such a bearing for Our Lady is consistent with some re- 
presentations of her. Mater Dolorosa, in coarse allusion to Luke ii. 
35, has a sword piercing her heart, and to the Virgin as the woman 
of the Apocalypse " were given two wings of a great eagle." The 
bearing, as already noticed, is in the glass of the deanery. 

But the subject of the four shields suggests inquiry, and is not 
without its difficulties. 

( 1 ). The Bishops, at least since the Keformation, have constantly 
borne the charges and tinctures of the first shield, but made the 
cross plain as in No. 2. And the City of Durham now wears the 
simpler coat of the plain cross without the lions, in like fashion 
as to colour. 

(2). A beautiful Edwardian seal of the monastery of Bardney 
in Lincolnshire,^ a place intimately connected with the posthumous 
history of S. Oswald, gives a a'oss patonce hetiveen four lions ramp- 
ant affrontee on a shield beneath the saint. And the same coat 
occurs on the seal of two of its priors, with this difference only, 
that the lions are not affrontee. 

(3). The banner of S. Cuthbert, containing a relic of the saint, 
was A, a cross G. and there are some evidences of the use of a red 
cross at Durham of a formee, urdee, patonce, or plain shape. 
And the arms of the city, on some old maps and views, were S. on a 
■plain cross A. another plain cross G. — or aS. a plain cross G. fim- 
briated A . 

(4). This coat seems only to occur on works of the period of 
Prior Thomas Castell, and has been considered by Kaine and 
others to be his personal coat. 

Reasonable doubts, as to wdiether form of cross, nature of tinc- 
tures, or presence of lions, were the leading distinctions between 
the arms ascribed to SS. Cuthbert and Oswald, and touching the 
heraldry and crosses, for war and for peace, having arisen in the 
minds of both the editor of The Herald and Genealogist and 

1 Willement, Heraldry of Canterbury Cathedral, p, 54. 

2 Engraved in Dugdale's Monasticon, N. E. Seals of Benedictine Abbies, PI. viii. 3. 



myself, I have ventured upon a clironological summary of the 
evidences, and I have introduced some cognate subjects. 



In the following remarks I adopt the term j^lain cross in its 
ordinary modern meaning of a cross formed like that of S. George. 
The term cross patee, having been diverted from its original mean- 
ing of a cross patonce, is avoided altogether. The original term 
c7'oss formes is alone used for the spreading cross now improperly 
termed patee. The term cross flory is avoided, it being indiscri- 
minately applied to crosses patonce and crosses flurte. The 
terms crosses patonce and crosses flurte are retained, the first being 
well understood as a cross branching out into pointed trefoil ends, 
the latter having a stop and then a termination like the upper 
half of a fleur-de-lis. The term cross urdee in its sense of a cross 
of the patonce plan, but without its indentations, is kept. The 
term ci^oss moline is also retained, the distinction between /gr de 
7nolyn and croise recersale in the rolls being misty, and the former 
expression being hopelessly committed to non-cruciform shapes 
of the mill-rind. 

S. Edavin, the first Christian king of Northumberland, fell in 
battle on 12th Oct. 633.^ And from that day were the years of 
S. Oswald reckoned, although he did not actually succeed until a 
year afterwards. 

Not only in war were S. Edwin's standards {vexilla) borne 
before him, but in peace he was preceded by his signifer. Also, 
when he walked along the streets, that kind of standard {yexilli), 
which the Romans call Tufa^ and the Angles Tuuf (var. Thuuf)^ 

' Bedae H. E. ii. 20. 
D 2 


was borne before him.i The Tufa, mentioned by Vegetlus, 
quoted by Smith, was a tuft of feathers affixed to a spear.^ 

In later days, when it was thought proper to allot armorial 
bearings to Saxon saints and kings, we read that B. a cross 
flurte 0. were the arms of Edwin.^ The Eboracensians ascribe a 
coat in the lantern of York Minster, Three croicns, tico and one 
(S. Oswin? or S. Edmund? according to tincture) to S. Edwin, 
and another, next to it, TJiree crowns in pa^g (Ireland?) to 
S. Oswald. Speed gives for ^lla and S. Edwin his son, both 
sprung from Deira, a lion rampant, and for Ida, -^thelfrid, and 
Oswald, all Bernicians, Paly of six, 

S. Oswald's pahj coat seems to have been derived from a 
notion that he " had a banneroll of Gold and purple^ interwoven 
paly or bendy, set over his tomb at Bardney Abbey in Lincoln- 
shire."* That his vexillum was set over his tomb, is indeed 
stated by Beda,^ but he merely says that it was made of Gold 
and purple (auro et purpura compositum). 

The place where Oswald, before his decisive conflict witli 
Cead walla, the British king, near Hexham, " sigmnn Sanctce 
Crucis erexit," was venerated in Beda's time.^ The cross had 
been hastily made. In after times many were healed by chips 
" de ipso ligno sacrosanctse Crucis/' And before Oswald set up 
" hoc sacr^ Crucis vexillum " no sign of the Christian faith, no 
church, no altar, had been erected in Bernicia.^ 

In 635 he originated the see of Lindisfarne under S. Aidan, 
first bishop, and the substituted church of Durham regarded the 
king as " fundator sedis episcopalis Lindisfarnensis quse nunc est 
Dunelmensis, representing him^ " with a fair cross in his hand," 
"with a cross on his breast," "with a ball and a cross in one 
hand, and a sceptre in the other." ^ The monks professed to have 
his ivory sceptre, his ivory horn, and portions of his coat of mail, 
and of the cross which he erected. ^° They also showed the cross 
of S. Aydan of black jet. Oswald was slain in 642. 

' Bedse H. E. ii. 17. ^ Stevenson's note. 

' Leigh's Accidence of Annorie. Compare the arms of S. Cuthbert. 
■* Camden's Remaines. ^ H. E. iii. 11. 

6 H. E. iii. 2. 7 Ibid. 

8 Cardinal Langley's glass in the Galilee at Durham. 

9 Descriptions of the Durham glass. '*' Segbroke's List of Relics. 


Oswi, his brother and successor, has ascribed to him by Speed 
the coat of A plain cross between four lions rampant, the imagi- 
nary arms afterwards ascribed to S. Oswald, 

EcGFRiD, his son (670 — 685), is the first king of Northum- 
berland of whom we have certain coins, and they present an 
irradiated Cross and LVX. He was the king who founded the 
monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, and presented S. Cuth- 
bert to the See of Lindisfarne. The saint died in 686, and, after 
eleven years' burial, was exhumed, in the reign of his successor 

Aldfrith (685-705), Eadberht (738-759), Alchred 
(765-774), Ethelred (774-778), and Elfwold (779-788), 
all give a peculiar quadruped, believed to be a Lion, on their 
coins.^ The stycas, which succeed, are most uninteresting in 
their want of design ; and the crosses on the coins of the Danish 
King, Cnut alias Guthred (883-894) who settled the see of 
Lindisfarne at Chester le Street, and his successor Siefred (894- 
901), some of them with a crosslet and some with an extra bar, 
like patriarchal crosses, are only interesting as occasionally pre- 
senting jewels in their angles like the cross found on the body 
of S. Cuthbert. Other Danish coins of i!sorthumberland, with 
Pagan symbols, &c. do not elucidate our subject. 

S. Cuthbert's body, as is evident from its accompaniments 
and other circumstances, was accessible during a portion of the 
Saxon sera, but had not been inspected for some time before the 
days of the Conqueror. Among Athelstan's rich gifts to it, occur 
a cross artificially constructed of gold and ivory [crucem auro et 
chore artijiciose paratam) , two horns fabricated of gold and silver, 
two vexilla,^ and a lance. Are these the commencement of the 

history of the iSaitnet Of Saint iEutpert ? 

In 998 the body was translated, and placed in the new church 
at Durham, and, about 1030, received the accession of the re- 
mains of Beda. A Saxon poem,^ describing the city and men- 

' Hawkins's Silver Coinage and Rashleigh's Remarks in Num. Chron. 1869. 

2 Historia de S. Cuthberto, Sur. Soc. in Sym. Dun. 

3 De Situ Dunelmi, ib. 153. Waring (Lindisfarne, Gospels, iv. xxxii.) proposes an 
h before leo, converting the word into hleo, protector. 


tioning tliem as there, enumerates, next to CutKbert himself, 
*' the clean [pure] king's head, Oswald's, Lion of the English 
[Engla Leo).'' At that time there was with the remains "a 
chalice, small in size, its lower part representing a lion of the 
purest gold, which bore on its back an onyx stone, made hollow 
by the most beautiful workmanship, and, by the ingenuity of the 
artist, so attached to the back of the lion, that it might be easily 
turned round with the hand, although it might not be separated 
from it."^ This, when afterwards found, was replaced, but has 
since disappeared. 

" No one ever presumed to touch or explore the robes which 
are immediately contiguous to his flesh, "^ and no mention is made, 
by the historians of his translation, of the pendant cross which 
also escaped the investigators at the Dissolution. It was found in 
our days " deeply buried among the remains of the robes which 
were nearest to the breast of the Saint.'^^ 

This cross is formee, golden, and set with squarish garnets or 
red glass, which compose most of its face. There is a large 
circular knob in the centre, and a small one in each angle, and 
the ends of the limbs are convex in their outline. The lower 
limb has been broken off and roughly reunited in old time, and 
the original loop by which it had been suspended is covered by 
another one of differing gold. It resembles, I am told, Kentish 


(From Ornsby's Guide to Durliam). 

• Raine's S. Cuthbert, p. 81. Hist. Translationum in Sym. Dun. i. 193. 
2 Reginald. » Raine, 311. 



objects of Saxon date.^ The general shape, a cross formee with 
circular knob, continued to the Conquest, and occurs on shields 
in the Bayeux Tapestry.^ 

In 1083 Bishop -William I. 
(St. Carilef) brought some i\Ier- 
cian monks, who had been in 
the county ten years, into 
Durham, and reconstituted the 
church after monastic usages. 
He commended tliem to SS. 
Mary and Cuthbert, and deli- 
vered over the church to them, 
and them to the church.^ The 
legend of the simple seal of 
the Prior and Convent of Dur- 
ham, which they used until the 
Dissolution, is clearly of the 
time of William the Conqueror, 
the ^ ao;reeinDf with coins of 
him and not with those of his 
successors. The annexed cut 
of this seal is not quite so accu- 
rate as I could wish, but will 
give a fair notion of it. The 
insertion of the centre with the cross of Henry IL's Tealby type, 

• It is engraved in Raine's S. Cuthbert, and elsewhere, but not very successfully. 
The foregoing engraving is sufficient for my purpose. 

^ " Do you know the golden altar of S, Ambrose's Church at Milan ? It was exe- 
cuted at a time when, as you know, the work of our Saxon artists was prized all over 
the continent, i.e. about 835. It bears the name of the artist, vvolvina' magist' 
PHABER, and this name is certainly a Saxon one. The subjects represented upon it 
are quite in the character of those in some Anglo-Saxon MSS. On each end of the 
altar there is a cross very closely resembling that you found in the coffin of S. Cuth- 
bert. In my mind this has raised a suspicion that the cross is a work of the same 
time, if not by the same hand, and that it was placed in the coffin when the monks 
fled from Lindisfarne." D. H. H. to J. R. 1855. The drawing inclosed shows a 
cross formee with central knob and jewels in the angles, the whole being placed in a 
diamond-shaped compartment like the red cross in the churcli of Saint Mary the Less 
at Durham hereafter mentioned. 

^ Symeon Dunelm. 


plus four gems in the angles, has rather disturbed the legend, and 
some of the letters have been lengthened to reach the inner circle 
which is more in slight angles than the engraving shows. The 
formula resembles that of the early round seals of Nostell and 
Bardney, which have S. Oswald sitting, and read SIGILLVM 


The Bishop died in 1096, and was buried in the Chapter 
House. The seal engraved by Surtees for him is an imitation of 
Bishop William II.'s, and is attached to a spurious foundation 
charter of Durham. 

During the succeeding vacancy of three years is placed the 
story ,^ that Edgar the heir of Scotland, by the advice of S. Cuth- 
bert, took his banner from the monastery of Durham in asserting 
his right against Donald. Saiicti Ciithherti vexillo levato, an 
English soldier, Kobert fitz-Godwin, inaugurated a bloodless 
victory. Whereupon Edgar gave Coldingham to the monks, 
and Berwick to the bishops of Durham. But Kobert fitz-Godwin, 
while building, by license of his king, a castle in Lothian, on land 
given him by Edgar, was seized, by neighbours and the barons 
of Durham (haronibus Dimehnensibus) on bishop Flambard's 
suggestion. Edgar was at the English court, took Kobert back 
in liberty, and resumed his gift of Berwick. 

But we have other evidence that the Banner of S. Cuthbert 
had an early existence. It must always be remembered that the 
accessories of miraculous stories were sufficiently truthful to make 
them pass. Keginald of Durham ,"* writing in the middle of the 
twelfth century, speaks of the exhibition of " Beati Cuthberti 
Keliquias" as a common expedient to check fires, with which the 
city of Durham was frequently troubled. One of them, which 
had destroyed the lower part of the town and seized the apart- 
ments of the inner hall of the castle, between the battlements of 
which wooden barriers were placed to arrest the progress of the 
flames, was stopped by the following expedient. " Vexillum 
Beati Cuthberti cum sacris corporalibus in lancea suspendunt. — 
Quidem etiam — ibi pixidem secus illud cum eucharistia tenuit." 

• Monasticon, N, E. Seals of Benedictine Abbies, pi. viii. 1. and vol. vi. p. 91. 
' History of TJurhara, Tlsite o{ Seals. ^ Foi'dun's Scotichronicon, i. 278. 

* Vol. i. of the Surtees Society's publications. 


The notion at tlie Dissolution of Monasteries, as we shall see, 
was, that the banner then in existence had been made by Prior 
Fossour after the Battle of Neville's Cross. If this was so, he 
must have copied an older standard. It was of red velvet, ^' in- 
dented in five parts." In its midst was the corporax, wherewith 
the Saint had covered his chalice, which relic the Prior was said 
to have put "like unto a banner upon a spear point," for the 
battle in question. " Which corporax cloth was covered over 
with ichite velvet, half a yard square every way, having a red 
cross of red velvet on botli sides over the same, holy relic." ^ 

This design was foreign to Fossour's day, but identical with that 
of the Conqueror's standard in the Bayeux Tapestry, of Stephen 
on his great seal, and of one of the saintly banners on the cele- 
brated standard which gave name to the battle near Allerton. 

Ranulph (Flambard) became Bishop of Durham in 1099. 
His is the first of the series of vesical seals which were used 
civilly and ecclesiastically by the Bishops of Durham until the 
reign of Edward III. Their mitres (Ranulph himself has none) 
have no palatine coronet. They give no shields of arms until the 
reign of Edward I. 

In 1104, S. Cuthbert's body was examined and translated. 
Reginald states on that occasion three of his old robes were re- 
moved, and their places supplied with others of similar nature 
but greater beauty. These are believed to be the robes which 
were found on the saint's remains in 1827, and are preserved in 
the Chapter Library. They present, among other objects, rabbits, 
porpoises, solan geese, eider ducks, and gryphons supporting an 
urn. The earlier monk says nothing of the removal of the 
robes, and only mentions the addition of the most costly pall the 
brethren could find in the church. But, referring to the plates 
in Raine's S. Cutlibert^ a knight on horseback with his hawk has 
a very Norman aspect. Mr. Street considers the works to be 
Oriental. " The drawing of one robe^" he says, " is quite unlike 
Saxon drawing." "It is clear that Eastern workmen did occa- 
sionally introduce the human figure to suit the wants of their 
customers." The reader may see his paper in Part I. of the 
Transactions of the Arcliitectural and Archaeological Society of 

' Rites of Durham. 


Durham and Northumberland, and Dr. Kaine also considers that 
these robes were prepared for the contemplated removal of 1104. 
For our purpose the precise date is immaterial. The rabbits, 
porpoises, and solan geese, products of Holy Island and its sea, 
are considered as some evidence that the robes were specially 
manufactured for S. Cuthbert^s body. Still more to that point 
are the eider ducks. 

" ^be0 illse iSeati €^UtPerti (writes Reginald in the twelfth 
century) specialiter nominantur. Ab Anglis vero Lomes vo- 
cantur. Ab Saxonibus autem et qui Frisiam incolunt Eires 
dicuntur."' In 1417-8 the monks of Durham had a pillow of 
Cuthhert dowiie. Harrison, in 1577, speaks of the " birde which 
the people call ^ainct ^Utf)tcrtfS J^OUle^, a very tame and 
gentle creature, and easie to be taken." Yet, although the 
monks in 1446 had a dorsal " with the Birds of S. Cuthhert and 
the Arms of the Church" I cannot venture to say that these 
famous ducks of the saint were ever used heraldically. 

The same remark must apply to the £'72f?'Oc7iz, "the sea-born 
beads that bear his name"; also to the Dun-Cow,^ of a tradition 
which only commences in the " Rites of Durham^" of the sixteenth 
century; and to the Otter, which, according to Mrs. Jamieson, 
was S. Cuthbert's emblem some time or other, in reference to a 
miracle narrated by Beda. 

Bishop Flambard died in 1128, and was buried in the Chapter- 
House. The ^rppi^ons on the new robes placed upon Saint 
Cuthhert have already been mentioned. The Bisliop's mortuary 
includes " a green cope with great gryphons, which is called the 
Coije of S. Cuthhert, because in it he was carried from the little 
church into the choir in the time of that Bishop Ranulph."^ The 
seal of his son Radulph gives a gryphon as a device."^ The mor- 
tuary of Bishop Pudsey (1153 — 1195) included a black chasuble 
with gryphons and stars gilt, a white cope embroidered with 
gryphons and stars, a red alb with. grypho?is and floivers in large 

■ Reginald, p. 62. 

2 There is a curious chapter (Ixxxv.) in Reginald about a bull offered as an obla- 
tion to S. Cuthhert in Cuthbrictis chirche (Kirkcudbright). A btdl or cow appears on 
a mediaeval gravestone at Durham, and apparently on Castell's gateway. The old and 
new representations of the Dun-Coiv on the exterior of the Nine Altars are well known. 

3 1 Testamenfa Dunelm. 2. •» 3 Surtees, 385. 



circles, a great one of g7'een witli gryphons, and one of blue with 
gryplions, lions, and flowers in little circles.^ The Rev. Wm. 
Green well of Durham has a portion of a robe which Dr. Raine, 
its previous possessor, stated had been taken from the tomb of 
Bishop William in the Chapter House. From its style it may 
rather be referred to Bp. William II. S. Barbara (1142 — 1152), 
Pudsey's immediate predecessor, than to S. Carilef. It has 
gi'yphons and liojis, both passant, alternately dexter and sinister, 
but facing each other. It might be difficult to state the colour. 
On an officialty seal of the Church of Durham, of the thirteenth 
century, S. Cuthbert sits on a chair formed of two g7yphGns 
looking reverse ways. The first stall on the south side of the 
chancel in Darlington Collegiate Church, which, according to 
the arrangements at Auckland, Durham, and Lanchester, would 
be the Bishop's, has the miserere here engraved. 

W.Wylfo.TiL-.. .£[ 

I presume that this doubly-sceptred king between gorged 
gryphons is intended for S. Osw^ald, king of Bernicia and Deira, 
and that the Dean's seat on the north side would present the 
other local saint, Cuthbert, to whom Darlington church (built 
by Bishop Pudsey) was dedicated. These stalls present the arms 
of Cardinal Langley (1406 — 1437) as the evidence of their date. 
In 1383, the shrine-keeper at Durham enumerates among his 
relics two claw^s of a gryphon, and no fewer than eleven eggs of 
gryphons, one of which was ornamented and cut in two.- In the 

1 1 Test. Dun. 3. 

2 Raine's S. Cuthbert. In a volume of Inventories of C. C. C. Canib. 1376-1470, 
we find, " Sixth, a cup (cowpa) made of a vulture's egg with a case of guerbulie 
(boiled leather), the cup being in English called grij^ysheT/, and it has a foot and cover 
silver-gilt with a silver-gilt ball on the middle of the foot. Seventh, another cup, 


British Museum is a horn of the Egyptian Ibex (Cabra Nubiana) 
more than two feet in length, on the silver rim whereof is en- 
graved, in letters not older than tlie sixteenth century — 


Casley mentions a (iup, four feet long, with the same inscription, 
as being in the Bodleian Library.^ 

The ^Utn ^ colour of aS. Cuthbert's cope with the great gri/- 
plions corresponds with that of Bp. Pudsey's great green alb with 
gryphons. He also had a green cope, bordered with flowers and 
stars, and a green alb with lines and flowers. Bishop Philip of 
Poictou (1197 — 1208) had a green cope with lions and flowers. 
Bp. Richard II., Poor, (1228 — 1237) had a chasuble embroidered 
o^ green samette. Bp. Walter Kirkham (1249 — 1260) had two 
chasubles o£ green, one with lilies, the other plain, with two plain 
copes of the same suit. The later bishops rarely had green 
robes. The great Bp. Bury (1322—1345) had, however, "cloth 
of gold, of green colour, for his to'inh,^^'^ and Bp. Hatfield's 
(1345 — 1381) coronet of leather, for passages at arms, was covered 
with sea-green velvet. ^ The red cross formee at S. Mary's the 
Less, in Durham, has a field of green between its arms, and the 
arms of Bp. Hatfield and of S. Cuthbert in the Deanery glass 
are both on circular panels of green. I had almost forgotten that 
the chasuble of Bp. William I. himself (1081— 1096) in a por- 
trait of him drawn in B. ii. 13 of the Capitular Library (a book 
presented by him) is green.^ 

Bishop Flambard also had a chasuble of 13 lu^ colour. The 

like to the first one, made of a vulture's egg, in English called grypisTiey, with a silver 
foot and a cover silver-gilt, but it has no case of guerbulie." Mr. Riley (Historical 
MSS. Commission, Report i. QQ,) remarks : " One of the above cups (being in reality 
the egg of a bird much larger than a vulture) is still in the possession of the college, 
with its boiled leather case as well." 

' " One (talon) 4 foot long in the Cotton Library has a silver hoop about the end 
whereon is engraven Griphi Unguis Divo Cuthberto Dunelmensi sacer." 
(Maundevile's Travels, p. 325, ed. 1727.) 

* I have mislaid ne references to my authorities for the text. 
^ I am told that green has some ritualistic meaning. 

* See the mortuaries in 1 Test. Dun. He also had a green cloth with white cocks 
and green ones interwoven. 

5 Raine's S. Cuthbert, 129. 6 Raine's Auckland, 8. 


ring of gold, ornamented with a sapphire^ wliicli was on S. 
Cuthbert's finger at the Dissolution of Monasteries, and is now at 

Ushaw College, near Durham, was probably placed on him at the 
translation of 1104. Bp. Galfrid Rufus (1133—1140) had a 
cope called Zaphirus. Bp. Hugh Pudsey's (1153—1194) alb 
with gryphons, lions, and flowers, was blue. The colour does not, 
I think, occur again until the mortuary of Bishop Antony Bek, 
who had a vestment of blue satin, with ''flour de lies'' and other 
flowers and stars interwoven, eight of blue cloth icith ivJiich cele- 
bration is made in the iceek of S. Cuthbert, three albs of cloth of 
gold of blue colour, with branches of trees and flowers, and birds 
upon the branches pecking at the flowers, and a great cloth of 
^o\di o^ blue coloxm for his tomb. Bp. Lewis Beaumont (1318 — 
1333) had a vestment of blue, and a bed of blue with his arms 
and the arms of Lord de Vesey. This perhaps belonged to 
Isabella de Beaumont who married Vesey. The field of the 
Beaumont arms was blue. Blue does not occur in the mortuary 
of Bp. Bury (1322—1345) at all. Bishop Hatfield (1345—1381), 
whose arms were on a blue field, had a bed with five curtains of 
samytte and satyn of blue colour, with images of S. George, et viij. 
tapecia lanea ejusdem lecti et coloris cum Wodicysse ^ in armis 

^ The subject of these Wodioysse, which appear to have been wild men wearing the 
red cross of St. George — in armis ejusdem, will occur again in connection with those 


ejusdem intextis. It is not necessary to pursue the subject. Blue 
was the field of the arms of S. Cuthbert and of Our Lady, who 
was drawn in a mantle of that colour. It was the colour of most 
of the Prior's fittings in 1446,^ and there are some interesting 
traces of the green colour. " Panni de viridi pro tapetis ante 
altare — unus pannus hlodius novus pro tapeta ante altare — bank- 
queres paliata de viridi et rubeo — costerae paleatae de viridi et 
hlodio cum diversis animalibus intextis in eisdem, pro aula de 

The mortuary of the next Bishop, Galfrid Eufus, conse- 
crated 1133 (for there had been a long vacancy), who died in 
1140 and was buried in the chapter-house which he had rebuilt, 
gives a chasuble, alb, stole and maniple, all of black, and ISlacfe 
and 512^j)it$ vestments occur not only in the mortuary of Ins great 
predecessor Bp. William I. (1082— 1095) but occasionally with 
his successors. I have no inclination to investigate ecclesiastical 
laws of colour. But I observe a will of 1463 mentioning " v. men 
clade in hlak in wurshippe of Jlius v. luoundys, and v. women 
clad in ichith in wurshippe of our Ladyes fyve joyes." ^ The 
Black Cross with the Five Wounds in it was adopted by the 
Xorthern rebels in the Pilgrimage of Grace and the Rising of 
the North, as we shall hereafter see. 

On the death of Bp. Rufus, the see was usurped by his chap- 
lain William Cumin, a partizan of the Empress Matilda. He 
forged the papal seal ; he had the seal of the chapter of Durham 
in his hands, and he sent letters as he pleased and to whom he 
pleased sealed with the chapter seal. He affected to bestow 
lands.^ Now, the grants of the Bishops of Durham , like those 
of other Bishops, non obstante their eventual claim to be counts 
palatine, had, for validity against their successors, to be confirmed 
under seal by the chapter. We may be pretty sure that Cumin's 
supporters would demand such confirmations in the usual way, 
and equally certain that they would be repudiated by the chapter 
when the new Bishop William II. S. Barbara, who, elected 
in 1143, was not enthroned until 1144, entered into possession. 

' See the Inventory in Hist. Dunelm. Scriptores Tres, Sur. Soc. cclxxxvi. Blodius 
therein is Indicus of the mortuaries. On these renderings of blue, vide Dr. Rock. 
3 Rock, 291. 3 All this appears from the continuator of Symeon. 

2 O 



The grantees, if allowed to retain their acquisitions at all, would 
have to take free and genuine confirmations at fines. Possibly 
all prior episcopal charters under the circumstances would be 
resealed. We know that Richard I. from mercenary motives 
compelled Crown tenants to take confirmations under his second 
seal, his first having been lost in his journey, as it was alleged. 
For such sealing, and the removal of all taint of im.proper appli- 
cation of the seal by Cumin, a new seal would be necessary. 
And this, I conceive, was provided by an alteration of the old 
one, the retention of its early legend, the removal of its centre, 
and the substitution of the cross which was presently to appear on 
the new coinage of the realm. 

In S. Barbara's time, also, the monks prepared a new edition 
of their foundation charters, with additions and advantageous 
improvements. A seal, closely resembling S. Barbara's, was 
made to serve as S. Carilef's. 

The Bishop died in 1152, and was 
buried in the Chapter House, and as 
his robe seems to have been that pre- 
viously mentioned, which presents HioitS 
with grypJions, I will here sum up the 
occurrence of lions at Durham before 
their occurrence in the arms of Bp. 
Hatfield (1345—1381), and I place in 
the margin a Darlington stall end of 
Langley's period. The leonine name 
of S. Oswald, and the leonine chalice 
found with S. Cuthbert, have already 
been referred to. 

The new Bishop Hugh de Puteaco 
(1153—1195) had a blue alb embroi- 
dered with gryphons, lions ^ SLnd Jloiuei^s 
[Query, if for SS. Cuthbert, Oswald, 
and ]\Iary?] in little circles. His suc- 
cessor, Bp. Poictou (1197—1208), had 
a red cope broidered with great lions, 
and a green one with smaller lions and Jlowers. Bishop Bek's 


episcopal seal (1283—1310) lias, like S. Mary's Abbey at York, 
a lion of England at its top. On Bishop Kellaw's (1311—1316), 
SS. Cutlibert and Oswald stand on lioiis heads. Bishop Beau- 
mont (1317 — 1333) gives his paternal coat of a lion rampant 
among fleurs-de-lis, and the arms of England and Jerusalem on 
his seals. There were two lions under his feet in his splendid 
brass. Bishop Bury (1333—1345) also used the arms of England 
and a single lion of England over his head. A similar lion 
passant guardant occurs on each side of S. Cuthbert (holding 
S. Oswald's head) on his Chancery seal. He gave to the church 
six pieces of cloth of gold mai^morei coloris with lions and stags 
of gree?i colour interwoven. 

I will also sum up in this place the occurrences of a ^tti (?IrClSi5 
for Durham before the plain cross of S. George in its present 
shape was used there. That on S. Cuthbert's standard has already 
been noted. For this Bishop Pudsey there is, rightly or wrongly, 
ascribed a coat which has rather a genuine appearance, and may 
have been the real arms of some of the bishops,^ In a MS. of 
" L. R." begun by him in 1769, given in 1809 to his grandson 
John William Smith of Barnard Castle, and now in my posses- 
sion, is a collection of the arms of the Bishops of Durham com- 
piled with some care. For Pudsey he gives Per saltire 0. and B. 
a cross formee G. This, whencesoever derived,^ seems prefer- 
able to the disagreeable blazon in Speed's Northumberland (of 
which county Pudsey was Earl), 1610, copied by Hutchinson, 
Per saltire 0. and A. a cross formee B. The seal of the bishop's 
son Henry Pudsey gives a gyronny shield, which may or may not 
be armorial. The same MS. under " letters used in antient MS." 
gives a T inclosing a shield: A. a cross formde G. The late Mr. 
Wm. Trueman of Durham, a collector of objects found there, 
secured a small bronze pendant, bearing the remains of enamel. 
The legend + AVE maria gracia, in Lombardics, surrounds a 

' Bishop Bek's cross moline is the first proven coat for a Bishop of Durham. Some 
modern attributions for all the prelates from Carilef downwards may be seen in 
Bedford's Blazon of Einscopacy. 

* I might, if I looked at this coat only, say that I have seen the tincture G. in a 
map of Northumberland from an old folio edition of Camden, but, honestly, I can 
only remark that at first B. was represented, as G. is now, by perpendicular lines. 


ground of blue. On this is a shield. No enamel of the field is 
left, but the bearing is a Red cross, the upper and lower limbs 

Glass. S. Mary the Less. 

wheveo£ are formee, and the transverse ones patofice or urdee. In 
the south-east window of the chancel of S. Mary the Less, Dur- 
ham, on a gj'ee?! ground, is a red cross formee placed on a square 
panel set diagonally. The angular spaces at the ends of the cross 
are not vert, but tawny, and the whole is inclosed in a border of 
yellow beads. This glass is mostly ancient.^ 

Although the red cross, which was over the corporax cloth of 
the standard, was probably /o?'mee, and the pendant would suit 
the dedication of the cathedral to SS. Mary and Cuthbert if the 
cross referred to the latter, I cannot make up my mind to identify 
it very closely with that saint, whose cross in later times seems 
clearly to have been yellow. Supposing it to have been on the 
standard, it may be deemed to have been the war-cross of the 
Haliwerefolkj but it in no material respects differs from those of 
the Kings. It (as they) may be nothing more than predecessor in 
shape of the later cross of S. George; or it may be the cross of 
S. Oswald, who was represented in the Durham glass " with a 

^ Canon Raine tells me that his father, Dr. Raine, Rector of St. Mary the Less, 
told him that some of the glass in the church came from other sources, but that this 
cross was among the glass which belonged to the fabric, and that it was in the 
west end. 



faire cross in his hand,"^ " with a cross on his breast,'' and " with 
a ball and a cross in one hand and a sceptre in the other."^ This 
would be very consonant with its use in war, S. Cuthbert's cross 
being used in peace ; just as we shall find S. Oswald's arms and 
S. Cuthbert's being respectively preferred for the Palatine and 
Episcopal seals. The shape of the cross, as compared with the 
plain cross on Oswald's arms, is not contradictory, as the Bardney 
variation of a cross patonce shows. I may here mention that 
there are two crosses patonce on a very early tombstone at 
S. Oswald's church at Durham.^ The reader will find variations 
in the form of the cross of S. Michael in the sequel. 

Bishop Pudsey had a chasuble of XtH samete nobly embroidered 
cu7n laminis aureis ef hizanciis et multis magnis perils et lapidibus 
pretiosis, another red one, a red stole and maniple embroidered 
with kings and towers, a ret? cope and a white one, both broidered 
with gryphons and stars, a red alb with gilt eagles having two 
heads in little circles, a red alb with gryphons and flowers in 
great circles, and another red one. His successor Poictou had 
two red copes, one with great lions the other with stars and birds 
having two heads, two red chasubles, one cum laminis aureis et 
lapidibus preciosis, the other called the tree, and two red albs with 
Apostles. Bp. Eichard I. de Marisco, Marsh (1218-1226), had 
" ij capas, unam bisdmata, qu£e dicitur ciirta, rubea samette,"and 
a red chasuble of samette, which was called Mar rays, probably, 
like his seal, having the representation of a rushy marsh. Bp. 
Farnham (1241-1249) had a red chasuble of samette for celebra- 
tion on Palm Sunday, two tunics of the same cloth with orfrays 

' He is the patron saint of Methley cliureli, and there, over the south porch, in the 
Decorated Period, is represented with a sceptre ending in a cross formee or botonnee. 
— Churches of Yorkshire. 

^ Rites of Durham. 

2 A comparatively modern seal of the Burgesses of Barnard Castle, which was 
steadily maintained to be no part of St. Cuthbert's franchise, gives a large cross 
formee with crescent and estoile in its upper quarters. The device looks as if copied 
from an older seal. The dedication of the church is to S. Mary. 

Some years ago Lister and Sons of Newcastle had a matrix, said to have been found 
near Durham, presenting a design of thirteenth century character. A knight in 
chain mail and surcoat was fighting a lion. The work was later and better than that 
of the seals of the southern Nevilles which give a similar group. The knight's shield 
had a cross formee, and the legend was ie • teng • maspe • trenchavt ' pvr • ociR * LE 
LiVN • RAVMPAVNT (i,e. Jc tiens mon espe trenchant pour occir le lion rampant). 


and gilt lilies and a red alb. Bp. Kirkham (1249-1260) had a 
r^^ cope. Bp. Bek (1283-1310) had divers r^cZ vestments, orna- 
mented with the Nativity of Christ, his Passion, the passions of 
martyrs, saints, gilt platys, archangels, and the coronation of S. 
Mary (the design of his splendid counter-seal). Let me go no 
further. Pudsey's gryphons and stars might allude to SS. Cuth- 
bert and Mary, and so his gryphons and floicers; and Poictou's 
lions might be S. Oswald's, but it is plain that a red field received 
any subject at Durham as elsewhere. Bishop Skirlaw, in 1406, 
left to the high altar there a best red cloth with the five joys of 
the Virgin, and in 1446 the monks had a 7'ed velvet chasuble 
broidered with crowned M's. 

The Stat^ and jFlobjet^ of Pudsey's mortuary, the stars and 
Ullicgl 2indi floicers of Poictou's, the lilies of Farnham's and Kirk- 
ham's, the JfFlCUtS tif lis and oi\\QX fioicers and stars of Bek's, all 
seem to refer to the Virgin. It would be tedious to enumerate 
the occurrences of such emblems on the Durham seals. The 
Crescent comes in with the second seal of Bp. Marsh (1218-1226). 
It contains a cross on that and on the seals of Bp. Poor (1228- 
1237), Bp. Kirkham (1249-1260J, and Bp. Stichill (1260-1274). 
Sometimes the crescent incloses a i^OSC or star of five or six points, 
as in the privy seal of Bp. Poor. Roses or stars and crescents 
alternately form the diaper of Bp. Poor's seal. Estoiles or stars 
only accompany the Virgin and Child on some seals of Bps. 
Kellaw (1311-16) and Beaumont (1317-1333). The subject of 
the rose will have to be taken up again armorially, under Cardinal 
Langley; but before I leave it in its early state, let me say that, 
as with the Bishops, so with the Priors. No armorial bearing of 
an official character occurs on their seals until the episcopate of 
Bishop Hatfield, in the reign of Edward III., when, as on his 
barbarous palatine seal, a sudden declension in art took place. 
Nothing can exceed the beauty of Bishop Bury's seals. The seal 
of Prior John Fossor (1341 — 1374) who came into office in his 
days, is also possessed of great merit. The reader may see it, 
imperfectly, in Surtees's plate xii. fig. 1, with roses beneath, and 
fieurs-de-lis above, SS. Cuthbert and Oswald. There is no 
armory, unless the annulets of the diapered field are the sable 
annulets of his relations the Forcers of Kclloe. Tlie seal of 

E 2 


his successor, to be noticed in due time, is heraldic and 

For, albeit the Durham seals had, as yet, shown little armory, 
the perfection of it, as of all mediaeval things, had already passed 
away. The mystery of the early devices, the chastity of early 
heraldry, the struggle how to perpetuate best an affectionate or a 
fortunate marriage, were gone. The quartering of an heiress- 
wife's arms, the impaling of a husband's by a wife entitled to 
dower, remained. An early Perpendicular church is a good 
thing, but far below the Nine Altars, or the Percy Shrine. 
Henry the Seventh's Chapel and the Heralds' College did not yet 
exist. But, already, the fine gold had become dim. 

Bishop Pudsey died in 1195, and was buried in the Chapter 

Bishop Philip de Poicteu, his successor, introduced a small 
vesical counter or privy seal, which, like the episcopal seal, gave 
his eflBgy and title. He died in 1208, excommunicate, and was 
not interred in consecrated ground, and the see was not filled up 
until 1217. 

Bishop Richard I. de Marisco altered the character of the 
counter seals. His privy seal and the succeeding ones, until 
Edward III.'s time, when they became heraldic, had saints and 
religious legends, and require a knowledge of the obverse for 
the fixing of their dates. ^ His second episcopal seal introduces 
architecture, in the shape of a bracket on which he stands.^ He 
died in 1226, and was buried in the Chapter House. 

Bishop Richard IL Poor, translated 1228, calls himself II. 
on his seal,^ a practice also adopted by King Henry III. on his 
coins, but neglected by his successors, much to the discomfort of 
numismatists. Bishop Robert IL Hali-Eland (1274 — 1283), calls 
himself " R. IL," and Bishop Richard HI. Kellaw (1311—1316) 
in the time of King Edward II. , has " HI." above the canopy on 
his episcopal seal. 

Bp. Poor's body was buried in 1237 in the Chapter House. 
Bedford quotes a seal of Richard, Bishop of Durham, " Ric. Poor 
fortV MS. Ashmole, 833, f. 419, with the arms: On two bars 
six crosses patee " [/on?2ee?]. 

' Kellaw's is an exception as to the legend, which gives his name and title. 
- Surtees, Plate I. No. 7. ^ Ibid. No. 8. 


Bp. Nicholas de Farnham, in 1240, added to the episcopal 
seal sunk panels containing heads/ which continue with his two 
successors. He died in 1257, having resigned the bishopric in 
1249, and was buried in the Chapter House. 

Bp, Walter de Kirkham (1249-1260), was buried at 
Durham^ but it appears from a tombstone at Howden that his 
viscera were interred there. 

The heart of Bp. Kobert I. de Stichill (1260-1274) was 
buried in the Chapter House. 

Bp. Robert II. de Hali-Eland (1274-1283) altered the 
type. S. Cuthbert for the first time appears with the head of 
S. Oswald in his left hand.^ He was buried in the Chapter House. 

Bishop Anthony de Bek (1283-1310) is the first bishop for 
whom, both in rolls of arms and seals, we have a clear private 
coat. There is also an appearance of livery colours, his mortuary 
including nine vestments of " a cloth of white, blue, and red in 
stripes, with a cross of his arms interwoven, which are called a/er 
de moline (de uno panno albi, indicia et ritbei coloris palliatis, cum 
una cruce de armis ejusdem intextis quae dicimtur ferrum molen- 
dini)^ What we call a cross moline is meant, as is shown by the 
bishop's seals. 

In his days there is repeated mention of the vexillum Scmcti 
Ciithberti being borne by a monk of Durham in Edward I.^s wars 
with Scotland.^ 

In 1307 he was made titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and at his 
death the church obtained his " gilt silver patrtarcfjal Cro^S." 
Dr. Eock doubts whether patriarchs ever had a processioned cross 
of this form. He mentions occasional instances of its beins: worn 
by archbishops and by S. Peter. And he asks whether Bek's was 
really processional or " short and stemlessand so made as to hang 
against the wall; or with a foot, that it might stand somewhere 
about the altar in his domestic chapel for a badge of Bek's titular 
dignity .^^ ^ Bek's magnificent patriarchal seal ^ shows the cross at 

' Surtees, Plate I. No. 9. ^ pi^te IL No. 3. 

^ Vide Rymer's Foedera and Greystanes's History. 
* Church of our Fathers, ii. 219. 

^ Engraved in Surtees, Plate V. No. 1. The five ermine spots on the cross not 
having, been properly understood are misrepresented as something like rosaries. 


each side of the bishop, who holds no processional cross. It is 
short, with a pricket, as if for fixture into something. The seal 
also gives it as a finial to the canopy. The early seal of S. Giles's 
Hospital at Kepyer, near Durham, founded by Bp. Flambard, and 
refounded by Bp. Pudsey, (which presented a cross formee with 
central quatrefoil knob, like that on the conventual seal, but 
longer in its lower arm, as if it were a standing cross,) was suc- 
ceeded before Bek's time by another, which presents, why, I 
hardly know, a patriarchal standing cross. In both this and 
Bek's seal the upper bar is shorter than the lower one, being 
doubtless, as Dr. Kock remarks, a representation of the title set 
upon the cross by Pilate's orders. 

There is another very interesting ex- 
ample of Bek's patriarchal cross in the 
Early Decorated window in the west end 
of the north aisle of Howden church, 
which belonged to Durham, where his 
private arms are dimidiated with a rose- 
coloured patriarchal cross on a tawny pink 
ground. Possibly the glass has been a 
little tampered with, but its original cha- 
racter is evidenced by the form of the cross moline, which, 
according to the patriarchal seal and rolls of arms, ought to 
have five ermine spots upon it for difference. Not having these 
evidences before me when I visited the church, I may have over- 
looked traces of the spots. 

Bp. Bek was buried in the chapel of the Nine Altars at 

His coins are the first of the Durham Mint which are distin- 
guished by episcopal marks. He used for that purpose his cross 
moline. His successors, Bps. Kellaw, Bury, and Hatfield in the 
times of the Edwards, and the bishops who struck money in the 
Tudor penod, used to twist one arm of the cross on the reverse 
into the shape of the head of a pastoral staff. 

On the episcopal seal of Bishop Richard III. de Kellaw 
(1311 — 1316), the tabernacle work which had appeared at the 
fiides of Hali- Eland and Bek, rises above the head of the bishop, 
and so continued until the time of Bp. Hatfield, when the main 


figure of the bisliop was transferred to the newly-introduced pala- 
tine seal. Kellaw was the last bishop of Durham who was buried 
in the Chapter House. 

Bp. Lewis de Beaumont (1317 — 1333) was buried under 
two enormous blue slabs in the choir. Their sumptuous brass 
work had many coats of arms,' but no official ones. 

I fear that all the old official evidences adduced in the fore- 
going pages may hardly be considered as of an heraldic nature. 
But their connection with heraldry must be judged by the sequel. 

(To he continued.) 

Note. The various seals to which reference is made in this paper are attached 
to the documents which belonged to the Prioi* and Convent of Durham, and are 
preserved in excellent order by the Dean and Chapter. An instructive series of Royal 
and Episcopal Seals is displayed to the public in the Dormitory. The pre-Reformation 
seals are to some extent represented by the Plates in Surtees's History of Durham, to 
which references have been made. Impressions of most of them, taken from the casts 
made by the late Mr. Doubleday, may be procured from Mr. Robert Ready of the 
British Museum. 


Pedigrees of the County Families of Lancashire, compiled by Joseph Foster, and 
authenticated by the members of each Family, the Heraldic Illustrations by 
J. Forbes-Nixon. London : printed for the Compiler by Head, Hole, and Co. 
Farringdon Street and Paternoster Row. 4to. 

This is a very important genealogical work, and one which, if the design 
is pursued, will assume still more important proportions : for, starting with 
Lancashire, the compiler has in view nothing less than " Pedigrees of the 
County Families or England," of which this is offered as "Volume I." 

It has originated, it appears, from what may be termed an accident, or 
rather a lapse on the part of other publishers. The History of Lancashire^ 
by the Messrs. Baines, was first published in 1836, including a considerable 
number of pedigrees of the leading families of the county palatine. In 1870 
a new edition was issued, but this was compressed into two volumes, and 
that result was in part effected by the omission of all pedigrees. Such an 
injudicious course was naturally unpopular with many persons who are best 
disposed to purchase expensive works of county history ; and the prevalence 
of that sentiment suggested to Mr. Foster that he would supply the defi- 
ciency. In this enterprise he has evidently met with considerable encou- 

1 There are drawings of them in Dugdale's notes. 


ragemeut, judging from the amount be presents of genealogical information 
of recent date, which could onl}' be procured by communications from the 
families concerned : besides which we observe he acknowledges the assist- 
ance of some gentlemen whose names are previously well known as those of 
intelligent and experienced local genealogists. 

These genealogies, detached from any manorial or territorial history, form 
a book somewhat differing from any previously published, — except perhaps 
Berry's County Genealogies^^ for it consists entirely of tabular pedigrees, 
necessarily of various dimensions, as the information to be detailed may 
require ; its mechanical arrangement clear and handsome, and very credit- 
able to the printers, whilst the armorial illustrations by Mr. Forbes-Nixon 
are spirited and effective, engraved in their tinctures, — but which does not 
in many cases entirely compensate for the absence of blason, for there are 
many objects in modern coat-armour that must be obscure without verbal 
explanation, besides which we may remark another omission, that quarter- 
ings are not described even by names. 

We have received the book at too late a period to be able to enter into 
particular genealogical criticism, which we must therefore defer ; but we 
may state that the families to which Mr. Foster directs his attention are 
those now existing and flourishing. These he sets forth in all their branches 
ancient and modern ; compiling them from the Heralds' Visitations, and 
other reliable sources either printed or manuscript, together with the fullest 
original information he can collect as to the junior members of the latter 
generations. We are sorry, however, to see that he still helps to keep up 
the silly practice of suppressing the dates of the births of young ladies, and 
placing all the daughters of a family after the sons, by which a certain 
amount of useful knowledge is unquestionably lost. Altogether, the articles 
of this volume amount to 125 : but several include shorter pedigrees of other 
collateral families. 

Mr. Foster already announces that he is preparing for publication the 
pedigrees of Yorkshire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire. Those of Yorkshire 
families are to form two volumes, and those of Cheshire and Derbyshire 
together one volume. Looking forward to the further prosecution of his 
undertaking, he proposes in course of time to produce the " Pedigrees of 
the County Families of England, complete in about fifteen volumes." This 
is more than we expect to live to see ; but we need only add that we shall 
joyfully welcome any number of volumes so well filled as is this of the 
Pedigrees of Lancashire. It is published by Mr .Foster himself (21 Boundary 
Road, Regent's Park, St. John's Wood, N.W.) in royal 4to. at Three 
Guineas, and in Imperial 4to. (the larger tables mounted on linen,) at Five 

' Berry's series was published between the years 1830 and 1S44. He began with 
the county of Kent, proceeded to Sussex, Hampshire, Surrey, Berkshire and Buck- 
inghamshire, Essex, and Hertfordshire — in all eight counties. 


Debrett's Illustrated Peerage, and Titles of Courtesy, of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 1873. 

Debrett's Illustrated Baronetage, with the Knightage of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 1873. 

Debrett's Illustrated House of Commons, and the Judicial Bench. 1873. Com- 
piled and edited by Robert Henry Mair, LL.D. (Three uniform volumes, 
published by Dean and Son, Ludgate Hill, London.) 

The plan of these annual volumes has now been for some years settled, 
and we have on former occasions explained it. Though each is complete 
in itself, they form a consistent and correspondent whole ^ each being 
really composed of two principal Parts, which the title-pages describe. 
This year there are no alterations of the general arrangement of the work, 
though the alterations which the changes of human life occasion are, as 
usual, numberless : and have with great diligence been entered in their 
several places. 

Regarding the heads of families only, the Obituary of the year 1872 
includes the name of 24 Peers, 34 Baronets, and 20 Knights — the last 
number, the editor remarks, being barely half the average. By the death 
of Baron Audley, one peerage went into abeyance ; another became ex- 
tinct by the death of Viscountess Beaconsfield ; and on the demise of the 
Marquess of Londonderry the Earldom of Vane merged in the Marquesate. 
The peerages conferred during the year were four, — Napier (previously a 
peer of Scotland), Ossington, Hanmer, and Selborne ; five Baronets were 
created, — Gibbons, Gull, McDonnell, Pollock, and Rose. Besides, nine 
gentlemen were sworn members of the Privy Council ; and thirty-seven 
received the honour of Knighthood. 

The Bench of Bishops for a second year has remained intact ; but a for- 
mer spiritual peer, Dr. Hinds, sometime Bishop of iSTorwich, died in 1872, 
at an advanced age. 

In anticipation of knighthood being conferred on the three new Judges, 
— Messrs. Archibald, Denman, and Pollock, their biographies appear in the 
Knightage ; but in one of these cases a retrograde step will have to be taken 
next year, as it is understood that Mr. Justice Denman (and his wife) 
remain content with the rank already enjoyed by them from his being the 
younger son of the late Lord Denman. 

In regard to these new judges, it is remarkable that all three are sons of 
former judges, and that Sir Thomas Archibald and Sir Charles Pollock are 
brothers in law, the latter having married a sister of the former. The 
arms of Sir Charles Pollock should be altered next year, for he has no 
right to the Baronet's hand or the supporters of his brother Sir Frederick. 
But we must not enter into armorial criticism, because our present space 
will not allow it, and we should have a great deal to say. It may be suffi- 
cient to remark that where new engravings are required, they are generally 
of an improved character, but there is very much in the "illustrations" 


of Debrett that still requires amendment, not only as to art, but as to 

One very remarkable existing circumstance which we notice in the 
Baronetage is that there are four dowager Lady Burrards though only one 
Baronet of the name,— whose wife is a fifth Lady Burrard. These are— 
the widow of the 3rd Baronet, the widow of the 4th, and the widow of the 
5th ; there is also the widow of Sir Charles Burrard of another creation, 
who died in 1870, when his baronetcy became extinct. 

Upon Disputed and Doubtful Baronetcies, regarding which the Editor 
speaks with caution and considerate precision of statement, we must reserve 
our remarks to another opportunity. 

Index to the Visitation of the County of Yorke, begun a.d. mdclxv. and finished 
A.D. MDCLXVi. By William Dugdale, Esq. Norroy King of Armes. Compiled by 
Geo. J. Armytage, Esq. F.S.A. and printed by Private Subscription. London : 
James Bain, 1, Haymarket, and James Newman, 235, High Holborn. 1872. 8vo. 
pp. iv. 40. 

It is an obvious omission in this title-page that it is not stated to be an 
Index to the printed Edition of the Yorkshire Visitation of 1666, as pub- 
lished by the Surtees Society in 1859: though that oversight is remedied 
in the introductory lines of its brief Preface. The Surtees volume was 
reviewed by us in our vol. II. p. 435, and we then expressed very decidedly 
our conviction how greatly its value was impaired by the absence of an 
Index. It has been understood that this defect would probably be removed 
upon the Surtees Society publishing another Visitation, when one index 
would be made to serve for both. Mr. Armytage, however, whose zeal in 
regard to Visitations has been shown by the work he has done for the Har- 
leian Society, has not had the patience to wait for this eventuality : and 
there are doubtless many who, like himself, will be glad to be at once sup- 
plied with so necessary an aid in their genealogical inquiries. Not that 
this Yorkshire Visitation is altogether to be trusted. There was a time 
when the reputation of the Heralds' Visitations stood so high, that their 
evidence was thought to be perfectly undeniable, and as claiming -to be 
received in courts of law on a par with that of parish registers. Experi- 
ence has now taught a very different lesson : and it so happens that the few 
genealogical inquiries which were suggested to us on perusing Mr. Pea- ! 
cock's recent book of the Yorkshire Recusants of 1604 exposed to our 
observation several serious errors in this very visitation (see pp. 24, 25 of 
our present Part). 

We have great pleasure in announcing that the Chetham Society has just 
issued the Third and concluding Part ofDuGDALE's Visitation of Lancashire 
in 1664-5. The Rev. Mr. Canon Raines, with his wonted literary skill, has 
prefixed a most interesting preface in the form of a Life of Sir William 
Dugdale^ to which we shall not fail to pay further attention. 


Some Account of the Ancient Monuments in the Priory Churchy Aber- 
gavenny. By OcTAvius Morgan, Esq. M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A., President of 
the Monmouthshire and Caerleon Antiquarian Association. 4to. pp. 87, 
with Thirteen Photographs. (Of this beautiful work we shall hope to give 
a full account hereafter.) 

A History of the Mansions and Manors of Herefordshire. By the Rev. 
Charles John Robinson, M.A. Vicar of Norton Canon, and Chaplain to 
the Earl of Caithness. London : Longmans and Co. Hereford : printed and 
published by James Hull, High Town. 1873. 4to. pp. 318.— Mr. Robin- 
son has another (pictorial) title to this book, " The Mansions of Hereford- 
shire and their Memories ;" which is equally appropriate with that above 
copied, as suggesting the very readable and pleasant style in which the 
whole is composed. It is a corresponding volume to his " History of the 
Castles of Herefordshire and their Lords," which was reviewed in our 
vol. vi. p. 448. It is illustrated with views of nearly twenty old mansions, 
most of them remarkable for their architecture, and some of them now no 
longer standing ; and with a map of the county. To some of its contents 
of jzeneral interest we shall direct attention hereafter. 

Public Ledger Almanac 1873. A present to us from Geo. W. Chllds, of 
Philadelphia, and very acceptable from the information it conveys, statis- 
tical and historical, relative to the United States of America. It is named 
after a successful newspaper, to which this testimonial (among many more) 
is given : " The number of persons now employed on the Philadelphia 
Ledger is three hundred and fifty-six. The establishment is one of the 
largest and completest possessed by any daily newspaper in the world. 
Mr. Childs, its publisher, deserves its great success. — Neiv York Ledger.'" 
A valuable page of " Necrology of Philadelphia" details the deaths of 5Q 
leading citizens, among whom are Major- Gen. George G. Meade, " the 
Hero of Gettysburg," Nov. 6, 1872, aged 57; Wm. G. Mason, engraver, 
July 13, 1872, aged 75 ; and Thomas Sully, historical and portrait painter, 
Nov. 5, 1872, aged 91. In p. 56 one of Mr. Childs's 356 workmen has 
turned Lord Herbert of Cherbury into Lord Herbert of " Cherbourg," but 
we beg to say that he was not a Frenchman, though somewhat French in 
his philosophy. 

The Surtees Society has issued to its members " The Register of the 
Guild of Corpus Christi in the City of York ; with an Appendix of illus- 
trative documents, containing some account of the Hospital of St. Thomas 
of Canterbury, without Micklegate-Bar, in the suburbs of the City." The 


original is in the Lansdowne Collection of MSS. and is one of very few 
existing remains of a class of books that must once have been almost as 
numerous as merchants' ledgers, since every important place had its re- 
ligious guild, and some places many. For example, at York, besides this 
Guild of Corpus Christi, there were at least four others co-existent; 
namely, that of St. Christopher and St. George, that of the Holy Trinity 
in Fossgate, that of the Blessed Mary and St. Anthony, and that of the 
Mercers' (or Merchants') Company. When such guilds were in estimation 
they attracted to them most of the neighbouring gentry and beneficed 
clergy : who, from motives of charity or good-fellowship, probably did not 
refuse to subscribe (to use our modern phrase) not only to one but to 
several guilds. 

The Register contains the names of upwards of 16,850 persons who joined the 
fraternity during its comparatively short existence of not quite a century and a half. 
Individuals of the highest rank, both ecclesiastical and civil, enrolled themself as 
members. Among these were the archbishop of York, the bishops of Carlisle, Dur- 
ham, Exeter, and Hereford, the abbats of York, Fountains, Rievaulx, Selby, and 
Whitby, the priors of Bridlington, Kirkham, Newburgh, Nostell, and Watton ; Richard 
duke of Gloucester afterwards king of England, his mother Cecily duchess of York, 
Francis viscount Lovel, the lords Cliiford, Latimer, and Scrope ; and sir Richard 
Bingham, sir Thomas Fulthorpe, and sir Ralph Poole, justices of the king's bench. 
(Preface, p. xii.) 

In one year, 1473, the large number of 592 persons were admitted to the 
guild. We may be sure that it was more than usually popular because it 
undertook the management of the Corpus Christi Play, upon which Mr, 
Davies has collected so many interesting particulars in his volume entitled 
York Records. 

Such a register as the present is therefore in some respects like a parish 
register, as it shows when certain persons, — and their wives, for the wife 
was enrolled by name with her husband, were living, and may therefore 
often be of considerable genealogical service. From 1409 to 1437 there is, 
besides, an Obituary of the brethren and sisters, with an account of such 
legacies as were bequeathed to the fraternity by some of them. In a 
volume of more than 300 pages, this book contains many thousand names ; 
indeed, we should say that few of the inhabitants of York are absent, from 
the year 1409 to 1546 inclusive: when we add that it is not only very care- 
fully edited by Mr. Robert H. Skaife, but enriched with a great abundance 
of biographical notes from wills and every other available evidence, it will 
be perceived that it is an acquisition of great value to family history as well 
to the elucidation of that remarkable class of religious communities which 
was the last to flourish in England before the Reformation, and the history 
of which has hitherto been but little investigated. 

It happens that we have received nearly at the same time a comparatively 
small publication on another foundation of the same kind, The Fraternity of 
the Assumplion of the Blessed Virgin Mart/, at Hythe. By H. B. Mackeson, 


F.G.S. (London: John Russell Smith, 36, Soho Square. 8vo. pp.31.) 
Among the records of the corporation of Hythe, Mr. Mackeson, who is 
preparing for publication a History of that town, has found a Register of 
this Guild, extending from 1466 to 1532, and he has made the most of the 
curiosities of its contents. It was altogether an humble fraternity in com- 
parison with that of Corpus Christi at York, but Mr. Mackeson has worked 
out his materials, to the extent of his subject, with zeal and industry not 
unworthy to be named on the same page with Mr. Skaife, including an 
alphabetical list of all the members of the Guild, though they do not appa- 
rently include any of rank or eminence. 

Gough's History of the Parish of Mycldle^ co, Salop, which was left by its 
author (no relation to the future Editor of Camden's Britannia) in MS. 
under the quaint title of "Human Nature displayed in the History, Anti- 
quities, and Memoirs of Myddle, by Richard Gough, Anno ^tat. suae QQ^ 
A.D. 1700," was printed by the late Sir Thomas Phillipps at his private press 
at Middle Hill in the year 1834. But as he printed vei-y few copies, and 
of them sold but few, at Five Guineas, the print is now nearly as scarce as 
the MS. The present Rector of Middle, the Rev. Prebendary Egerton, has 
undertaken to revise a new edition, collating it with the original now in the 
possession of Mrs. Bickerton of Newton on the Hill. It will be a quarto 
volume of about 170 pages, uniform with the "Garrisons and Old Mansions 
of Shropshire "; price to subscribers 21s. to be published by Messrs. Aduitt 
and Naunton, Shrewsbury. 

Knighthood at the age of thirteen ? Sir Gilbert Houghton the 
second Baronet of Houghton Tower, co. Lancaster, (since written Hoghton, 
and latterly de Hoghton,) is said to have been 39 years old at the death of 
his father in 1630. (Baronetage, by Wotton, 1741, i. 19). If so, he was 
born in 1591 ; and yet he was knighted at Whitehall on the 21st July, 
1604. (Philipot's Catalogue of the Knights of James the First.) The age 
attributed to him in 1630 is consistent with the ages assigned to his father 
and mother, which are very exactly recorded ; for his father was born, in 
Sept. 1570 and his mother in May 1569. They are not therefore likely to 
have been married before 1590. No preceding English monarch had been 
so ready to make Knights as James the First, and yet I should not have 
expected to find a lad of thirteen knighted by him. Wotton {ubi supra) 
says July 21st, 1606 : but Philipot's authority is scarcely to be disputed. 
I wish therefore to inquire, Are there any other examples of knighthood 
being at that time conferred at so early an age ? for, whether Sir Gilbert's 
age was thirteen or fifteen it appears equally extraordinary. At the crea- 
tions of the Bath the Knights were of all ages, and some mere boys, but 



only when selected from the higher families of the peerage : and at the 
Coronation in 1603 I believe all had been full-grown men.— J. G. N. 

Is there any rule in genealogical science for the adoption, use, and in- 
heritance of Family Names in all cases of consanguinity and descent by 
affinity or marriage ? 

Lisbon. -A- new Subscriber. 

This is one of those questions which we usually prefer to recommend to 
the tribunal of the authorised advisers at the Heralds' College. But at the 
same time it is so vaguely framed that we fear no authority could give a 
definite answer in the terms proposed. Rules are founded in law upon 
precedents and practice, and we are not aware that at any period there have 
been any established regulations " in genealogical science" for the adoption 
of Names ; whilst it is well known that in practice a great variety of pre- 
texts have been alleged for such changes. Our correspondent does not 
limit his inquiry to this or any other country ; but if in any country such 
rules have been established, we shall be glad if another correspondent can 
furnish the information required by our New Subscriber. 

The Wemyss Baronetcy (Yol. VI. p. 479) Is your correspondent in re 
Wemyss following up the descent from a son of Sir James of Bogie, which 
may be suggested as not improbable ? If that descent could be proved, it 
appears that Wemyss of Danesfort may be heir male of the family, and 
perhaps as such entitled to a Baronetcy. 

Sir David Wemyss of AVemyss. 


Sir John. 

John Earl of 

Sir James of Bogie. 


James, died 

John an officer in the army, went to Ireland and 
left issue. ? married sister of Lord Dinsrwall. 

David Earl 
of Wemyss, 
died s. p.m. 

Sir John 
of Bogie, 
died s,p. 

of Bal- 


1 — 


of East 



Mr, George, 
Principal of 
St. Leonard's 

Sir James of Bogie, created Ludovick, 
a Baronet 1705; male de- died s. p. 
scendants extinct. 


Margaret, wife 

of Archbishop 


It is stated that the title is destined to heirs male whatsoever, which may 
be the case, although very unusual at so late a date. It is at present 
assumed by a John Wemyss resident in India, cousin and heir of a gentle- 


man who assumed it some 40 years ago. They state themselves to desceml 
from a brother of Mrs. Paterson who had been disinherited by his father. 
There is, however, I think distinct evidence that Margaret Wemyss was an 
only child. In 1659 she was served heir general, not heir of provision, of 
her father. Lament in his invaluable Diary gives details as to her mar- 
riage and sale of East Couland, — nothing of a brother. 

g * * * 

The Etymology of Twisell. — In p. 50 of our last volume we pointed 
out the ingenuity of the armorial insignia of Birtwesill in punning, or 
canting, upon a hurt and a weasel ; and there added the remark that the 
family name was derived from Burdoswald in Cumberland. To the latter 
statement, however, we were misled by Lower, in his Patronymica Pritaii' 
nica. The true locality from which the family name originated is in the 
parish of Whalley in Lancashire ; and it occurs in many ancient charters 
as Bridtwisell and Briddetwisell. Its meaning is by no means certain, 
although the historian of Whalley, Dr. T. D. Whitaker, says, "The real 
sense of the word is, a boundary frequented by birds." {History of Whalley^ 
Third Edit. p. 271 ; Fourth edit. vol. ii. p. 58.) There are several other 
twisells; as Entwisell, which gave name to a family of long standing, and 
Extwistle, also in the Parish of Whalley, on the etymology of which 
Whitaker writes thus : " The most probable account which can be given of 
the formation of this word is, that, the first syllable being dropt, as in 
'twixt Poet, from betwixt^ in the haste and indistinctness of vulgar pro- 
nunciation, the same process afterwards took place as in the change from 
Saxon to Belgic, and that from Twixtle were formed Twistle, Twisle, or 
Twisel. Twistle, therefore, is a boundary, and Extwistle the boundary of 
oaks from ac, plur. acas, quercus. And it is remarkable that the two 
deep doughs which bound this domain, have, till some very late depre- 
dations, abounded with fine trees of the species to which it owes its name." 
{Hist, of Whalley, Third edit. p. 377-) Again, Dr. Whitaker, p. 165, 
asserts that Oswaldtwisle was " the boundary of Oswald." It is not how- 
ever at all clear that "twisell" meant a boundary. There are three 
Twisells in the county of Northumberland, one in the parish of Bam- 
borough, another in Norham, and the third in the parish of Morpeth : but 
it is remarkable that Hodgson, the historian of Northumberland, though 
fond of local etymology, does not seem to have hazarded an opinion on this 
word. In Halliwell's Dictionary we find " Tivissel^ a double fruit; also 
that part of a tree where the branches separate. Twistle. That part of a 
tree where the branches divide from the stock." Will these meanings, 
applied either to land or water, assist in describing the localities above 
mentioned, and the etymology of their respective names? As Whitaker 
mentions "two deep doughs" at Extwistle it seems possible that this 
hitherto unexplained local name meant a double or winding valley. 


The Belhaven Peerage.— In this case the Sheriff of Chancery in Edin- 
burgh lias pronounced the following interlocutor : 

Edinburgh^ ^rd February^ 1873. 

The Sheriff, in respect of the interlocutor of the Lords of Council and 
Session pronounced on the 20th day of July, 1872, and in terms of the in- 
structions therein contained : Finds it proved that the petitioner is the great- 
grandson and nearest and lawful heir of the body of James Hamilton, first 
proprietor of Stevenston, in the county of Lanark ; finds it also proved that 
James Hamilton, first of Stevenston, was the brother of William Hamilton, 
of Wishaw, who was the great-grandfather of the late Lord Belhaven and 
Stenton ; and that the petitioner is thus the nearest and lawful heir male 
whatsoever in general of the said Lord Belhaven and Stenton, as claimed 
in the petition ; and therefore serves and decerns in terms of the prayer of 
the said petition ; and finds no expenses due to or by either party. 

(Signed) John M'Laren. 

[The petitioner is Mr. James Hamilton, of Albany Street, Leith, recently 
clerk to a wine merchant.] 

Cox Pedigree. — In The Herald and Genealogist, vol. v. p. 86, C. J. R. 
says he shrewdly suspects that " Sir John Cox, Knight, a naval captain 
under Prince Rupert and the Duke of York, who was killed in one of the 
fights with the Dutch, is a very mythical hero." If, however, he will look 
at Thoresby's Leeds, page 23, Whitaker's edition, he will see that Mary 
daughter of" Sir John Cox, admiral, slain at sea 1672," was second wife of 
Robert Midgley of Leeds, who died 16 Oct. 1723, at. 70. She did not 
marry till after 1 706, and must have been able to tell Thoresby who her 
father was. The battle was, I suppose, Solebay, 28 May, 1672, where the 
Duke of York commanded the English Fleet. — C. B. N. 

Thomas Fairfax of York and Hull. — Who was Thomas Fairfax ? 
who at the time of his marriage in 1714 entered into a bond to secure to 
his wife lOOZ. per ann. a charge on the customs of Hull, and who was also 
seized of lands in the county and ainsty of York. And who was his wife ? 
He was party to indentures 1717 and 1728 with his wife and her trustees. 
Their only issue was a daughter Elizabeth, afterwards Mrs. Middleton, 
whose marriage license I have found in the Faculty Office: "16 Ocf 1759. 
David Middleton of the par. of St. Ja' Westminster, in the co. of Middx. 
widower and Eliz*^ Fairfax of the par. of S*. Neot's in the co. of Hunting- 
don spinster aged 30 years and upwards." She is described as Mrs. 
Middleton widow, when plaintiff to a chancery suit in 1760; and her 
husband was probably son of David Middleton, clerk of the peace for 
Westminster, who died Sept. 29, 1729.— W. N. 


To the Editor o/The Herald axd Genealogist. 

Sir, — Your very interesting bibliography of Watson's Memoirs of 
the Ancient Earls of Warren and Sni'ref/,^ was properly supplemented 
by some remarks on the high aims of ambition to which that sump- 
tuous work owed its origin, and by an explanation of the considerations 
both legal and genealogical which rendered those aims futile. You 
have shown that the boasted descent was vitiated by illegitimacy, and 
that a junior male line, even if perfectly pure in blood, could not have 
inherited a dignity which, according to the usage of the middle ages, 
was always liable to pass to a female heir, and which, in this instance, 
had actually so passed, in due course, to the Houses of Ai'undel, Mow- 
bray, and Howard; for the Earldom of WaiT'ni and the Earldom of 
Surrey were, after all, but one, — named in one case from the personal, 
and in the other from the local name. 

It now seems strange to us, by whom this condition incident to 
ancient dignities is better appreciated and recognised, that Sir George 
Warren and his abettors in the last century could be deceived by the 
presumptuous conclusions they so confidently cherished. 

Again, when the armorial coat of the Warrens of Poynton is con- 
sidered, with its " canton of Neirfoixl,'"' we wonder how any one could 
entertain a doubt of their descent from the last Earl's comiKiigne of 
that name. 

I believe, however, that this apparent paradox is explained by the 
fact that the canton of Neirford had long ceased to be acknowledged 
for what it was, and to this point, as it appears to me, you have not 
devoted sufficient attention in your paper. In your cjuotation (vol. 
vii. p 216) from the Retrospective Review, it is directly asserted (by 
the Historian of South Yorkshire) that the distinction in the arms of 
the Warrens of Poynton was a lion rampant ermine, which was the 
arms of Neirford, and that such distinction was a coiToborative proof 
of their descent from the last Earl of Warren by his known mistress 
Maud de Neirford. 

To those who duly appreciate the testimony of our ancient armory, 
this aro'ument is at once convincing : but it is evident that it had not 


' Vol. VII. pp. ] 93.219. 


received the consideration it properly claimed from the previous eminent 
writers whom yon have quoted;^ and even the Historian of Cheshire, 
in the passages yon have extracted in p. 214 of vol. vii., as an expo- 
sition of the various genealogical alternatives for the descent of the 
Warrens of Poynton, fails entirely to bring it to view. 

As for Watson himself, and John Charles Brooke, it was their game 
(as the phrase is) to take the canton to be a canton of Mowbray, and 
consequently to set forth, in some way or another, a descent from 
Mowbray whereby it might be shown to have that meaning. 

In truth, the armorial element played a very great part in this 
memorable controversy; and, knowing your desire to revive a due 
respect to armorial evidence, because nothing is really more impor- 
tant in historical investigations in which genealogy is concerned, I 
would invite the attention of yourself and your readers to this re- 
markable feature of the qaestion involved in the claims put forward on 
behalf of Sir George Warren of Poynton, and his satelKte Sir John 
Borlase Warren of Stapleford. 

Originally, we may be sure, there was no shame felt by the lord of 
Poynton in acknowledging himself to be the son of Maud de Nereford, 
whose paternal coat he so prominently displayed on his shield. On 
the contrary, it would rather be his boast that he was a Bastard of 
Warren, considering how great a personage the Earl of Warren was. 
Such birth was then neither concealed, nor in low estimation ; and not 
only then, but for many subsequent generations, it was the well-known 
practice, both in England and on the continent, for persons of similar 
birth to be designated as the Bastards of Burgundy, of Clarence, of 
Falconbridge, &c. &c. It is evident then that by the canton of Ner- 
ford the parentage of Sir John de Warren was unreservedly admitted. 

But it is also apparent how the meaning of the canton was lost, and 
how easily it came to be misinterpreted, The coat of Nereford 
differed very little indeed from that of Mowbray. The field of both 

' Earlier in the last century, however, it was perfectly well known to Blomefield 
the historian of Norfolk, who, under Boton (folio edit. 1769, iii. 604), states distinctly 
that Maud de Nerford " was concuhine to William Earl Warren, and had by him 
these two sons, who took the name of Warren, the Earl having no legitimate issue ; 
and Sir Edward Warren, knt. had the manor here :" adding, in a note, that "He 
(Sir Edward) and his descendants bare Earl Warren's arms, and Nerford 's in a 
canton, to shew his extraction from the Earl Warren and Maud Nerford," Blome- 
field notices the arms of Warren " with the canton of Nerford," in the churches both 
of Boton and Skeyton, though in the former ease he inadvertently terms the lion 
" argent " instead of ermine. 


was gules, and the charge of both a lion rampant : the lion of Mow- 
bray being argent, and that of Hereford ermine. If drawn on a small 
scale, the ermine spots would be very slightly visible. And yet even 
Watson himself (vol. ii. pp. 09, 93) admits that they were visible upon 
a seal of 8ir John de Warren, — for he does not deny that there was 
such a person, the natural son of Maud de Nerford the concubine of 
the last Earl.i 

This seal is described as having been appendant to a charter dated 
11 Edw. III. in which the grantor styled himself, Ego Johannes de 
Warenna miles, ac filius [nobilis viri D'ni] Johannis de Warenna 
Comitis Surr. [et Sussex.] dedi Henrico de Chessham civi London, 
terras in burgo de Dorchester. Carta dat. A^ xj Regis Edri. tertij. 
(Vincent's Miscellanea, B. 2 in Coll. Arm. fol. 76 b — not 77 b, as 
Ijrinted by Watson.) The tricking there given I have lately examined, 
and the lion is clearly covered with ermine spots. I also supply from 
the same authority the additional words within [ ]. 

At p. 103, Watson describes another seal of Sir John Warren, pro- 
bably a son or grandson of the former, but now placed in the author's 
genealogical deduction of the Warrens of Poynton, viz. one attached 
to a deed dated 4 Rich. II. Cheeky, in a canton a lion rampant, " which 
proves " (he adds) " the anticjuity of the arms borne at this day by the 
family." For this he quotes the Harleian MS. 2131, and I there 
find a copy of the document at f. 146, which is stated (by Randle 
Holmes) to have been " Sealed in red wax wherein is printed the 
Amies of Mr. Warren of Poynton, Checkie with a Canton wherein is 
a lion rampant." Here the ermine spots are not recognised. 

» At p. 67 of his vol. ii. Watson says, '' The children he had by Maud de Nerford 
were John de Warren and Thomas de Warren, and by her, or some other concubine, 
he had William de Warren, Joan, Catherine, and Isabel. The doubt here expressed 
concerning this William arises from his not being mentioned in the deed of entail 10 
Edw. II. with the above John and Thomas." [This document will be found in 
AVatson's book, ii. 14.] 

AVatson (or rather J. C= Brooke) proceeds, in the same place, to give the armorial 
distinctions of the three bastard sons : — " William bore for his coat armour Cheeky or 
add az. a chief argent. Miscellanea MS. B. 2 [f. 78]. 

John sealed with Cheeky, in a canton a lion rampant ermine (as more fully dis- 
cussed above). 

The difference of Thomas is less distinctly stated, and on less reliable authority. 
" I have seen in an ancient MS. the arms of a Sir Thomas AVarren, viz., Chechy or 
and azure within a hordure ingrailed sahle. A pedigree belonging to Sir John Bor- 
lase AVarren, Bart, gives him Chechy or ayid azure, over cdl a sinister baton sable.'''' 
(p 70). 

F 2 


Another piece of armorial evidence advanced by Watson (p. 95) 
relates to the period of the siege of Calais in 1347. It appears that 
there was a Sir William Waryn serving on that occasion, who wonld be 
probably the bastard Sir William. He is said to have differenced his 
coat by a chief argent (as mentioned in the last note); but in the 
possession of Dore Norroy was a roll,i made by Glover about the year 
1587, in which the name of this Sir William was accompanied by a 
shield, Cheeky or and azure, on a canton gules a lion rampant argent. 
As, however, the arms on this roll were not contemporary, but rested 
on the authority of Glover only, we can only regard this item as the 
natural sequence of the more elaborate Elizabethan productions we 
have presently to describe. 

But before so doing it is necessary to take some notice of further 
armorial evidence alleged to have been derived from seals. At 
vol. ii. p. 106, at the end of the account of Nicholas de Warren of 
Poynton and Stockport, whose "death happened about 141.3," is this 
statement : — 

In the possession of Sir George Warren are two brass seals, on one of which are the 
arms of Warren (as already described) in the first quarter ; in the second and third, 
those of Stafford of Wickham ; and in the fourth, those of Stockport of Stockport. 
Inscrip. SIGIL NICOL WARREN DOM DE POYNTON. On the other, the 

And again, at p. Ill, it is said, at the end of the account of Sir 
Lawrence, son of Nicholas : — 

Sir George Warren has a brass seal with arms, as under the account of Nicholas 
de Warren, and this inscription — SiglHu lauratice toaren* 

Now, it is painful to question, not merely the judgment, but also 
the honesty, of any of the parties concerned in the production of the 
book ; but yet I do not hesitate to say that if those seals had been 
genuine ancient seals, Mr. J. C. Brooke would have recommended 
that engravings of their impressions should have been placed with the 
other seals that are represented in the plates. If Sir George Warren 
really possessed the seals of " brass " which are described in the 
passages now quoted, there is every reason to suspect that their fabri- 
cation was of late date, and that their workmanship would not have 

' Probably the same roll which was afterwards in the possession of James West, 
esq. and from wbicli Edward Rowe Mores printed in 1748. In his copy (p. 96) the 
name of Sir William Waren occurs as the captain of 4 knights, 15 esquires, 15 
archers, and 8 Welshmen— total 42. (I should like to learn where this roll is now 


borne a critical examination ; for certainly the quart erings described, 
alleged to have been common to them all, and also the legends, in 
which there is, on the other hand, an inconsistent yariety of form, are, 
to say the least, exceedingly suspicious. 

It seems that we may attribute to Lawrence Bostock, an ardent 
Cheshire genealogist in the reign of Elizabeth, the responsibility of 
awakening the contemporary squire of Poynton to the latent glories 
of his race. Lawrence Bostock was himself a cousin of the Warrens, 
and the pedigree which he composed displays his own descent as well 
as theirs. It is said to haye been completed in the month of August 
1576, and will be found in the College of Arms, stored by Vincent in 
his Collections for Cheshire (Vine. 120). 

When Gloyer went in visitation to Cheshire in 1580, he would be 
prepared with this amount of information;^ and on that occasion the 
squire of Poynton accepted his services to provide an authenticated 
Pedigree, which was subsequently preserved by the family, and no 
doubt regarded with all due confidence and veneration. 

Watson, at p. 8, sets forth its long title, shoy>dng that it was formed 
by Glover at the rec[uest of John Warren of Poynton esquire, after a 
scrutiny of the family archives, and signed by him and his superior 
officer, William Flower, Norroy, when they came in their visitation to 
the family mansion on the 18th September, 1580.'^ It is this pedi- 
gree which Watson follows, and deduces at length, in his subse- 
quent pages, from 83 to 137, — in the vignettes to which, throughout, 
the arms of Warren are of course engraved with the canton as if 
''' of Mowbray." 

But, notwithstanding the authority of a King and Herald of Arms, 
thus avouched under sign-manual, and left in the possession of the 
family, this pedigree was never entered, as of record, in the office of 
the College of Ai-ms. When Glover returned to his fellows in Lon- 
don, and the Visitation of Cheshire in 1580 was placed among the 
College books, 3 the Warren genealogy was made to commence thus 
(at p. 42) :— 

' There is no pedigree of Warren in the Visitation of Cheshire made in 1566. 

2 The rough draft is preserved, in mutilated and detached portions, in the Harl. 
MS. 2012. 

3 " The Visitation of Cheshire made by Robert Glover, Somerset Herauld and 
Marshal to WiU'm Flower, Norroy King of Amies, A" D"'' 15S0," which is bound in 
the volume lettered "Glover's Visitation of the North 15G9 and 1575," and marked 
with a cross-crosslet. 


Sir Edward AVarren, knight.=f=.. . . 

I [ '■ 1 

Edward AVarren.=pCicillie Eaton. John AYarren. William. 

40 E. 3. I 40 E. 3. 



Sir John AA^arren, knight, as appearetli=f Margaret, daughter and heir of John Staf- 
ford, of AA'igliam, knt., and to her second 
husband Jolm IMainwaringe. 

in his lestament A^ 1384, lyeth buried at 
Boton in com. Norff. 

At tlie subsequent Visitation of Ciiesliire, made by Sir William 
Diigdale in 1663, ^ it was considered sufficient to commence with tlie 
name of John Warren, esquire, of Stockport, who had appeared as 
head of the family at the previous Visitation of 1580. 

As the descent from Merford was really forgotten, or if not for- 
gotten purposely ignored, it is not surprising that in both the Visita- 
tions of 1580 and 1663 the canton was blasoned as gules, a lion 
ramjoant argent, and it follows as of course that in the list of Sheriffs 
of Cheshire given in King's Vale Royall 1656, and copied in Fuller's 
Worthies of England 1662, the like blason was published. 

But it was a very poor argument when Watson "further quoted 
(i. 84) as corroborative of the fact that '' the Warrens of Poynton 
have borne the white lion and not the ermine one," a grant which 
was made by Sir Richard St. George Clarenceux in the year 1634, 
to Richard Warren of London, supposed to be " branched out of that 
family," a^z. Cheeky or and azure, within a bordure gules, in a canton 
of the third a lion rampant argent : and for crest, an eagle's talon 
over a plume of four feathers alternately or and azure, issumg out of 
a ducal coronet of the first," (the difterence of this new coat from 
the accepted coat of Warren of Poynton consisting in the bordure 
alone,) for it appears that at the same time, and before, there were 
several other coats granted to the name of Warren,^ upon that bad 

' The office-copy of the Visitation of 1663 is marked D. 3, but in the gallery above 
stairs the original in Sir NA'illiam Dugdale's autograph is also preserved. In this 
latter, at p. 90, will be found the pedigree ©f AA^arren, taken at Macclesfield ("' Max- 
feild, 17" Sept. 1663"), and signed with the autograph of Ed. AVarren. 

2 There were several families of AVarren in Hertfordshire and in London, more 
than one of Avhich assumed to be descended from the AA'arrens of Poynton, and took 
such arms as I have indicated above. 

To John AVarren of London was granted in 1613 Cheeky or and azuie, on a canton 
ermine a lion rampant double-queued. Camden's Grants, in Morgan's Sphere of 
Genirij, ii. 118. 

AVarren of St. Alban's, and of Aldenham, co. Hertford, bore Cheeky or and azure, 
a canton gules bordered ermine, charged with a lion rampant or. (Harl. MS. 1504, 


principle wliich has done so mncli to impair the significance of 
English armory during its latter period, — I mean the practice of 
forming coats for new families out of the material of older coats that 

f, 62.) This is quoted by Watson, ii, 115, but with the strange error of stating that 
it was "settled by Camden, Claren. in 1634," althoug Camden had died in 1623* 
Watson also there states that " in a fine pedigree, on vellum, of the Napiers of Luton 
Hoo, by Segar, Garter," the quarterings of Warren, Eyton, Colevill, Stockport, and 
Stafford, — those of the Warrens of Poynton, were in 1 Charles I. allowed to Sir 
Robert Napier of Luton Hoo, Bart, in virtue of his descent from John Warren of 
St. Alban's : another gross example of the prostituted heraldry of that period. 

Edmondson, however, blasons " Warren of St. Alban's " somewhat differently, viz. 
Cheeky or and az. on a canton gu. a lion rampant ar. all within a bordure erm.; with 
the crest, a lion's jamb erased ar. grasping an eagle's leg erased at the thigh or (for 
even the Stanley badge must be pilfered, without the least pretence, by these manu- 
facturers of patchwork). 

At the Visitation of Hertfordshire in 1634 a gentleman named " Edward AVarren 
alias Waller " was living at Ashwell in the same county, and in the Visitation Book 
at the College of Arms (C. 28) there m-ay be seen his pedigree having his autograph 
signature Edtc. Warren alias Waller. He bore for his arms Cheeky, a bordure en- 
grailed sable, on a canton gules a lion double-queued ermine (differenced by a fleur 
de lis or). These arms had been displayed a few years before at the funeral of his 
brother '^ Henry Warren alias Waller of Ashwel, co. Hertford, Captayne of the 
Artillerie Garden, and one of the Captaynes of the Cittie of London,'* who died at 
his house in Watling Street, on the 27th Oct. 1631, and was buried at All Saints, 
Bread Street. (Funeral Certificate, I. 23.) 

Another Hertfordshire family of Warren bore Cheeky, on a canton three crowns 
within a bordure of Cornw^all, as (imperfectly) described by Clutterbuck, i. 509, from 
a monument at Tring, dated ] 640 : but perhaps this coat is to be identified with that 
in Edmondson, Warren, [London, and of V»\alterstaff in Devonshire] Ar. three 
mascles sa. betw. two bars counter-eompony or and az. on a canton of the second 
three ducal crowns or, all within a bordure ga. charged with eight bezants. — Crest, a 
greyhound sa, seizing a hare proper, Gr. March 14, 1623. 

At Tewin in Hertfordshire, on the monument of Richard Warren, said to have 
been " ortus Comitihus de Warrefi et Surrey, natus a.d. 1686, obiit 1768, April y^ 
2^," there occurs, Cheeky or and azure, on a canton gules a lion rampant £rgent, — 
the Poynton coat unvaried. (Clutterbuck, ii. 229.) 

Edmondson, in his Ordinary, says that Warren of Burgh Castle in Suffolk also 
bore the same coat undifferenced, with this crest. Out of a ducal coronet gu. a pyramid 
of leaves ar, (the panache crests are frequently turned into leaves instead of feathers.) 
This, I presume, was the family of the celebrated Richard Warren, M.D. physician to 
King George the Third, who was born at Cavendish in that county in 1731, the third 
son of Dr. Richard Warren, Archdeacon of Suffolk, and died in 1797. 

There are many more coats for the name of Warren, which may be seen in the 
Ordinaries of Edmondson and Burke. Most of them have som.ething to do with 
Chechy, which the heralds seem to have taken as the recognised heraldic symbol for 
the name; but I will only add one more, which is ascribed to a " AVarren of London," 


have belonged to former families of the same name, Tvithoiit any real 
or probable descent or connection. Among the numerous coats thus 
fabricated for the name of Warren, we find, as of course, even the 
ermine spots of Nerford in some measure introduced, as well as 
every other charge or tincture of the ancient arms. The grant made 
in 1634 is of no further authority than any other of the class now 

In 1687 William Davenport, son and heir of William Davenport 
of Bramall, near Stockport, esq. married Margaret second daughter of 
John Warren, esq. of Poynton, Judge of Chester, ^ by Anne daughter 
and heiress of Hugh Cooper, esq. of Chorley. Cooper bore Argent, a 
bend engrailed between two lions rampant sable ; on an escucheon 
at Bramall three plates were charged on the bend; and we are told by 
Watson (ii. 151) that on the same escucheon Warren was merely 
Cheeky or and azure, ivithout the canton and lion. So that at this 
time, it would seem, the canton was near vanishing altogether. 

In the practical mind of the Judge of Chester there was probably 
no over-weening estimate of the position of his family among the 
ancient houses of Cheshire. Indeed he, or his son Edward, left that 
county for Lancashire, and Dr. Stukeley ^ speaks of the latter as 
" Mr. Warren of Dinkley," near Preston, noticing his regard for the 
Eoman antiquities of Ribchester. So completely had he deserted 
Pojnton, that in his will dated at Chorley Oct. 10, 1717, he desired 
to be buried either at Stockport or in the Talbot chapel at Blackburn,^ 
— in the vault of his wife's ancestors. Altogether, we need not ima- 
gine that the " Warrens of Poynton " entertained more than a vague 
impression, or tradition, that they were in some way descended from 

— Gules, a lion rampant argent, a chief cheeky or and azure. Crest, a dragon's head 
couped gules. This, it will be observed, is another hash of the ingredients furnished 
by Warren of Poynton ; although in ancient days it would have stood for Mowhrayt 
with a chief of M'arreJi, and been pregnant with some true genealogical import. 

None of the Warrens, so far as I find, have condescended to bear conies, or rabbits, 
in allusion to their name ; but John Earl of Warren and Surrey (ob. 1347) on the 
reverse of his great seal engraved in Watson's Plates, did not disdain this emblem. 
The conies are there running in and out of their holes, surrounded by deer and swans 
and various birds indicative of the sports of the field : forming a view not only of a 
warren but of an ancient park and all its accompaniments that might have been a 
worthy embellishment of Mr, Evelyn P. Shirley's interesting volume on Deer 
Parks . 

' See pp. 282, 363 of our last volume. (Edit. II. d- 0.) 

'^ Itinerarium Curiosum,p. 36. 

•■' SVatPon, ii. ] 57. 


tlie old Earls of Warren, ^Yitho^t deriving from that tradition anj'- 
aspirations to the j^eerage, nntil tlie middle of the last century. 

It Avas in 1761 when George Warren esquire, then the squire of 
Povnton, was nominated for one of the Knights of the Bath to he 
made at the coronation of King George the Third, that he was especially 
reminded of his ancestral claims, whether real or imaginary. As a 
Knight of that Most Honourable Order he became entitled to have 
Supporters assigned to his arms: and he prayed that they should be 
wyverns, alleging in his letter addressed on the occasion to the Deputy 
Earl Marshal that he " claimed to be lineally descended from the 
family of Warren who were ancient Earls of Warren, and who bore for 
their supporters two wyverns argent, the inside of their wings cheeky 
or and azure, as appears by the records of the College of Arms." The 
handsome engraving of the atchievement of Sir George Warren, 
Knight of the Bath, which forms a plate in Watson's book, shows 
these Supporters accordingly. 

In the foregoing assertion thfit '' the ancient Earls of Warren bore 
for their supporters two wyverns," Sir George Warren is not to be 
justilied, except so far as the expression may have been put into his 
mouth by bad professional advice. We now know very well that the 
ancient Earls of Warren had never displayed " two supporters," for 
the plain reason that in their days supporters were not yet invented. 
The foundation of Sir George Warren's statement (as we shall see 
hereafter) is a drawing, not earlier than the Tador period, in which, 
according to the picturescjue pattern of that time, a single wyvern is 
drawn sejant, as the tenant of a banner of Warren. 

But, besides, the like wyvern, seated on a chapeau, was deemed 
to be the ancient Crest of Warren. Watson (vol. i. p. 13) cites for 
this the following statement of Laurence Bostock : 

William Earl Warren and Surrey bore on his shield cheeky or and azure ; on the 
crest of his helmet a chappeau gules turned up ermine, on which is a weever passant 
argent, the wings cheeky or and azure volant, the sight of the helmet opened, man^p 
teled or and azure. In this order it was set out in the glass windows of the Duke of 
Norfolk's house near London called the Charterhouse, where I, L. de B., took this 
trick or note, July 17, 1575. (Harl. MS. 2074.) 

The same crest is also drawn in the MS. Coll. Arm. Vincent 152, 
p. 75, and thence engraved in Watson's book, i. 13, Which Earl 
was meant by Bostock he does not say; but it may be presumed that 
he meant the Earl who died in 1240, about which time such wyverns 


were not uncommon as crests, tlioiigli^ none of the seals of the Earls 
of Warren represented in Watson's book exhibit an example. 

Lawrence Bostock, then, suggested that a wyvern with cheeky 
wings was the true and original crest of Warren ; and, backed by the 
official authority of Flower and Glover, it was adopted by the family of 
Warren of Poynton. Yet, at some later date, they must have re- 
sumed the crest derived from their marriage with Stanley of Latham, 
for Sir George Warren himself continued to use it, even when Wat- 
son's book was written, and in the handsome plate of his atchievement 
there, engraved by Basire, and already mentioned, he is content to 
display it, whilst '' Sir John Borlase Warren of Stapleford, Baronet," 
had already possessed himself of the wyvern, as shown in the cor- 
responding plate of his atchievement. 

The peculiar crest of the Warrens of Poynton ^ is described in the 
pedigree made by Flower and Glover as " a grype's foot silver in a 
bush of ostrich feathers, in a crown of gold." It is perfectly ob\dous 
whence the grype's or eagle's foot was derived. John Warren esquire 
of Poynton 3 (ob. 1431,) in the 10th Hen. Y. (1422) married Isabel 

* As on the reverse of the seal of Roger de Quiney, Earl of Winchester (used in 
1250) , where he appears on foot combating the lion of Scotland as the Constable of 
that kingdom. (Yetusta Monumenta, vol. iii. fol. xxviii. fig. 3 ; Laing's Ancient 
Scottish Seals, pi. ii.) 

'^ In Watson's book are two portraits of Sir George Warren's lineal ancestors — and 
it is remarkable that among the many plates they are the only portraits in the work. 
The originals of both were not at Poynton, but at Bramall. One represents John 
Warren, esquire, at the age of 40, in 1580 ; the other his son Sir Edward Warren, 
who died in 1609. Each picture has at the upper corner a shield of arms, alike in 
a quarterly arrangement of the five coats of Warren, Eton, Colvile, Stockport, and 
Stafford; but the father's picture has the crest of feathers and eagle's foot, and the 
son's that of the wyvern ; "which shows (remarks Watson, ii. 143) that the family 
have varied this at their pleasure, using either of them as their fancy directed." In 
accordance with this notion, the vignette above Mr. Watson's Dedication of his book 
to Sir George Warren has the wyvern crest. It seems, however, not improbable that 
the wyvern crest was really adopted between the dates of these two portraits, at the 
suggestion of Laurence Bostock, already named. 

^ Watson and J. C. Brooke make the following statement (vol. ii. p. 137) regard- 
ing the crest of Warren of Poynton : " In the pedigree of the family by Flower and 
Glover it is said that this John Warren bore on his healme a grype^s fole silver hi a 
hush of ostriche feathers, in, a crown of gold, the same as was used by Sir John 
Warren who was knighted in 1487, [grandson of John Warren and Isabel Stanley,] 
as I find in a MS. list of arms for Cheshire, written before the said John Warren was 
knighted (which MS. was bought of the widow of March King of Arms by Garter 
6 Hen. VII.) and belonging in 1583 to Robert Cooke Clarencieux, at present to John 


Btauley, daughter of Sir Joliii Stanley ^ of Latham, and there is no 
cognisance of the days of old better known than the eagle's foot of the 
Stanleys and Lathams. - Now, what had been used as the crest of 
Warren was a coronet and panache of feathers, such as .was borne by 
many families before crests became appropriated to particular persons 
and families, and among others by Mortimer ; -^ and it will be remem- 
bered that Watson in his book (vol. i. p. 18) compares these two 
jKuiache crests of Mortimer and Warren, and even seems to consider 
that they tend to confirm the common origin attributed by Camden 
and others to the two families. This subject has been discussed by 
Mr. Planche, Somerset Herald, in a paper '' On the Genealogy and 
Armorial Bearings of the Family of Mortimer," in the Journal of the 
British Archceological Association, March, 1868. 

A memorandum I have observed in the Harl. MS. 2012, f. 40 b, 
shows further how the crest of Warren of Poynton gradually settled 
down into its later form. It is there drawn as a plume of five feathers 
Avithin a coronet, and above the plume* the eagle's foot : the coronet 

Arden of Stockport, esq. In Vincent's Cheshire in the Heralds' office the family 
crest is a griffin'' s (or eagle's) taloii or, in a hiish of ostrich feathers 'proper^ iss%iin(/ 
out of a ducal coronet of the first. In the same office is the original from whence Flower 
and Glover entered their pedigree of the Warrens [this refers to the MS. Vincent 
120], and the swan feathers are therein said to be the crest of the Earls of Warren, 
and the ostrich ones with eagle's talon that of Warren of Poynton. I have also seen, 
about this time [reg. Eliz.] the wivern for crest on the seals of this family, which is 
still used. These {sic), as well as the arms, are evidently borrowed from the Earls of 
Warren, and show the connection of Sir George Warren with that ancient noble 
family." On this statement it is obvious to remark : 1, that the distinction drawn 
between swan and ostrich feathers is imaginary and pure trifling ; 2, that the plume of 
feathers, ov 'panaclie, in every instance, is, as the wyvern had been in earlier times, a 
general, not a peculiar or family crest, noLwithstanding that Watson elsewhere (vol. i. 
p. 18) compares it with the panache, or what he terms the crest, of Mortimer; 3, that 
the grype's or eagle's foot was, as I have already said, derived from the marriage 
of a Warren of Poynton with Stanley of Latham; and 4, that the wyvern. though 
" evidently borrowed" from the glass in the Charterhouse or some other old represen-- 
tation of it, had as evidently not descended by hereditary succession, but was what 
might be termed a revival from the antique. 

' Styled " Knight of the garter," by Watson, ii. 112: from confusing him with his 
father of the same name, who was K.G. (ob. 1414.) 

^ There is a paper upon this Cognisance by Mr. Planchei the present Somerset 
hei-ald in the Vlth volume of the Journal of the Archaeological Association. 

^ See the seal of Edmund Mortimer Earl of March engraved in our vol. iv, p. 411, 
where his shield is supported by two lions sejant, their heads covered with helmets 
surmounted by coronets and tall plumes of feathers. — (Edit. H. tb G.) 

"* The word "over" in the grant of 16-34 before quoted had no doubt the same 


Allies, the feathers aro-ent. The memorandnm is this : " son Crest ov 
le Badge in som scales :" that is to say, that a seal or seals had been 
found in which the Badge of the eagle's foot accompanied the Crest of 
the feathers. Subsequently, the eagle's foot was set down a7nidst the 
" bush " of feathers, instead of being placed above them- 

Now allow me to pursue, if I am not too tedious, the coat-armour of 
the Warrens of Stapleford. Sir John Borlase Warren ^ was 
exceedingly anxious, in every way, to establish the belief of his pre- 
sumed consanguinity to the Warrens of Poynton, and in armorial 
matters he may be observed to conform himself, as far as possible, to 
their models. 

Your note at p. 209 of vol. vii. has already shown that his family were 
originally Warings, and though this at ii. 118 of Watson is merely 
spoken of parenthetically as a " mistake " of Thoroton the historian of 
Nottinghamshire, you have given substantial proof that such was really 
the fact ; and shewn that these Warings bore the totally different coat 
of Azi(7'e, a chevron heticeen three lions jiassant or. 

It is stated by Watson, ii. 117, that William Warren (or Waring) 
having purchased the manor of Thor^o Arnold in Leicestershire about 
the year 1526, removed to that place from Cortliiigstock (or Costock) 
in Nottinghamshire. He either rebuilt or much enlarged the manor- 
house at Thorpe Arnold, and it is affirmed that " the arms of the 
Warrens of Poynton were both carved and painted in this new build- 
ing ; the same also appears on the seals of old deeds, marriage settle- 
ments, e%c. yet remaining in the family." (p. 118.) One should have 
had greater confidence in these assertions, had they been less general, 
and at all exemplified.^ However, again we are told that '^ On the 

meaning which I now express by the word above. It might afterwards be understood 
as meaning upon (viewing tlie crest as in a drawing or picture), and so the leg was 
placed amidst the feathers. 

■ The Buckinghamshire family of Borlace from which Sir John Borlase Warren 
was descended had usually written their name Borlace, and that is the orthography in 
the printed text of AVatson's book. Sir John appears, however, to have preferred 
Borlase, and in his pedigree engraved on copper-plate, and the accompanying plate of 
his armorial atchievement, both dated 1785, he is named Sir John Borlase Warren. 

2 Nothing relating to the manor-house of Thorpe Ernald occurs in Nichols's History 
of Leicestershire, nor any armorial or other memorials of the Warings in his account 
of the church; but they are called Waring only, from William above-mentioned, who 
died in 1541, until they sold the lordship in 1640 (vol. ii. pp. 368, 369). It is added, 
that from Ai-thur Waring, who soon after settled at Stapleford in Nottinghamshire, 
" is descended the present gallant naval officer Sir John Borlase Warren, who was 
froatod a I'nrr.nft in 1775. nnd lionoiirod with tlio nvdor nf tlK^ Rath in 17P1.'* 


enlargement of tlie mimor house at Stapleford the arms of the Warrens 
of Poynton were painted and carved there, as they had been at Thorp 
Arnold." (p. 120). 

Bat it appears from a painter's workbook, now preserved in the 
College of Arms, that the arms used in 1697 at the funeral of Arthur 
Warren, esq. of Stapleford, who had m.arried Anne, sister and coheir 
of Sir John Borlace, bart., were materially differenced from those of 
the Poynton family. They ai-e drawn — Cheeky or and azure, a bor- 
dure sable, on a canton gules a lion rampant double-queued argent,^ 
impaling, (for Borlace), Ermine, on a bend sable two hands and arms 
issuant out of clouds proper, rending a horse-shoe or ; " an atcliieve- 
ment for Mr. ChancUess'^ (probably the undertaker). H. G Coll. Arm. 
fol. 91. 

This coat diifered from that of the Poynton family, both in the added 
bordure and in the double tail given to the lion ; and it will not be 
improper to affirm that it no more indicated real descent from the 
ancient Warrens than did any other of the coats of the 16th and 
17th centuries which I have already noticed as having been allowed 
to various other families of the name. 

Sir John Borlase Warren was born on the 2nd September, 1753, 
and returned to parliament for the borough of Great Marlow at the 
general election of 1774, shortly before he came of age. It is not 
surprising that being in that position he had sufficient influence to 
claim the same rank which had been held by the ancestors from whom 
he derived his baptismal names, and that consequently before another 
year had elapsed he was created a Baronet, by patent ^ dated May 20, 

Sir John Borlase Warren assumed supporters some years before he 
became a Knight of the Bath : and in order to do this with authority 
he appears to have repaired to the Lyon Office at Edinburgh, where 
his arms were registered in the year 1780 in the following terms : 
1. and 4. Checkie or and azure, for Warren, m a canton gules a Jioiv 
rampant argent, for Mouhra}j{^sic)\ 2. and 3. Borlace. Crest, a wyvern 
argent, with expanded wings, the insides of which are checkie argent 
and azure, on a chapeau gules turned up ermine. Supporters, two 
wyvern s with wings expanded argent, each holding a banner of the 

1 The same document was the authority for the statement before made on this 
point in the note at p. 209 of vol. vii., but there the canton was too hastily ac- 
cepted as '• the canton of Neirford." 

- His engraved pedigree in AVatson's book gives the date as May 20, the Baronet- 
age as June 1, 1775. 


ancient arms of Warren, viz. : Clieckie or and azure. Thus he 
followed very closely the example of Sir George Warren, merely 
distinguishing his shield by the quartering of Borlace, and his sup- 
porters by the additional banner held in their paws.^ With respect 
to the wyvern crest I shall have more to say presently. 

This atchievement, impaling the arms of Clavering (his wife) with 
the motto Leo de Juda est robur nostrum, is engraved at large in 
Watson's book, in a plate dated August 20, 1785. 

So, the large engravings, given as plates of Watson's book, for 
atchievements of Sir George Warren and Sir John Borlase Warren, 
display different Crests. Whilst Sir George continued to use the old 
crest of the Warrens of Poynton derived from their alliance with 
Stanley of Latham, Sir John had gone a step beyond, and adopted 
the wyvern which Laurence Bostock had assumed to be the ancient 
crest of the Earls of Warren. 

But, as Sir John Borlase Warren was anxious to conform, in this 
particular as in his other armorial insignia, to the usage of the pre- 
sumed Head of his family, we find him subsequently eagerly claiming 
the old crest of Warren of Poynton, on the ground that it had been 
used at the funeral of his great-grandfather in 1697. 

It must have been a matter of especial gratification to Sir John 
Borlase Warren when, in 1794, he found himself following the steps 
of his putative cousin Sir George Warren as a member of the Order 
of the Bath. This honour was conferred upon him in recognition of 
his services as a naval officer. He thus became more strictly entitled, 
according to the usage of England, to the distinction of Supporters; 
but it was not until the year 1802, when he received a dij)lomatic 
mission to Eussia, and was on that occasion sworn a Privy Councillor, 
that his armorial insignia were finally settled at the College of Arms. 
There was previously, as I have heard, a long correspondence with Sir 
Isaac Heard regarding them. On the 7th of May in that year his 
arms were registered as already described, altogether like those of the 

' This was evidently adopted from the drawing in Vincent 152, Coll. Arm, p. 97, 
where such a wyvern is shown tenant a banner of Warren (as engraved in Watson's 
plate, vol. i. p. 13). It did not occur to Sir John Borlase Warren that the beasts of 
ancient armory were never required to bear shields and banners both at one time : 
but modern heralds have put this double duty upon them in other instances ; see the 
arms of the Marquess of Ailesbury, Lord Viscount Hardinge, &c. and particularly the 
sinister supporter of the Earl of Clancarty, — a stag, which though constrained to 
observe a guardant posture, yet in that stiff and non-natural attitude has to shoulder 
*' bend- wise " a banner of Le Poer, 


Warrens of Poynton, but with this minute addition, that a goklen 
crescent was placed between the paws of the lion: and the same coat 
was at that time granted to the descendants of his father John Borlase 
Warren. The supporters were admitted as he had borne them already, 
with their banners; but the crest was a matter of greater difficulty. 
At first it was directed to be as follows : an Eastern crown, between 
the rays two oak-leaves or, issuant therefrom a double plume of 
ostrich feathers proper, in the centre an eagle's leg inverted sable. 

But Sir John was not contented with this crest : and after a hard 
struggle he succeeded in procuring, on the 5tli August following, a 
fresh grant, which, upon the plea that his family had for more than a 
century past borne for crest a plume of ostrich feathers with an eagle's 
leg inverted out of a ducal coronet, and which he wished to use, but 
not finding the same registered to his family in the College of Arms, 
and it being cujainst the rules of office to grant ducal coronets,^ still, it 
appearing by a painter's work-book 2 that the said Crest was used at 
the funeral of Arthur Warren the great-grandfather of the petitioner 
in Nov. 1697, — thereupon the coveted distinction was exemplified to 
the claimant, viz. Out of a ducal coronet or a double plume of ostrich 
feathers argent, in the centre an eagle's leg inverted sable. 

Sir John Borlase Warren died a full Admiral in the year 1822. 
Whatever may have been his professional and personal talents,^ it is 
clear that as iTgards his ancestral claims in the Warren line, he was 
merely a pretender ; yet his substantial success in most respects is 
remarkable, for he was cordially accepted by Sir George Warren of 

^ The heralds objected to grant chical coronets properly enough, but they should 
have objected altogether to the term " ducal coronets," which had itself originated 
entirely from misapprehension. Crests arising from ornamental collars or circlets of 
metal had been used from very early times, before even any special coronets had been 
assigned to Dukes or any other grade of the peerage: but there was no sensible reason 
for terming them ducal coronets. Though this term is still by no means abandoned, 
the more suitable term of crest-coronet has recently in many cases been adopted. It- 
is ruled also that a crest-coronet should have three leaves only, whilst a Duke's 
coronet has five. 

^ i. e, the same before cited : but the crest is there drawn thus : In a coronet four 
feathers (only, — ranged in one row,) alternately or and azure, and ahote them the 
inverted eagle's foot. (H. 6, f. 91.) 

^ There is a memoir of Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren in The Anmial Bio- 
graphy and Obitiiari/, 1823, vol. vii. ]ip. 144-158. Its genealogical passages are 
brief; as to the Warrens the only remark is that " Sir John was related to the family 
in Cheshire, and descended from the ancient Earls of Warenne, belonging to the 
Plantasenet family." 


Poynton as a cousin, he was accepted by the historian of the family, 
and ultimately he at as accepted, as regards his armorial bearings, by 
both the established authorities of Scotland and England. 

It is evident that he materially abetted Sir George Warren in his 
visionary pursuit of the highest ancestral honours His policy was 
such as he may be supposed to have found recommended, in a metaphor 
not unsuited to his professional ideas, by the lines of Pope : — 

So let my faithful bark attendant sail, 
Pursue the triumph, and partake the gale ! 

and he followed this course with true sailor-like pertinacity and cor- 
respondent success. 

Yet a striking comment upon the vanity of all human wishes, in 
these matters, may be made on the eventual result, that Sir George 
and Sir John Borlase Warren, each losing their only sons, both died 
at last without heirs male, though both alike desiring that the great 
name of Warren should be adopted by their testamentary heirs. But 
these particulars you have already noticed in p. 209 of your previous 

Yours, &c. N. H. S. 



My last paper on the Gary family ^ shewed that in the division 
of his Devonshire estates Robert Gary bestowed his mansion and 
manor of Gockington on Thomas, the second son of his first 

George, the eldest of the many children of Thomas Gary, 
succeeded at the age of 26 to an estate already augmented by the 
prudence of his father, and destined to be largely enriched in 
the course of his own more distinguished and prosperous career. 
Prince gives him a prominent place amongst his Worthies of 
Devon, and as the most eminent member of the Devonshire 
branch of the Carys, his life undoubtedly affords rich materials 
for the biographer. It must suffice here to refer to some of its 
main facts which escaped the notice of Prince. 

George Gary found a richly endowed wife of his own age in 
Wilmot. the young heiress and sole eventual representative of a 
line of the Giffards, whose pedigree, unnoticed in the published 
histories of Devon, is found among the Gary papers, compiled 
with minute care and proved by complete evidence in the hand- 
writing of her husband. While yet a child of 14 the hand of 
Wilmot Giffard was bestowed on John Bury, esquire, of Gol- 
laton, Devon, but the marriage remained unconsummated for 
seven years, when proceedings for its dissolution were referred 
to the arbitrament of Lewis Pollard, esq. on behalf of Bury, and, 
on the lady's part, to Robert Gary of Glovelly, who had married 
her mother, Margaret, the widow of John Giffard of Yeo. Arch- 
bishop Parker signed the final sentence, and while both were 
yet imder 21, George and Wilmot Gary entered upon a more 
fortunate union of twenty years. Of the four children of this 
marriage only the eldest son, George, survived their mother, 
and he afterwards fell childless in the Irish wars. Meanwhile • 

* Herald and Genealogist (Part XXXI.), vol. VI. p. 7. 


George Gary, tlie father, had become intimately associated with 
some of the greatest men and especially with the eminent 
lawyers of the Elizabethan era. Sir William Cordell, the Master 
of the Rolls, names him in his will, dated 1580, as one of the 
trustees of the hospital he had founded at Long Melford in 
Suffolk ; and, in 1586, we find George Gary appointing as 
trustees of certain of his own manors Sir Francis Walsingham, 
Sir Edmund Anderson the Ghief Justice of the Gommon Pleas, 
William Peryam another Justice of the same Gourt, John 
Popham then Attorney- General, and Edward Drewe and John 
Hole esquires. Prince refers to Sir George Gary as a lord 
justice of Ireland, but the evidence of his having been a member 
of the legal profession is not absolutely conclusive. Be this as it 
may, it is clear that his talents were more prominently exercised 
in military and administrative than in legal affairs. In 1584-5 he 
is found in active correspondence with Walsingham as Com- 
missioner in charge of the defensive works at Dover Harbour in 
conjunction with the famous Sir Richard Grenville.^ Afterwards, 
as a Deputy Lieutenant of Devon, he was engaged in organizing 
the forces of his own county to resist the Spanish invasion. Here 
he remained till, in May 1588, the great Armada passed up 
channel beset by the nimbler vessels of Drake and Hawkins. In 
July, the Roebuck, one of the ships fitted out by Sir Walter 
Raleigh and commanded by Gaptain Jacob Whyddon, brought 
a Spanish prize into Torbay. Mv. Gary and Sir John Gilbert of 
Compton took charge of the captured vessel, and, forwarding its 
ordnance to the Queen^s navy, lodged the crew at their own 
heavy cost in the great barn of Torre Abbey, wdiich has ever 
since borne the name of the Spanish Barn. Late in the year 
1588 George Gary received at Plymouth tidings of the stranding 
in Hope Bay near Salcombe of the St. Peter the Great, one of the 
two hospital ships of the Spanish Navy.^ At the end of a rapid 
ride of twenty miles, his first care was to disperse the country 
folk, who were already busily plundering the wreck, and, having 
secured the prize in the Queen's name, he took order for the 
disposal of the crew and the recovery of the remnants of the 

' Domestic Ser'es of State Papers, 1581-90, vols. 203, 213, 215, 217. 
^ Domestic Series of State Papers, vol. 218. 


cargo. The ordnance was saved, but the plate and treasure had 
ah'eady fallen a prey to the wreckers, and the drugs and '^ potecary 
stuff ^' of 6,000 ducats' value were spoiled by water. Of the crew 
of 30 sailors, 100 soldiers, and 50 other persons, who had sailed in 
the St. Peter from Spain, 140 succeeded in reaching the land in 
safety. ■ Separating twenty officers from the rest, Mr. Gary left 
eight with Sir William Courtenay of Ilton Castle, and himself took 
charge of the crew including the surgeon and apothecary, assigning 
out of his private means an allowance of one penny per diem for 
each prisoner's subsistence until her Majesty's pleasure should be 
known. Then, leaving the further care of the matter to Anthony 
Ashle}^ the Clerk of the Council, who took up his quarters with 
• Sir William Courtenay, Mr. Cary retired to his home at Cocking- 
ton, whence, on the oth Nov. 1588, he dated his report of the 
proceedings to the Privy Council. 

It is not necessary to dwell on the facts recorded in Prince's 
Worthies respecting the part taken by Sir George Cary in the 
government of Ireland at one of the most stormy periods of that 
country's history, nor need we repeat what Prince has fully 
narrated of his charitable endowments for the relief of the 
Cockington poor; but may here note that his name first appears 
as a knight upon the Rolls of his Manor Courts in the latter 
part of the 40th Elizabeth.^ This tardy recognition of his services 
to the State probably coincided with the date of his appointment 
to office in the Irish government; for on the 1st March 1589 we 
find Chamberlain writing to Dudley Carleton that " Sir George 
Carie of Cockington (by Plymouth) is named to be Treasurer of 
Ireland in Sir Henry Wallop's place, but whether he be to my 
lord's [the Earl of Essex] liking, or no, I know not.^ The 
election of Sir George Cary by the Queen herself is evidenced 
by Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, in his True Remembrances con- 
taining the narrative of the events of his life to the year 1632, 
and in which he relates the circumstances leading to the displace- 
ment of Sir Henry Wallop from the treasurership.^ " There- 
upon she directed her speech to her lords in her council there 

^ According to Morgan's Sphere of Gentry, he was knighted in 1597. 
- Letters of John Chamberlain. Camd. Soc. Pub. 
^ Collinses Peerage, vii. 139. 



present, and commanded them presently to give her the names of 
six men out of which she might choose one to be Treasurer of 
Ireland; her election falling upon Sir George Gary of Gockington." 
After holding this post for about ten years Sir George Gary was 
advanced, on the accession of James I., to the higher dignity of 
Lord Deputy; but, after the lapse of a year, he surrendered the 
government of Ireland into the hands ofanother Devonshire worthy, 
Sir Arthur Ghichester, and retired to end his days at Gockington. 

In 1607-8 he contracted another marriage with Lettice, 
daughter of Kobert Rich, 1st Earl of Warwick, who, after his 
decease, was remarried to Sir Arthur Lake, Bart. Sir George's 
death is stated by Prince to have occurred 19 Feb. 1615, but he 
certainly survived two years later, for the Gourt Rolls of his 
Manors prove him to have been living between Nov. 1616 and 
April 1617, and it was not till Feb. 1617 that George Lord 
Garew was able to write to Sir Thomas Rowe, — " My olhi 
shakinge kinsman Sir George Gary, somtymes Lord Deputy of 
Irland, is dead, and his wife is now a riche widdow." ^ 

Sir George Gary was enabled to make large additions to the 
fair estate derived from his father and his first wife, and, at the 
time of his death, his rent-roll must have been one of the amplest 
in Devonshire. He purchased the Westhill estate in St. Mary 
Ghurch in 1578, and in 1595 he bought the manor of that name 
from the Fords of Bagtor. The manor of Goffinswell was sold 
to him by Sir Thomas Prideaux in 1606, that of Stokenham near 
Start Point by Thomas Amerideth in 1608. The barton of 
Stantor was acquired in 1610 by purchase from his neighbour and 
brother-in-law. Sir William Kirkham of Blagdon in Paignton. 

A large portion of these possessions, including the manor and 
mansion of Gockington, fell to the share of his namesake and 
adopted heir George, the youngest but one of the sons of his 
brother John Gary of Dudley, co. Stafford. 

This George Gary married Elizabeth, a daughter of the now 
ducal House of Seymour. The contents of a deed printed in the 
Appendix show that, in early life at least, George Gary displayed 
tendencies to extravagance, wliich excited his uncle's misgivings. 
He nevertheless handed down the Gockington estate, at his death 

* Letters of George Lord Carevv, (Camd. Soc.) p. 86. 


in 1643, to his eldest son and heir, the gallant but unfortunate 
Sir Henry Gary. 

On succeeding to the ancestral manors. Sir Henry served the 
office of Sheriff of Devon, and, having raised a regiment in 
defence of the monarchy, was knighted by Charles the First at 
Crediton in July 1644.^ When Fairfax captured Dartmouth 
in the following year, Sir Henry Gary, with his regiment and 
twelve guns, held the fort of Kings wear on the opposite side of 
the harbour. On the fall of the town and its castle. Sir Henry 
obtained favourable terms of surrender, and was permitted to 
march away under engagement not to appear again in arms against 
the Parliament." His pardon was accompanied by a heavy fine, 
and, on the final ruin of the royal cause, he found himself com- 
pelled to resign his manor of Gockington and other possessions, 
and subsequently to emigrate, with his motherless family, to 
Virginia. Here the researches of American genealogists, now 
earnestly directed to the subject, may succeed in tracing some of 
his descendants. Prince relates that, on his subsequent return 
to England, "he was reduced to great necessities; insomuch, 
before he died, which was near about the return of K. Gharles 11. 
he was obliged for his bread to the charity of well-disposed 
gentlemen." Prince adds that the younger brothers of Sir 
Henry became soldiers of fortune, and died, as he thinks, " be- 
yond sea, without issue.'' One of them, George, served as a 
captain of horse under his brother, and finally assisted in the 
restoration of monarchy. Prince supplies a more copious account 
of another brother, Kobert, a learned scholar and divine, who, 
having entered at Exeter Gollege, Oxford, in 1631, became B.A. 
in 1635, M.A. in 1638, and LL.D. in 1644.^ On returning 
fpom foreign travel he was presented by the Marquis of Hert- 
ford to the rectory of East Portlemouth, Devon. In the civil 
wars he had joined the Presbyterians, but expressed so warm an 
attachment to Charles II. at the Restoration, that he was made 
Archdeacon of Exeter. Ejected from that office in 1664, he 

' Symonds's Diary (Camel. Soc), p. 54. 

2 Sprigge, 165-177. Vicars, iv. 348-352. Rushworth, Pt. I. vol. i. 96-99. 
Whitelock's Memorials, 195. Oldmixon, 300. 

3 Wood's Athen. Oxon. ii. 625. 


retired to liis rectmy of Portlemoutli, where he died in 1668, 
leaving, as the result of his literary labours, a curious work, 
entitled Palceologia Chronica, a chronological account of Antient 
Time, in three parts: I. Didactical; II. Apodeictical ; III. Canon- 
ical Performed by Kobert Gary, D.LL. Devon. London: 
Printed by J. Darby, for Eichard Chiswell, at the Rose and 
Crown in St, Paul's Churchyard, mdclxxvii.^ 

Robert, the fourth son of Dr. Rol)ert Cary, succeeded to the 
vicarage of St. Gwennap in Cornwall, 17th August, 1680, and, 
resigning it in 1693 for the living of Sidbury in Devon, died 
there January ITOf. The destruction of the parish registers by 
fire about 20 years ago deprives us of the opportunity of learning 
from that source whether he married and left descendants. 

We return to the line of the Carys of Tor Abbey 
(Table IV.)? ^^^ sprung from the union of Sir Edward Cary of 
Stantor, the favourite nephew and principal secretary of the 
Lord Deputy, with Margaret Blackhurst. 

The later years of Sir Edward were sorely embittered by 
persecution at the hands of a puritanical government through 
his adoption of the Roman Catholic creed, which has ever since 
been firmly held by his descendants at Tor Abbey. At the age 
of 80, Sir Edward closed his harassed life at Stantor in 1654, 
and was buried in the chancel of Marldon church with his wife, 
who survived him but four days." 

Eight years after his father's death. Sir George Cary, then of 
Xewparke, co. Hants, purchased Tor Abbey from John Stowell, 
of the Inner Temple and of Bovey Tracy, co. Devon, and thus 
acquired the present mansion and demesne of the family adjoin- 
ing the manor of Cockington, which had been lost though the 
misfortunes of Sir Henry Cary, the gallant defender of Kings- 
wear Fort at Dartmouth against the victorious assault of Fairfax. 
Sir George had also espoused the cause of Charles the First, by 
whom he had been knighted at Greenwich on the 3rd July, 

Philos. Trans. No. 132, p. 808. 
2 The barton of Stantor, in the parish of Marldon, adjoins the manor of Cockington, 
and both now belong to C. H. Mallock, esq. whose ancestor, Rawling Mallock, suc- 
ceeded Sir Henry Cary in the ownership at the Commonwealth. The few existing 
remains of the ancient mansion at Stantor are converted into houses for cattle near 
the modern farm homestead. 


1632; but of the part he took in the civil strife little is known 
beyond the fact of his appointment on the 31st March, 1645, as 
one of the Commissioners to treat with Fairfax for the surrender 
of Exeter. Like his father, Sir George Gary suffered severely as 
a " Popish Eecusant," in the sequestration of his estate. His 
remains had rested for 'ten years in the family vault in Tormohun 
church when his widow witnessed the landing of William of 
Orange on the opposite side of Torbay. On the 7th Nov. 1688, 
the Prince despatched an officer with some troops to search Tor 
Abbey for arms, while he himself led forward his motley army 
to night quarters near Newton Abbot, where he was entertained 
at Ford House, then, as now, belonging to the ancient family of 
Goiirtenay. One who was present thus relates what took place 
at Tor Abbey at this time •} " Nor shall it be forgotten what 
was faithfully acted at this lady's house immediately on our 
arrival in Torbay. There were a priest and some others with 
him upon a watch tower, to discover what our fleet was, whether 
French or Dutch. At last they discovered the white flags on 
some of our men-of-war ; the ignorant priest concluded absolutely 
we were the French fleet, which with great impatience they had 
so long expected ; and, having laid up great provisions for their 
entertainment, the priest ordered all to the chapel to sing Te 
Deiim for the arrival of their supposed forces; but, being soon 
undeceived on our landing, we found the benefit of their pro- 
visions: and instead of vostre serviture, Monsieur ^ they were 
entertained with yeen, mynheer^ can you Dutch sprahen, upon 
which they all run away from the house but the lady and a few 
old servants." 

From the commencement of the last century the annals of the 
Gary family are of a more domestic character. At this date the 
flourishing watering-place, whose numberless villas crown the 
hills round about Tor Abbey, was represented by a few cottages 
with their little herb-gardens on the steep slopes, while beneath 
clustered the dwellings of fishermen, whose boats lay within the 
shelter of a rude pier which gave their hamlet its name of 
Torquay. The hospitalities of the Abbey were well maintained 
by Edward Gary, then a widower and the father of a young and 

' Harl. Misc. 


numerous family. In spite of the discouragement of the squire, 
Sam Isacke, son of the Chamberlain of Exeter, became a frequent 
guest, and managed to secure the affections of his eldest daughter. 
Designed for his father's profession of the law, Samuel inclined 
more to the sports of the field, and it was shrewdly suspected 
that he procured at the gaming-table the means of supplementing 
the moderate paternal allowance. Finding their affair was being 
canvassed by the gossips of the neighbourhood, the young people 
accomplished a secret marriage, and the bride immediately after 
resumed her accustomed place as the female liead of her father's 
establishment. He, still ignorant of the proceeding, left home a 
few weeks later to visit his neighbour and friend, the Lord 
Clifford of Ugbrooke. During his absence, a maid servant, 
groping her way down stairs in the gloom of a winter's morning, 
discovered that a back door, the way to which led through a 
cellar of the abbey, had been left open. Presently it was found 
that Mistress Anne's chamber was vacant, and in a window was 
stuck a letter addressed to her father. With this, a young 
farmer of the neighbourhood, John Jeffrey by name, was 
dispatched at once to Ugbrooke, where the parent read the 
brief explanation of the catastrophe in his daughter's handwriting, 
thus : — 

Sir, — The cause of my disobedience is Love, and therefore I hope 
you will pardon me, for I was some time since married to Mr. Isacke, 
and cannot in conscience tarry any longer from him. 

I am your dutiefuU daughter, 

Anne Isacke. 

The breach thus established with the lady's family was further 
embittered by law-siuts over money matters, and, four years 
after the marriage, we find the young couple depending for 
shelter and maintenance on the bounty of old jMr. Isacke, in his 
house at Exeter. 

George, the second son of Sir George Cary of Tor Abbey, 
lived in London. He was addressed by his brother Edward, in 
1704, at the Three Crowns in Drury Lane, and in 1728 he is 
found described as of St. Giles, Middlesex. Another brother, 
John, accompanied tlie Dowager Queen Katharine, widow of 
Charles the Second, to her native country in 1692, and, having 


married a Portuguese lady, and died in 1732 at Lisbon, left a 
family, of whose descendants nothing is known. 

George, the eldest son of Edward Gary, was fortunate in his 
marriage with Anne, the highly-gifted third daughter of Baron 
Glifford of Ghudleigh, but, leaving no issue, the family estates 
descended to George, the elder of the two sons of his brother 
William, a merchant of Dartmouth. The second son, Edward, 
married an heiress of the ancient house of Flemins: of Coniston 
and Rydal, after whose early death he purchased, in 1788, the 
Follaton estate by Totnes, which has ever since been tlie home 
of this branch of the Carys. Tor Abbey descended, as the pedi- 
gree tables will show, to its present possessor, Robert Shedden 
Sulyarde Gary, esq., under whose care the family estate has been 
greatly improved in value, extent, and importance. 

We have now followed down to its livinoj o-enerations what, in 
the absence of contrary evidence, is assumed to be the elder 
branch of the Carys. It remains for future contributions to these 
pages to throw light on the history of the families settled at 
Glovelly, and Woodstock, and, it may be, to discover that a 
premier line still exists in the descendants of the Garys of Gary, 
whose latest known records are found in the Pleralds' Visita- 
tion of 1620.1 

It should be stated in conclusion that such of the early parti- 
culars in the accompanying Pedigree as are not proved by the 
evidence cited in the Appendix, are mainly derived from an 
ancient document in the possession' of a member of the Gary 
familv, entitled " The Pedio-ree of the Ancient and Most Noble 
Family of Gary, originally of Gastle Gary, in the County of 
Somerset, from whom are sprung the several branches of Gary of 
Launceston, Cockington, Torr Abbey, and Glovelly, as also the 
R* Hon'^^^ the Earls of Dover and ]\Ionmouth, the present 
Viscount Falkland in Scotland, and the Barons of Hunsdon in 
Hertfordshire. Faithfully collected from the Books and Records 
of the College of Amies, and other Authentick Testimonies, and 
deduced down to this present year, 1701.^' 

To this Pedigree additions have been made from time to time, 
though somewhat incompletely, by members of the family through 
> See Table IT. of Pedigree, vol. VI. p. 29, 


whose hands it has passed. The labours of that precise and 
learned antiquary the late Rev. Dr. Oliver of Exeter, and the 
investigations of C. H. Mallock, Esq. of the Inner Temple, and 
the late Mr. Clarence ITojDper, have materially aided the present 
work. I desire also especially to acknowledge the ever ready 
and courteous assistance of the Kev. C. J, Eobinson, Yicar of 
^Norton Canon, and the facilities afforded by the clergy of the 
various parishes whose registers Jiave been examined. 

Egbert Dymond. 





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Monumental Inscriptions. 
On a Brass in the Floor of the Chancel of Tormohun Church, Devon.^ 

[Hie] tumnlatur Wilmota Gary uxor Georgii Gary 
[de G]ockingtoii Armigeri filia ex iixore heres 
[Joha]nnis GifFarde de Yeo Armigeri Qiia3 postqnam 
[filio]s duos filiasq' tres ex marito snscepit in 
[Dom]iiio obdormivit xxi die Junii, Anno d'ni 1581. 

F7'om a Slab on the Chancel Floor of Marldon Church, Devon. 
Sub hoc tinnnlo jacent Edwardus Gar^us, Anratorum Equitum in- 
signe Decns, et Uxor ejus Margeria, senile admodum Par, singulari 
Numinis favore, tarn in exitu, quam decursu vita3 donatum ; Gum 
enim annos ultra quinquaginta conjugali foedere traduxissent, octoge- 
nariam animam reddente Edwardo corripitur et morbo hand invite 
Margeria, ceditque mox consimili fato, superesse viro nescia. Sic 
uterque vixit, sic uterque moritur, difficile dixeiis num vivos magis 
coluerit Patria, an mortuos luxerit. Quid plura ? Hoc uno tantum 
infelices extitere quod infelicem Patriam sua morte reddidisse vi- 

Obiit uterque Anno Dom. 1654, ille 14 Junii, eetatis su£e 80 : ilia 
vero 19 ejusdem Junii, a^tatis suse 85. 

On a Tomb in the Chancel of Tormohun Church, Devon. 

Here lies buried the body of Sir George Gary, Kt., who died on 
the 27th of May, in the year of our Lord 1678. 

At Spanish Toiun, Jamaica. 

Colonel Theodore [Gary] one of the sons of [obliterated] Gocking- 
ton House [Devo] nshire, brother to Sir Henry Gary. A Judge. 
(Ai-ms : On a chev. 3 roses, in sinister chev. a mullet. No tinctures.) 
^Gent. Mag. Feb. 1864. 

On a fiat Marble Slab in the Chancel of Marystow, Devon. 

Here lyelh the Honorable Mary daughter of the Eight Honorable 

* An engraving of this fine brass is given in a paper contributed by W. R. Crabbe, 
esq. F.S.A., to the Transactions of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society. It 
represents Wilmote Gary and her three daughters in the costume of the period. The 
hands of all are joined in prayer. The inscription, Avhich was in black letter, and the 
effigies of two sons have been destroyed. Four shields of arms have the bearings of 
Gary, Brian, Hohvay, and Orchard, impaling Giffard and others. 


Edward Lord Chichester, Baron of Belfast, Viscount Carrickfcrgus, 
first wife of Thomas Wise, Esquire, of Sydenham, second of John 
Harris of Kadford, Esquire, and third of Sir Henry Gary, Knight. 
She died 27th May 1657.^ 

On Tablets in the Church of Stoic e St. Gahriel, Devon. 

William Gary,- ob. 1 Dec. 1750, a^t. 50. Dorothy his wife, 
daughter of James and Mary Rovv'e, ob. 13 Feb. 1746-7, cTt. 43. 

On a Gravestone in S. Nave Aisle of Exeter Cathedral. 

Here lieth the body of Gamilla Annabella GarxY, wife of Edward 
Gary, Esq. who departed this life January y"^ 27th, 1780, aged 25. 

On a Mural Tablet in Torrnohun Church. 

^ Near this place lies interred the body of George Gary, Esq, 
of Torr Abbey, in the county of Devon, who for his Religious and 
Charitable Dispositions was esteemed in Life and lamented in Death. 
He departed this life the 23rd day of September, in the year of our 
Lord 1758, in the 74th year of his age. This Monument was erected 
to his memory by his widow the Honorable Ann Gary, R.I.P. 

On a similar Tablet in the same Church. 

In the adjoining vault are the remains of Edward Gary of Fol- 
laton, Esq. who died 17th January, 1822, in his 87th year. 

On Mural Tablets in the Chapel at Tor Abbey. 

Sacred to the memory of George Gary, Esq. who departed this 
life 1st of December, 1805, aged 74; also of Cecilia his wife, who 
departed this life 30th of August, 1779, aged 33. As a tribute of 
duty, love and respect, from their affectionate son George Gary, Esq. 

On the walls of the same chapel there are also tablets inscribed to 
the memory of George Gary, Esq. who died 1828, his brother John 
and Sophia his wife; to Edward Gary of Follaton, who died ]816, 
and to Henry Eraser Loyat Gary. All these confirm the facts and 
dates given in the Pedigree. 

1 There is a fine portrait of this lady by Cornelius .Jansen in the old mansion of 
Sydenham, in Marystow, and an old couplet in the Tremayne family records 

" Thrice happy Mary 
Wise, Han-is, Gary." 

2 Styled Merchant in the Register of Burials. 



In Arlinytoii Church, Devon. 

PiiB memories Mari^ AxxNJ^ Chichester, coiijuyis sua% Johannes 
Palmer Chichester hoc niarmor moerens posuit, obiit olst die Octubris, 
anno millesimo Septingentesinio nonagesimo primo, aetatis decirao 
nono. Placita enim erat Deo anima illius ; propter lioc properavit 
ducere ilLam de medio iniqnitatis. De Lib. Sajy. cap. iv. 

Extracts from Parish Registers. 

St. Pancras, Middlesex. 

1762, April 6. The Honorable Mrs. Cary. 

Bradford, Devon. 

Robert Cary was baptized y° 15th day of May, 1572. 


Katherine Cary buried y^ 2*^ of July, 1581. 
Robert Carey, gen. buried y^ 22th of Aprill, 1610. 
Thomas Cary, buried the 27th of October, 1581. 

CocKiNGTON, Devon. 

1629. Richard Cary the sonne of Dudley Cary and Dorothy his 
wife was bap: the 8th of Beptemb: 

Bridgett Cary the daughter of George Cary, Esq. and Eliza his 
wife was bap: the 20 of January. 

1640. Grace, daughter of Henry and Amy Cary, Esq. was bap: 
the 17th of Ja: 1640. 

Edward, sonne of Henry and Amy Cary, Esq. was bap: the Uth of 
June 1642. 

ffrancis (sic) daughter of Robte and Anne Cary, gent, was bap: the 
20th of Septemb: 1642. 

Henry, sonne of Dudley and Anne Cary, gent, was bapt. the 26tli 
of July 1643. 

1643. Henry, sonne of Henry and Amy Cary, Esq. was bap: the 
26th of Septemb. 

Henry, sonne of Robte and Anne Cary, gent, was bapt: 14th of 
Octob. 1643. 

Mary, daughter of Robert and Anne Cary, was bap. the first of 
decemb. 1644. 


Anne, daughter of Dudley and Anne Caiy, was bap: tlie oOtli of 
March 1645. 

Lucius, Sonne of Robert and Anne Gary, was bap: the 28th of 
Decemb. 1645. 

Richard, sonne of Sir Henry and Dame Amy Gary, was borne the 
iith and bap: the 27th ApriJl 1646. 

Margarett, daughter of Robert and Anne Gary, was bap. the ord 
of decemb. 1646. 

Dudley, sonne of Dudley and Anne Gary, was bap: the 8th of Ja. 

Lucius, sonne of Robert and Anne Gary, was bap. the 6th of Janu. 

William, sonne of Dudley and Anne Gary, was bap. the 18th of 
March 1648. 

Rob^ sonne of Mr. Rob*^ and Anne Gary, was bap. 23 Sep. 1649. 

Hastings, sonne of S^' Henry and Dame Amy Gary, bap. 16th May 

Gertrude, daugh. of Rob' and Anne Gary, Esq., bap. 21 July 

ffrancis, daugh. of Dudley and Anne Gary, bap. 1 March 1652. 


1633. Wm. Gary, sonne of Dudley Gary, was buryed the 1 3th 

1634. Dorothy Gary, buryed lltli Septemb. 
ffrancis, sonne of S^' George Gary, buryed 23 March. 
Henry Gary, buryed the 8th of July 1641. 

George Gary, Esq., buryed the 23 of July 1643. 
Lucius Gary, buryed the 25 of June 1646. 
The Lady Amy Gary was buryed the 16th of June 1652, 
Anne Gary was buryed 24th of Octob. 1653. 



1688. Doctor Robert Gary, Rector of this P'sh, was buried on the 
19th of September 1688. (Afiidayit of burial in woollen only.) 

SiDcuRYj Devon. 

170-|. 12 Jan. Mr. Robert Qary, minister, buried. 

Ful man's JISS. penes Coll. Arm, 


ToRMOHUN, Devon. 

Eliz. y° Daughter of Edward Gary Esqr. was borne y^ 26th of 
February 1704.1 


Edward Meynell and Dorothy Gary, by licence 15 July 1764. 

John Palmer Chichester of Arlington, Devon, Esq., and Mary 
Gary of this parish, spinster, by licence 8 June 1 790. 

Henry Stonor of San Lucar in Spain, bachelor, and Frances Gary 
of this parish, spinster, by licence 4 Novr. 1795. 


1678. Sir Gorg Gary was burid the 4th day of June. 

1696. Dame Elizabeth Gary, y^ wife of Sir George Gary, Kt., was 
buried y° 3rd day of January 1696. 

Mr Gary child was buiyed 13th of June 1698. 

Edward, the son of Edward Gary, Esq., of Torrabby, was buried 
March the 28 in the yeare 1709. 

Dame Mary Gary, the wife of Edward Gary, Escjre., was buried 
Aprill the third in the yeare 1709. 

Edward Garey, Esq., was buried y° 21 day of July 1718. 

1750. Feby. 16, was buried Mr. John Gary, gent. 

1758. Octr. y® 1st, was buried George Gary, Esqre. 

1766 [_sic, but qy. 1768], June 18, was buried George, the son of 
George Gary, Esq. 

Edward, the son of George Gary, Esq., and Gecilia his wife, buried 
13 July 1773. 

Gecilia, the wife George Gary, Esq., was buried y^ 4th of Septr. 

George Gary, Esq., of Torrabby, buried y® 11th December 1805. 

Mr. Edward Gary, buried y« 6th March 1806. 

Gharles Gary, formerly of Tor Abbey, died on the passage home 
from the East Indies, buried 2 May 1832, aged 46. 

• Being Roman Catholics, the members of the Gary family were not baptized at 
the parish church, but a page at the end of the Register Book is devoted to a list of 
the dates of birth and baptism of the numerous children of George Gary, esq., by his 
two wives, between 1769 and 1789. The insertion of these is probably due to their 
father's desire to secure a public record of these events. On the next page of the 
Register, in the hand-writing of the late Henry George Gary, esq., are entries of the 
dates of birth and baptism of his sons Henry Frazer Lovat and Lionel Stuart 
Traquair Munro. 


St. Marychurch, Devon. 

Henry Frazer Lovat Gary, son of Henry George and Emily Munro 
Gary, 1 Nov. 1838, tet. 4 years and 11 months. 

Henry George Gary, of Torre Abbey, 9 Sept. 1840, ret. 39. 

Henrietta Margaret Emily Gary, his daughter, 16 March 1842, 
a3t. 1 yearo 

Marldon, Devon. 

1641. Scholastica, y^ daughter of Thomas Gary, Esquire, baptized 

. . . of ffebu. 


1654. Sir Edward Gary was buried 17th of June. 

Margery, the wiffe of Sir Edward Gary, 21 of June. 

1657. Mary, the daughter of Mr. Thomas Gary, 11th of ffeby. 

Liber Missionis Torrensis.^ 

1789, Julii die 29*^. Hora tertia matutina baptizata est a me 
Georgina Gary, ceremoniis propter periculum morbis omissis .... 
Et Augusti die 2'' supplet^ sunt ceremonial omiss^. 

1790, Junii 8^°. Nuptiis solemnioribus cum benedictione con- 
junct! sunt Joannes Palmer Ghichester armiger de Arlington et 
Maria Gary. 

1791, Octob. 31. Mortua est in Arlington rite munita Maria 
(Gary) Ghichester, filia Geo. Gary. 

Anno 1792, Februarii 28, Viaticum administravi, et die sequente 
extremam unctionem Edwardo Gary, filio G. Gary. 

1795, Novemb. die 4°. Matrimonio conjuncti sunt, me ministro, in 
capella Torabbatia?, Henricus Stonor et Francisca Gary. 

1802, Die 27 Novemb. Obiit in Isca Danmoniorum [Exeter] 
Henricus Stonor de San Lucar. 

1804, die 25 Octobris. Mortua est in San Lucar D"'' Francisca 
Stonor, filia D. Geo. Gary Torabbatiae. 

' The ancient refectory of the Norbevtine canons of Torre Abbey was in 1779 con- 
verted by Mr. George Cary into a Catholic Chapel, and until 185-1 it was the only 
one in the neighbourhood of Torquay. The baptisms and other events in which 
their ministrations were employed were recorded from 1788 to 1853 in this Liber by 
the successive priests of the mission, and hence it forms a valuable source of genealo- 
gical proofs. 


Eodem die obiit in Castello de la Biche [Bitscli] prope Verdunum 
in Gallia Gulielm' Gary frater siiperdicte F. Stonor. 

1805. Georgius Gary obiit die prima Decembris. 

1806. Edward Gary obiit prima die Martis. 

1816. Edward Gary, 2nd son of Edward Gary, Esq., of Follaton, 
died at Tor Abbey in consequence of a fall from a gig on the 25tli of 
August, and was buried at the church of Tor in Mr. Gary's vault. 

The book also records the following : — 

1828, July 18. Death of George Gary, Esq., of Tor Abbey, at his 
house in Holies Street, London. Buried in the family vault at Tor 

1828, June 22. Birth of Robert Shedden Sulyarde Gaiy in Lon- 
don. Baptized — July by the Rev. — Wilde, chaplain of Warwick 
Street Chapel. 

1829. Birth Nov. 3, and baptism 2 Deer., at Tor Abbey of Mlli- 
cent Maria Johnes Gary. 

1833. Birth Nov. 4, and baptism 26 Nov., at Tor Abbey of Henry 
Eraser Lovat Gary. 

1837. Birth Jan. 25, and baptism 8 May, of Lionel Stuart Tra- 
quair Munro Gary. 

1838, Get. 25. Death at Tor Abbey of Henry Eraser Lovat Gary. 

1838. Marriage of Lucius Gary, Lieutenant of Walmoden Guiras- 
siers, son of John Gary, Esq., to Amelia, daughter of Count Starhen- 
berg, at Chateau Noggy Grossy, Hungary. 

1839, Feb. 1. Birth at Tor Abbey and baptism same day of 
Lucius Falkland Brancaleone Gary. 

184.0, Sept. 2. Death of Henry George Gary, Esq., of Tor Abbey. 

From the Royalist Composition Papers. 

16Lo. Maynard's Composition — Mentions Sir Edward Gary of 
Marldon, co. Devon, knight, set. 80, and his son Thomas — Relates to 
a deed of 1624, by which John Gary, gent, conveys Stantor. 

1653. Re William Leigh of Northam — Deposition of Sir Edward 
Gary of Stantor, knight. 

1653. Petition of Sir E. Gary of Stantor, knight, mentions that 
he had a house in Exeter and goods therein in 1646. 

Abstract of Indenture 1612 between Sir George Gary of Cockington 
mentions his brother John Gary and John's tATO sons Edward and 
Dudley. Recusancy of Sir Edward Gary — Quotes Lidenture of 1624 
between John Gary of Long Melford, co. Buff., gent, and others. Also 


Indenture of 1625 between John Newton and others and Thomas Gary 
son of Edward Gary of Bradford, co. Devon. 

1654. Deposition of Thomas Gary of Stantor, co. Devon, gent. 
jet. 39, that he was present and saw Sir Edward Gary and Sir George 
Gary seal and dehver a bond dated 21 Dec. 1653. 

Depositions with interrogatories annexed mentioning Sir Edward 
Gary of Marklon, deceased, and Sir George Gary his son and heir. 

1654. Richard Gary of High Holborn, co. Midd., mentioned in 
papers connected with the Fortescues, 15 Jac 1. 

1654. Gertificate that Sir Edward Gary was sequestered 20 May, 
1646, as a Papist; that he had a daughter by a former wife and, by 
his widow, Sir George Gary and a younger son. 

Interrogatories and depositions, inter quas that of Edward Gary of 
Marldon, co. Devon, ^et. 29, who deposes to the recusancy of Sir George 

Deposition of Lucy Gary of Melford, co. Suff. as to her lending 
money to her cousin german Sir George Gary of Newparke, co. 
Southton., and to her knowledge of Sir Edward Gary of Stantor, 
knight, who died at Stantor, and was buried at Marldon 14 June 

5 Dec. 1654. Deposition of Sir George Gary of Newparke, co. 
Southampton, knight, that he had by Indenture of 1 July, 1654, 
demised to Sir W. Gourtenay, knight, William Kirkham, Esq., and 
Ghristopher Maynard, the Manor of Aishwater and other manors, &c. 
in Devon, upon trust to pay his father's debts and to raise £1,000 
each for Gecilia, daughter, and George younger son of deponent. Goes 
on to state that he had Gecilia by a former wife and two sons by 
Elizabeth his present wife, viz., Edward eldest and George younger 
son — that they have no other provision than the £1,000 each — that 
Gecilia was under 12, that George was born March 1653, and that 
both are living — That Sir George Gary, knt., and Lady Lettice his 
w^ife, mentioned in said deed, were deponent's great-uncle and aunt, 
and have been deceased 30 years, and that deponent's father Sir 
Edward Gary died 14 June, 1654, at his house at Stantor, and was 
interred in Marldon church. 

Deposition of a servant of Sir Henry Gary, that on the 15 June 
1646 the latter's mother and following brothers and sisters were all 
living in the house with him : — Robert, Edward, John, Theodore, 
George, Walter, James, Francis, Elizabeth, Bridget. 

Petition of Sir H, Gary, showing that, being very young at the 


time of the troubles, lie was persuaded to take up arms for the King, 
and was made High Sheriff of Devon and commander of Kingswear 
Fort, near Dartmouth. Prays to be admitted to composition. 

Petition of Henry Carye of Cockington, Kt., delinquent against the 
Parliament in 1646. Autograph signature. Marked as received 29 
April 1651. Shows that he compounded for his delinquency in 1646, 
had satisfied the fine, and sued forth his pardon under the great seal, 
notwithstanding which he is lately sequestered in his estate, &c. Prays 
copy of the charge (if any) against him that he may make defence, and, 
if none, that he may be discharged and his sequestration taken. Order 

inscribed : Petitioner to have copy of the charge^ and liberty to make 

Petition of Sir Henry Gary, showing that, about five years since, his 
whole real and personal estate was inventoried and secm*ed [seques- 
tered] by order from tlie Committee for Devon, for which, according to 
the articles of Exeter, he compounded, paid the fine, and sued forth his 
pardon, &c., whereupon his estate was restored to him ; notwithstand- 
ing, however, petitioner's good behaviour and peaceful demeanom' to- 
wards the present authority, by an order of 8 April last, petitioner's 
estate was re-secured and his rents stayed, he being ignorant of any 
offence since his composition. Prays that his estate may be discharged, 
or that he may know the charge against him, so as to make defence 
thereto. Order inscribed thereon 26 June 1651. The Commissioners 
in the country are to give the heads of the charge, and certify ivhat they 
know ahout the matter. 

From the Journals of the House of Commons. 

24 Deer. 1647- Resolved, That this House doth accept the sum of 
£1,985 as a fine for the delinquency of Sir Henry Carey of Cocking- 
ton, in the county of Devon, Knight. His offence, that he was in 
arms against the Parliament; he surrendered upon the Articles of 
Exeter; his estate in fee in old rents per annum £285 55. 8c?. ; in 
demesne per annum £326 13s. 4<:Z.; for 800 years per annum £10; 
out of which issues per ann. for one life ^£400 ; which leaves the fine 
at a tenth, £1,985. 

An Ordinance for granting a pardon unto Sir Henry Carey of Cock- 
ington, in the county of Devon, Knight, for his delinquency, and for 
taking off the sequestration of his estate, was this day read ; and upon 
the question passed ; and ordered to be read to the Lords for their 


State Papers, Domestic. Car. II. 48, 49, vol. xlviii. 49. 

Petition of Capt. George Gary to the King. Shews that he was a 
faithful servant of the King's father in all the late wars, and ^ince the 
restoration has been in his Ma^^^^ Lifeguard until the late reducement. 
Understands that two more officers have been added to the waiters 
at the Gustom-house, and that there is a necessity for adding another 
searcher. Prays for the office, as petitioner was always bred up in 
the customs. 

1660. Dec. 12. A certificate under this date signed. The: Gary, 
H. Gary, and others, exhibiting that Mr. George Gary, merchant, did 
faithfully serve the late King as captain of horse under his brother 
Sir Henry Gary ; that he suffered much in his estate for his Ma^*^^ in- 
terests, and was largely instrumental in the restoration. 

1660. June 8. A Gertificate signed by James Proger, that Gapt. 
George Gary is one of the gentlemen " listed and now rides in y^ 
squadron of the Hon^^^ S^" Tho. Sandys under the command of Gharles 
Lord Gerard, Gapt. of his Ma^^*-'^ Life Guard of cavalry." 

Marriage Settlements. 

Amongst the Tor Abbey papers is an agreement, dated 21 Dec, 
1674, between Sir George Gary and Sir Thomas Bond of Peckham, 
knt. and bart., on the occasion of an intended marriage between 
Edward the eldest son and heir apparent of the former with Mary 
Gharlotte sole daughter of the latter. This marriage could not have 
taken place, and the lady wedded Sir William Gage, the second baronet 
of Hengrave, Suffolk. — Vide Collect. Top. et Geneal. vol. iii. p. 167. 

16 January, 1681. Edward Gary and Mary youngest daughter 
(then imder age) of Richard Barres alias Pelson, of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, Esq. and the Rt. Hon. Anne Gountess of Sussex, his wife. 
Trustees, Gharles Earl of Shrewsbury, the Hon. Gharles Bertie, and 
George Bradbury. By this marriage considerable property in Wilts 
and Westminster was added to the Gary estate. 

10 Get. 1697. George Blount, esq., brother of Sir Walter K. 
Blount, of Sodington, co. Worcester, and Gonstance youngest daughter 
of Su" George Gary, late of Tor Abbey, deceased, Kt. Trustees, Sir W. 
K. Blount and the Hon. H. Arundel, brother of Henry Lord Arundel 
of Wardoin-. Refers to G. Gary's mother as living. 

14 and 15 January, 1707. Serjeant Thomas Gibbon, of Exeter, 
widower, and Margery Gary. Trustees, Hugh Baron Glifford of Ghud- 


leigh, Sir William Drake of Ash, Devon, bart., and Sir Thomas Manby 
of Essex, knt. The Gibbon estates were in OfFwell, Widworthy, 
and Slmte, Devon. Mentions Thomas Gibbon, junior, son of the 

11 May, 1723. George Gary, Esq. and the Hon. Anne, daughter 
of the E^ Hon. Hugh Baron Clifford of Chudleigh. Trustees, Hon. 
Hugh, son of Lord Clifford, John Courtenay, jun. and George Courtenay 
of MoUand, Edward Blount of Blagdon, and Nicholas Cove of Green, 
all in Devon, Esquires. N. Cove was a lawyer and steward of Mr. Cary. 
A Nicholas Cove married at Tor church, 27 Feb. 1733, Susanna, 
daughter of Rawlin Mallock of Cockington, Esq. 

8 October, 1764. George Cary and Cecilia, spinster, only child of 
Philippa Fagnani of St. Ann, Soho, widow and administatrix of John 
Baptist Fagnani, heretofore of St. Paul, Covent Garden, merchant, 
dec^. Trustees, the Hon. Wilmot Vaughan of Mamhead, Devon, and 
William Kitson of Shiphay, Devon. The deed mentions the death of 
George Cary, Esq. in Sejotember, 1758, sine j^t'ole, leaving the Hon. 
Anne, his widow ; the will of said Anne Cary, dated 22 June, 1759, 
and her death in March 1762 ; also the marriage of Dorothy Cary 
and Edward Meynell since the last-named date, and the death of the 
bride's father in 1749, whereby she became entitled to two-thirds of 
his " very considerable personal estate," amounting to £9,000. The 
Cary estate in Wilts Avas also settled on her. 

22 May, 1781. George Cary, Esq. and Mrs. Frances Giffard, 
"formerly Frances Stonor, spinster, widow and relict of Thomas 
Giffard, late of Chillington, co. Stafford, deceased."' Trustees, the 
Hon. Hugh, son and heir-apparent of Hugh Lord Clifford and Charles 
Stonor of Stonor, co. Oxford, Esq. 

4 February, 1806. George Cary, Esq. and Elizabeth Franklin of 
Green Street, St. George's, Hanover Square, spinster. Trustees, 
Albemarle Bertie Eear- Admiral, and Thomas Fitzhugh of Stanhope 
St. May Fair. * 

Wills and Administrations. 

From Family Documents at Torre Abbey. 

7tli August, 1614. Sir George Cary of Cockington, K*, " beinge 
myndfuU of the ffraylty of man's ffleche always declyninge, the neces- 
sitye of deathe continually approachinge, and the uncertenty of his 
dissolucion sudenly stealinge on hym ; and withall knowinge itt ex- 
pedyent in the tyme of healthe to dispose of my temporall affairs, 


That so boinge ffreed of all Terrene and worldly cares att my last ffare- 
Avell and passage hence, I may give myselfe wholy unto spirituall and 
ghostly matters for the health and eternal comfort and ioy of my Soiile, 
Doe therfor att this present, bemge of whole mynde and perfect Re- 
membrance (Thankes be unto AUmighty God) make and ordayne this 

my last Will and Testament I doe willingly & with a 

free hart give againe unto the hands of God my Creator my Spirit." 
. . . . desires " in convenyent tyme to be buried in the Chapell 
of Cockington, in a vault there, wherein two of my children doe Lye 
interred." £100 on the day of his funeral to the poor of Cockington 
and the adjoining parishes. Desires that there should be erected " in 
the said Chapel] in memory of me a decent & comely monument." 
£100 per ann. for three years to the poor of the said jDarishes whom 
he weekly relieved. £100 to the poor scholars of Oxford University, 
and a like sum to those of Cambridge. And whereas he had covenanted 
with the R*^ Hon. Lord Rich to leave after his death " unto the Lady 
Lettice Cary, my deare and most Beloved and esteemed Ladye & 
wife," goods to the value of 2,000 marks, in satisfaction thereof he 
gives her all his goods, &c., in Allington House, Middlesex, and also 
£o,000, the debt of £100 due to him under the bond of her brother 
Sir Robert Rich, all apparel, jewelry, &c., formerly given her, and the 
following articles of plate in Cockington House, viz., *' my best basin 
and ewer gilt, and two of my best silver potts gilt, belonging or used 
in service with the same, on greate broad silver cuppe gilt with his 
cover commonly called the Catte, fower standinge silver boles gilt with 
their covers gilt, the forme of a Swanne standinge on the toppe of 
every of the said covers. Three standinge silver cuppes gilt with their 
covers gilt on every on of which covers standeth a piramidist on the 
toppe. Two other standynge cuppes gilt with their covers gilt usually 
standinge in the Cu])board in her chamber .... my two greate 
Saltes with on cover gilt, & the trencher salt gilt commonly used witli 

tlie same twelve silver dishes of fower several sorts or 

sizes, on dozen of silver plates, on dozen of silver gilt spoones, on silver 
warminge panne, six silver candlesticks. . . . my best and 

fayrest Turkey carpett the hanginges, Bedsteades, Bed- 

dinge, and furniture of three several chambers to weete, 

of the chamber over the greate p'lor, of the chamber wherein 1 usually 
lye, & of the chamber w^herein she her self doth usually lye, wishingc 
that my meanes weare such as I might, accordinge to my desire, in a 
more bountifull measure answer her love & care of me." Legacies 


follow of £200 " to Mrs. Elizabeth Riche, my wife's gentlewoman " 
. . . . for " lier carefull & diligent attendance on me in the tyme 
of my sicknes," . . . . "to my cosen S^' Thomas Reynell a peice 
of plate of 20 marks price," — " to my cosen William Gary, Esquii-e, a 
peice of plate of Tenne pounds price," — " to Jane Eeynell, daughter 
of my cosen Richard Reynell, Esq." £100, to be paid on her marriage 
day, — " to my nephew Edward Gary of Dongarvon, in the kingdome 
of Ireland, my second best basin & ewer gilt, with my second best 
payre of silver potts belonginge unto the same," — " to his (Edward's) 
Sonne George Gary, my deepe washinge bason of silver parcel gilt," — 
to the said Edward and George his leasehold rectory, parsonage 
and sheaf of Dongarvon, subject to the annual payment of £150 at 
Allington House to his widow for her life, — all his goods at Gockington 
House not previously bequeathed to the successive owners of the said 
house under his deed of settlement, — directs the sale of a tenement in 
Paington, — augments his previously paid annuity of £65 to his 
brother Richard Gary to £200 for life, — his leasehold rectories, par- 
sonages, and sheafs of Paington and St. Mary Ghurch, and of the 
Barton and Grange of Shephay to the said Edward and George Gary 
subject to the yearly payment of £120 to his widow for her life toward 
the annuity of 1,000 marks formerly granted for her jointure, — to 
Gharles Hiat, gent, a peice of plate of 20 nobles value, — to his servants 
Gilbert Gollyns and Thomas Paddon £10 each, — to each of his other 
servants one year's wages, besides other allowances, — appoints as 
executors his wife Lady Lettice Gary, Richard Reynell, and John 
Bingley, Esq. of Westminster, and his nephew Edward Gary of Don 
garvon, and gives to each £100, — he entreats his executors "as they 
will answer att the dreadfull day of judg™^ " to carry out his will. 
Signs with a feeble hand in the presence of six witnesses. The seal 
appendant bears quarterly the arms of Gary, Brian, Holway, and 

At District Court of Probate^ Exeter. 

13 July, 1609. Robert Gary of Bradford, Devon, gentleman, sick 
of body but of perfect remembrance, bequeathed to his son Robert 
£40, to be paid in annual instalments of sSlO, to enable his executors 
to find him in food, lodging, and apparel. After a bequest to his said 
son of all his wearing apparel, he leaves the residue to his loving 
wife Dorothy, whom he appoints sole executrix, and appoints his trusty 
and well-beloved sons-in-law, John Wood and Robert Vigurs, gents., 


and liis trusty and well-beloved servants William Elyett and Edward 
Blackforde to be his overseers. 

At Doctors' Commons. 

{Harvey 173.) Dated 14 May, proved 26 Nov. 1 639. John Gary of 
Long Melford, co. Suffolk, gent. To his two eldest sons John and 
Thomas all his books, to his son Edward " God's blessing and mine," 
with £10. Mentions his other children, Francis, Margaret, Jane, Mag- 
dalene, Ignatius, Lucy and AYilligrege Gary. To his executors. Sir Roger 
Martin, of Long Melford, and Ghristopher Hopper of London, gents., 
£100, — to the poor of Long Melford 405.' 

(AllcJun 34.) Dated 14 June, proved 26 September, 1654, Sir 
Edward Gary of Marldon, co. Devon, Kt. To his son and sole executor 
Sir George Gary, the manors of Meeth, &c. To his son Thomas 
sundry lands, &c. in Inwardleigh. To his grandchild Benedict 
Carie, his tenement in Morthowe, now in the possession of Edward 
Hext. To the poor of Marldon '' four dwelling-houses which I built 
for them near the church there," also small pecuniary bequests to the 
poor of this and nine other Devonshire parishes in which he held 
lands. "To my well-beloved wife all my goods and implements of 
household which are in my chamber where I lie." To his cousin 
Francis Southcote £10, and to James Blackhurst an annuity of £4, 
and his sister Jane Williams £6 per annum. Mentions his brother 
John Gary and John's son Edward, to whom he leaves his grey nag. 
Witnessed by " Francis Southcote, Lucie Gary, Edward Gary." 

At Principal Registry of H. M. Court of Probate. 

25 June 1688. Administration granted to John Gary, husband of 
Jane Gary, late of Woodstock, co. Oxon, deceased. 

At Doctors'' Commons. 

8 April 1696. Administration of Lady Elizabeth Gary of St. Mary- 
le-Savoy, co. ]\Iiddlesex, granted to Edward Gary Esq. and Lady 
Elizabeth Manby al's Gary (wife of Sir Thomas Manby), the eldest 
son and daughter. 

From Family Papers at Torre Ahhey. 

Oct. 1718. Administration of Edward Gary of Torre Abbey to his 
eldest son Geors-e. 


10 Nov. 1745. Will of George Rowe of Saiidridge in Stoke 
Gabriel, Devon, merchant, gives his brother-in-law William Gary 
£700 in satisfaction of his debt, and to his neice Dorothy Gary 

21 Feb. 1746. Attested copy Will of George Gary of Torre Abbey, 
Esq., devising his estates to Sir William Gourtenay, John Ghichester, 
and Nicholas Gove, in trnst. Mentions his brothers John, William, 
and Francis, and William's son George. To his wife Ann £2,300, 
and all plate and goods that came to her from Ann, Lady Glifford 
deceased. To the poor of Tormohmi ^100. Acknowledges the 
assistance rendered by his wife in extricating his affairs from difficnlty 
by jndicions management of proj)erty derived from her own family. 

18 March, 1748. Attested copy Will of John Gary of Ghescombe 
in Marldoti, Devon. To his brother George Gary ten guineas of gold. 
To his brother Francis Gary, and sister Manby, and sister Elizabeth 
Gary 100 guineas each. To John Beaumont 15 guineas. To his 
servant Elizabeth Hill £30, and £5 to buy mourning. To his nephews 
George and Edward, and niece Dorothy (children of his brother 
William), and to his friends James Towers of Paington, chirurgeon, 
and George Taylor of Totnes, gent., a mourning ring each of one 
guinea value. Similar rings to his sister-in-law Ann Gary, to Rawlin 
Mallock the elder, and Eichard Mallock, gent., and Mrs. Alice and 
Frances Mallock. To his godson Richard Gopplestone £5, and the 
residue to his brother and executor William Gary. 

24 June 1751. Mary Manby, widow, of the parish of St. George 
the Martyr, Middlesex, describes herself as executrix under the will of 
Elizabeth Gary, late of the same parish, spinster deceased. The will 
is dated 10 March 1749. Refers to her sister and brother Winnifred 
and Thomas Gary as deceased. 

11 Nov, 1768. Will of Francis Gary of Berry Pomeroy, Devon. 
Bequeaths to his nephew Edward Gary of Torre Abbey £100. To 
his niece Dorothy, wife of Edward Meynell of Bishop's Hill, co. York, 
£10. To his neice Anne Rowe, widow of John Rowe of Sparkwell, 
Devon, surgeon, £10. After sundry small bequests to servants and 
£5 to the poor of Tormohun, he leaves the residue *o his beloved 
nephew and sole executor George Gary Esq., of Torre Abbey. 

Will of Ann Gary, widow, dated 11 Oct. 1758, proved G. P. C. 
24 July, 1762. A codicil dated 22 June, 1750, provides for her 
nephew and niece Edward and Dorothy Gary, who were both 
under 21. 


Students entered at the Inner Temple. 

15G1. Richard Gary of Cockington. [Third son of Thomas and 
Mary Gary]. 

1565. Robert Gary of Gockington. [Probably the second son of 
the same]. 

1593. Robert Gary of Ide. [Possibly the son of Robert and 
Dorothy of Bradford]. 

1628. George Gary of Bradford. [Not identified in the Pedigree.] 

Private Act of Parliament, 10 Geo. 2, c. 24. 

An Act for the sale of part of the settled estates of George Gary 
Esq., &c. Recites the marriage settlement of Edward and Mary 
Gary, dated 16 Jannary 1681 ; also an inclentnre dated 1 May, 1681, 
mentioning John, Gharles, and Norbert ; Frances, Margery, and Con- 
stance, brothers and sisters of Ed\Yard Gary ; also an indenture of 
18 Dec. 1716, mentioning that there was living issue of the marriage 
of Edward and Mary Gary five sons and four daughters. The Act 
further recites that Mary Gary's undivided moiety of lands, &c., in 
Leicester was sold in Edward Gary's lifetime, also that Edward Gary 
died in 1718, leaving three younger sons, John, William, and Francis, 
and an eldest son George. 

From Calendars of Proceedings in Ghancery in the Reign of 


Eliz. 7-8, No. 66. Jane Allingtoii, widow, George Garye and 
Edward Gordell, executors of Sir William Gordell, Kt., late Master of 
the Rolls, Plaintiffs^ and Dame Mary Gordell and George Moore, 
Defendants. Suit for discovery of effects, &c. Premises, Manor of 
Melford, co. Suff., of which Sir William Gordell was seized, and which 
he devised to his wife (Deft. Mary) for life, and the said William 
was possessed of a house at the Rolls, London, and of a house at 

From Muniments at Torr Abbey affording Proofs of Pedigree. 

Letters. Stantor, 10 Aug. 1650. Sir Edward Gary to his steward 
John Ratenbury, the Town Glerk of Okehampton. Addresses him as 
" Good cosen," and after sundry business details, " wishing you much 
health and happynes, I rest 

Yr loving though poore kinsman, 

Edward Gary."' 



" To the R*^ Wor^^ my very worthy friende Sir Edward Gary, 

Kt. at Stantor. 

Rt. Worll. my hmnble duty remembered I have taken security [and 

so on about leases]. I intend, God willinge, to ryde for London upon 

Monday come senight if you please to command me ought. I was 

yesterday at Holloway to see my mother Stephens.^ She desired me 

to remember her to yo^self and my Lady Gary And even so, 

with my due remembrance to my Lady Gary and my cosen Thomas 
Gary, take my leave. Yo^" wori^^ in all duty and service, 

"John Ratenbury. 

« Okehampton, 28 October, 1634." 

Edward Gary to his mother Lady Elizabeth Gary. Addressed 
" For the Lady Gary att Torr-Abby, neare Totnesse, Devon- 

« London, March 22, 1687. 

'* Madame, — Yesterday my sister had yom- Lad^PP in answer to 
hers and myne togeather from my Lady Blount's, who with her family 
went out of towne this morning to be att the lying-in of her daughter 
Lasborough [?] in Norfolk ; she says she shall be with us some time 
this summer in Devonshire. The Gourt being out of towne and Lent 
time, heer is not the least news, and for any new intrigues or perticular 
concerns I heer not the least word of any. The greatest talk eveiy- 
where is of whose new lampoons are going, for the humour is very 
much of late on that strame, and all sorts of ladys are put in with all 
the scandall our witty sparks and blads can invent. Everybody that 
weare in France are comming over as fast as they can, and my uncle's 
of yesterday to my cosen says they shall be coming home in May. 
My wife and neice present then- most humble dutys to your Lad^PP 

and also all our relations Reference is made to the payment 

of ' my brother Kitt's portion ' and to the settlement of accounts with 
Lady Gardigan, who had an interest in his wife's Wiltshire estate at 
Pewsham, and finally ' begging your Ladspp's blessing,' I rest 

" Madame, your most dutiful child, 

" Ed. Gary." 

John Gary at Torre Abbey to his father Edward Gary, then in 

" Torr, April ye 3rd, 1715. 
"HoxoRED Sir, — Your's with the speech I received on Ladyday, for 
which I return you ten thousand thanks, and cannot express the joy and 
1 Mary Gary married to Humplirey Stephens, a former steward of the Gary estates. 


gladness to hear that you and my brother are so well after a long and 

tedious journey, which I am sure has been a great fatigue to you. I 

was yesterday at Sir Thos. Carewe's, where Lady Carewe asked very 

kindly for you and my brother, and her ladyship drank your health in 

a glass of wine, as did all the rest of the company. And I heard that 

there was a highwayman that robbed on Halldown, and has robbed a 

man of Newton of ten pounds, but we do not hear that he hath robbed 

anyone else. This day came into Torbay 5 or 6 Swedish men of war, 

among which one has a white flag. So will not further enlarge, 

having no more news to write you, so conclude myself your dutiful son 

and servant to command, 

" John Gary. 

" All my brothers and sisters and myself tender our duty to you and 
our service to our uncle and brother and all the rest of our family in 

" Honored Sir, I desire if you please that you will bring me down a 
Long Wig, which I shall take as a mighty token of your blessing. 

" This minute my sisters received yours and my brother's letters, for 
.which they return many thanks." 

A letter,- dated London, April 8, 1732, addressed to " Geo. Gary, 
Esqi' att Torr Abby p'^ Totnes bagg, Devonshire." The writer, John 
Malson, the agent of Mr. Gary's Westminster property, refers to 
sundry payments to " your unkle," who must have been George Gary 
of London, and adds in a postscript, " Your sister Manby, under- 
standing I was to write to you, ordered me to give theire loves to you, 
and to let you know that your Aunt Drew died last w[eek?] of a 
cancer in her breast." 

Anne Gary (employing her second son Gharles as amanuensis) 
writes from Lisbon 9 Sept. 1732, " To George Gary, Esq. att his 
house at Torr Abby, Devon," whom she addresses as " D'^ Nevew." 
She refers to the recent death and good qualities of her husband, who 
had left her with five children, " of which two are marryed and the 
other three are yett at home with me." Then entering on business 
matters, refers to the " two portions of my dec^ brothers Ghas. and 
Norbert," and in alluding to the carrying out of the will of Sir George 
Gary states that " Mrs. Constance Gary rec"^ her share of the s^ por- 
tion to equip her at her marriage." 

Long letter dated Torr Abby, Aug. y^ 18th, 1741, from Wm. Gary 
to his " D^" Bro^"" George Gary, directed "A Monsieur Monsieur Gaiy 
chez Madame Goddard, marchande, a Soissons, France." Mr. and Mrs. 



Gary having suffered from fever, the writer advises their return to 
their native air, and expresses sorrow "for y^ death of our Cos'^ Lady 
Falldand, who I find was taken off in y^ same distemp^" Eegard for 
space compels the omission of a long and interesting postscript on 
local affairs, and describing a deer hunt and -a visit of a party of the 
Courtenays of Powderham to Torre Abbey. 

A bundle of deeds and j)apers relating to the divorce of John Bury 
of Collaton, Devon, Esq. and Wilmote his wife {iiee Giffard), shew 
that the marriage was solemnized when they were but 12 years old, 
and that they never cohabited. To avoid further costs of the pending 
suit for a divorce, or, more properly, of nullity of marriage, it was 
agreed by Lewis Pollard, Esq. on Bury's part, and Robert Gary, 
Esq. on the part of the wife (whose mother Margaret, widow of John 
Giffard of Yeo, he had married), to refer the case to the arbitration of 
Sir John Seintleger and Sir John Ghichester, Knts. These, by their 
award dated 2 May, 3 Eliz. arranged the terms on which the divorce 
should be suffered to proceed and provided for the settlement of Wil- 
mote's capital mansion of Yeo and other property on her attaining 
21. The sentence of Archbishop Parker, with his seal annexed, dated 
22 July, 3 Eliz. recites evidences of the physical incapacity of Bury 
taken before Robert Fisher a canon of Exeter Gathedral. Robert 
Gary, then aged 48, deponed that Bury was born 22 June, and 
Wilmote on the 1st Aug. 1540 — that they were married about the 
end of November, 1 Mary ; remembers the date because he, being 
then a Burgess in Parliament, returned in that month to his house at 
Glovelly. Besides some medical testimony, evidence was given by 
Robert Pollard of Southmolton, Esq. £et. 55 ; John Goffin of Port- 
edge, Esq. £et. 24 ; Margaret, wife of the above R. Gary and mother 
of Wilmote Giffard, £et. 44; also by Margaret, wife of Sir Robert 
Denys of Holcombe Burnell, £et. 28 ; Mary, wife of George Kirkham of 
Blagdon, £et. 33 ; Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Garew of Anthony, Esq. 
set. 37 ; Maria, wife of the above J. Goffin, £et. 19, who states that 
J. and W. Bury had then been married 7 years. Bury himself 
depones that he had been injured by a kick from a horse when young. 
It is worth noting here that Westcote's Devon, p. 496, states that 
Bury aftei-wards married and had issue by a daughter of Mountjoy. 
In a deed of 4 Sept. 3 Eliz. (possibly executed in anticipation of her 
re-marriage to George Gary), Wilmote Giffard recites the sentence of 
divorce from Bury " to whom contrary to the laws of God and the 
Ecclesiastical Ganons I was, in my tender years, unfortunately 


maryed," and tliat in case of her death her father-in-law, R. Gary, 
would hazard the £1,400 he had paid on her l)ehalf under the award 
of 2 May, 3 Eliz. and conveys to the said R. Gary, William Millaton, 
Esq. her uncle in-law, John Bevill, Esc[. and her brother-in-law John 
Goffyn, Esq. all her manors, &c. in Alvyngton, Parkham, Littleham, 
Abbotsham, Bideford, Dolton, &c. &c. in trust. 

In a Bill in Chancery, 6 Feb. 7 Edw. VI. Thomas Gary of Cock- 
ington complains " to the Rt. Honble. and Rev. Father in God 
Thomas Bishop of Ely and Lord Ghancellor of England," that his 
"elder brother" John Gary of Okehampton had on the 7th Nov. 
SG Hen. A^III. sold to Thomas the Manor of Xorthlew, but that, 
nevertheless, John and his son and. heir apparent Robert Gary per- 
sisted in granting leases of parts of the manor. 

In a draught (on paper) Roll of a Gourt of Bradford Manor, in 
North Devon, dated 24 February, 2 and 3 Ph. and Mary, John Bury 
and Wilmote his wife are named as lord, and lady, and inserted 
amongst the entries of the proceedings of the Court are the following 
genealogical notes. 

John Bury, son of Richard Bury, Esq. nat. fuit 12 June, an^ Dni 
mdxh Wilmot Giffard, daughter of John Giffard of Yeo, Esq. was 
born 1st Aug. in the same year. 

Richard Bury, Esq. died 5 May, 35 Hen. VIII. a.d. 1548 [3?]. 
At an Inq. p.m. 13 Aug. same year, John his son was found his heir. 
John Giffard of Yeo, Esq. died 19 March, 32 Hen. VIII. a.d. 1540, 
and that Wilmot his daughter had on the 22 Dec. 1 and 2 Ph. and 
Mary, attained the age of 14 years. 

6 March, 9 Eliz. Grant by Thomas Gary of Gockington, Esq. to 
Robert and Richard Gary, gents. " filiis meis," of the Manor of 
Northlew to hold of the chief lord of the fee. George Gary is a 

20 Sept. 9 Eliz. Lease by Robert and Richard Gary, gents, to 
George Gary of Gockington, Esquyre, brother of the said Robert and 
Richard, of the Manor of Miltowne, commonly called Northlew, at a 
nominal rent, with a covenant not to convey the reversion in fee except 
to the said George. 

7 April, 9 Eliz, Agreement between George, Robert, and Richard 
Gary, by which George was, on the request of Robert and Richard, to 
release to them and their heirs his right and title in the Manors of 
Grendell and Salterton, and infer alia Robert and Richard were before 
Michaelmas next, to enter into a bond in £4,000 to assure to George 


Gary an estate in fee simple in the Manor of Nortlilew, lately pnr- 
chased of Eobert Goslynge, draper of London, by Thomas Gary his 
lately deceased father. 

4 April, 23 Eliz. Sir William Gonrtenay and George Gary of 
Gocldngton, Esq. to Thomas Hampton and Wilmot his wife, executrix 
of Thomas Hawse her father. Grant of a life annuity of 100 marks, 
payable ont of the Rectory of Paington and Ghapel of Marldon, if 
George Garew, Dean of Exeter, should so long live. 

6 April, 23 Eliz. Release of the same by Sir William Gonrtenay 
to George Gary. Witnessed by Robert Gary and George Kirldiam. 

19 July, 24 Eliz. Release by George Garew, Dean of Exon, and 
Ann his wife, and George Garew al's Harvye of St. Giles in the 
Fields, CO. Middlesex, Esq. to Edward Gary, Esq. " one of the grooms 
of Her Majesty's Privy Ghamber," of their interest in the Rectory of 
Paington and Ghapel of Marldon. Witnesses, Richarde Gary and 
John Russell. 

12 Nov. 24 Eliz. George Gary of Gocldngton, Esq. to Thomas 
and Wilmote Hampton. Deed relating to the same property, wit- 
nessed by " Robert Gary of Bradford." 

25 Sept. 1581. Presentation to John, Bishop of Exeter, by Richard 
Reynell, Esq. Robert Gary of Bradford, and Thomas Gary, gents, of 
Thomas Weymouth, to the Rectory of Ashwater. 

4 May, 26 Eliz. Engrossment not executed, declaring the uses of 
a recovery to be suffered of the manor of Northlew. Parties, George 
Gary of Gocldngton, Esq. and Launcelot Gary of Okehampton, Gent, 
of the one part, and Sir William Gonrtenay, Sir Robert Denny s, and 
John Ghichester, Knights, and William Kyrckhame of Blackdon, Esq. 
of the other part. Uses, first of said George Gary, with remainders 
in succession to George his son, Richard, John, Gregory, and Arthur, 
his brothers, Launcelot Gary, and Richard, brother of Launcelot, and 
finally, to the heirs of George Gary. 

28 Oct. 28 Eliz. Entailing deed between " George Garye of 
Gockington, Esquire, of the one part, and Sir Francis Walsingham, 
Knight, her Ma^*^ principall Secretarye and one of her Ma^^ moste 
honourable privye counselle ; Sir Edmond Anderson, Knight, Lord 
Ghief Justice of her Majesty's Gourte of Gomon Plees att West- 
minster ; William Peryam, one of her Majesty's Justices of the said 
Gourte of Gomon Plees ; John Popham, Esquier, her Majesty's 
Attorney-Generall ; Edward Drewe and John Hole, Esquiers, of the 
other part," conveying G. Gary's manors of Gocldngton, Ghilston, Ash- 


water, Northlew, Bradford, Meeth, and Goodley in co. Devon, and liis 
lands in Mortlioe, Crediton al's Kirton, Yeo, Parldiam, Littleham, 
Whilborrowe, Trew St. James [Somerset], Woolston, Emlett, Small- 
combe, Holleighe, Estradwortliy, Hookewaye, Hetliford, Escott, 
Blackgrove, Yedcombe, Seriamnte (?), Bowood, Yeo, Bradworthy, and 
Abotesham in Devon ; upon trust for the parties named in the former 
engrossment, but omitting Launcelot Gary and his brother Richard. 

8 Oct. 36 Eliz. Depositions taken at Totnes by Commissioner 
of the Court of Chancery in a cause between Wylliam Ball, Richarde 
Gill, and Michaell Berder, Complaynantes, and George Carye, 
Esquier, Defendant. William Bruton, Chapter Clerk of Exeter, fet. 
84, produces extracts from books of the Chapter from 1522, relating 
to leases of St. Marychurch Tithes, and showing that John Cary held 
the lease in 1545 ; and that the Dean and Chapter had, on the 22 
June 1489, granted a lease to the Abbot and Convent of Tor. 
Reference is also made to a lease dated 8 May, 1548, to John Rudge- 
waye of Tor, of the same tithes which the last Abbot of the dissolved 
Monastery of Tor had held under the Chapter, and which the said 
Abbot had before the dissolution assigned to Thomas Carye of 
Cockington, Esquier, who had surrendered to the Chapter. 

14 ^N'ov. 37 Eliz. Agreement on the sale by Thomas Forde of 
Bsington, Devon, to George Cary of Cockington, of the Manor of 
St. Marychurch, Devon. Mr. Serjeant Heale was to draw the 

28 Feb. 38 Eliz. George Cary of Cockington, Esq., to Richard 
Cary of the Inner Temple, London, Gent. Assignment of the 
Rectory of Paignton and Chapel of Marldon. 

5 Aug. 3 James I. Indenture between Robert Cary of Bradford, 
CO. Devon, Gent., and Sir George Cary of Cockington, Kt., whereby 
R. Cary grants to Sir George the interest in fee of himself and his 
wife Dorothy in the capital mansion, barton, and demesne of Bradford, 
with all work and due days of the customary tenants of the manor of 
Bradford, and the church -house adjoining the churchyard, and 
Bradford corn mills, with the suit of grinding of the grist of all the 
tenants. Consideration £2,000, to be paid before the feast day of 
St. John the Baptist next ensuing. 

10 Sept. 4 James I. Conveyance in fee by Sir Thomas Prideaux 
of Nutwell, CO. Devon, and Johane his wife, to Sir George Cary of 
Cockington, Kt., and Richard Reynell of London, Esq., of the manor 
of Coffinswell (except the mansion-house and certain fields) and in- 


eluding two tenements called Aller and Holbeame Meadow. Con- 
sideration £1,800. 

20 May 6 James I. Conveyance in fee by Thomas Amerideth of 
Townstall, co. Devon, Esq. liis son Edward and his brother Lewes, 
Gents., to the Rt. Hon. Robert Lord Rich Baron of Leeze, co. Essex ; 
Richard Waltham^ of Exeter, Esq.; and Richard Reynell of Ford, 
CO. Devon, Esq., trustees of Letitia wife of Sir George Gary of 
Cockington, of the manor of Stokenham, co. Devon. Consideration 
£5,600. By a later deed, dated 20 Nov., IG Jas., the trustees con- 
veyed the reversion to the use of Edward Gary for life, with divers re- 
mainders over. 

14 Sept , 10 Jas. Deed endorsed in the handwriting of Sir George 
Gary of Cockington " A Reuocation of certaine lands contayned in my 
first conveyance." Commencing " To all christian people to whom 
this present writing indented shall come. Sir George Gary of Cock- 
ington, in the county of Devon, Knight, sendeth greeting in our Lord 
God everlasting," and proceeds to recite a deed dated 20 Oct., 7 Jas. I. 
between the said Sir George of the first part, Sir Edward Seymour of 
Berry Castell, co. Devon, Bart, (by the name of Edward Seymour, 
Esq.), Sir William Courtenay, of Powderham, Kt., Sir Thomas 
Denys, of Holcombe Burnell, Kt., Sir Edward Seymour, of Berry 
Castle, Kt., Sir Thomas Reynell, of West Ogwell, Kt., Sir Edward 
Giles, of Bowden co. Devon, Kt., William Bastard, of Gerston, 
Richard Reynell, of Ford, Richard Waltham, of Kenn, co. Devon, 
Esqrs. John Bingley, of Westminster, Esq., and Tristram Stephens, 
of Northlew, gent., whereby Sir George undertook to convey to the 
above parties his manors, lordships, rectories, advowsons, lands, &c , 
therein mentioned, i.e., the manors of Cockington and Chilston, 
Marychurch, Coffinswell, Northlew, Asliwater, Bradford, Abbotsham, 
Meeth, Crediton Galliard, Goodley, Northam, Frithelstock, and Feni- 
ton, the rectory of Tormohun and Cockington, and the advowsons of 
Ashwater, Meeth, Goodley, and Feniton, and also all his manors, 
lands, &c., in the parishes, villages, towns, &c., of Stantor, Paington, 
Marldon, Whilborough, Kingscarswell, Dalton, Hookway, Yea, Trew 
St. James [Taunton], Woolfardisworthy, Yeadcome, Puddington, 
East Worlington, South Emlett, St. Mary Down, Holleigh, Buckland 
Brewer, Cockmaton, Bideford, Parkham, Alwington, Littleham, 
Morthoe, Parnacott, Pyworthy, Hethford, Eastcott, Blackgrove, 
Mounhouse, Lifton, Tophill, Radford, Overlarkworthy, Bridgewotton, 

' \Yaltliam was Recorder of Exeter, and lived at Trehill in Kenn, nenr lliat citv. 


vSalterton, Goveshayes, Woodbniy, Sowton al's Clist Fenizon and 
Honiton's Clist in co. Devon, the manor of Stockland co. Dorset, and 
a messnage, &c., in Wellington co. Somerset, and all other in England 
except the mansion called Allington House in Holborn, London, to 
the use of his nephew George Gary for life, and Avitnessing that the 
said Sir George " for and in respecte of the disobedvent, nnrnlye, and 
disorderlje caryage of George Gary, gent., his nephew, unto whom the 
aforesaid premises by way of remaynder are by the said recited deed 
lymitted and appointed, and for and in respecte of his idle and 
unthriftie courses, all which have given unto the said Sir George 
Gary great doubte and fear that hee the said George Gary his nephew 
(if he bee not otherwise restrayned) will in time consume, mispend, 
and wast that great estate which hee, the said Sir George Gary, 
meerely out of former love and affecion hath conferred upon him ; for 
the preventing whereof in parte, and as much as lyeth in the said Sir 
George Gary, and to the intent that he the said Sir G. Gary may be 
the better enabled to advance and preserve Edward Gary and Dudley 
Gary, gents., two other of his nephewes, the said Sir G. Gary doth in 
the presence of Sir Robert Riche of Wallington, co. Norf., Kt., 
Nathaniel Riche of Leeze, co. Essex, Esq., Richard Savery of Willing, 
John Fowell of Totnes, Robert Savery of Willing, co. Devon, Esqrs., 
and Chistopher Brooking of Totnes, merchant, revoke the uses of 
the recited deed except as to the manors of Gockington and St. Mary- 
church. Sealed with the Gary arms and quarterings. 

3 Oct. 8 James I. Conveyance by Sir William Kirkham of Black- 
don, Devon, Kt. to Richard Reynell of Ford, Esq. and Tristram 
Stephens of Northlew, gent, of the tenement called Stantor in Marldon, 
Devon. Consideration £300 paid by Sir George Gary of Gocking- 
ton, Kt. 

By the Marychiirch Manor Rolls it appears that the last Court 
held for Sir George Gary was on the 21st Nov. 14 James I. The 
next on 17 May 15 James I. was held for Letitia his widow, Richard 
Reynell, John Bingley, and Edward Gary, Esqrs. 

12 and 13 January 161|. Lease and release between Edward Gary 
of Bradford, Devon, Esq., as executor of his uncle Sir George Gary 
and Edward Cholwich of Harberton, Devon, gent, of the manor of 

20 Nov. 1618. Conveyance of the manor of Stokenham by the 
Rt. Hon. Robert (Rich) Earl of Warwick, Richard Waltham, and 
Richard Reynell to Edward Gary of Bradford, Esq., reciting Ameri- 


deth's conveyance of 20 May, 6 James I. and deed of 20 January, 
9 James I. by whicli Sir George provided that within three months 
after his decease the trustees should convey the premises to the use 
of Lady Letitia, his wife, in augmentation of her dowry, with re- 
mainder to Edward Gary his nephew, and son of his brother John, &c. 
and reciting the death of Sir George, &c. 

Valor sive extentus (on a long parchment roll written on both 
sides) of the manors, &c. lately belonging to Richard Gary, Esq. 
deceased, and which at his death descended to John Gary Esq. his 
brother and next heir; which said Richard Gary died 25th May, 

19 James I. the said John being of the full age of seventy years and 
upwards, as proved by Inquisition taken at the Gastle of Exon, 3 May, 

20 James I. and on the 17th day of June, 19 James I. the said John 
applied for a special licence under the King's hand to hold the manor 
of Grendell or Grendon and Salterton in Woodbury, the manors of 
Cockington, Ghilston, St. Maryclmrch, Goffinswell, Xorthlew, Ash- 
water, Bradford, Abbotsham, Meeth, Goodley, Northam, Frithelstock, 
Feniton Malherbe, Prescott and Grediton Galliard, with their appur- 
tenances, &c. all in CO. Devon. Also rents in a great number of 
specified Estates and the Rectories of Tormohun and Gockington, the 
advowsons of Ashwater, Bradford, Meeth, Goodley and Feniton in 
Devon. The manor of Stockland, &c. in Dorset and messuages in 
Wellington in Somerset. 

16 March, 21 James I. Lease by Edward Gary ^' of the Gytie and 
County of Exon," Esq. to Peter and Stephen Dyer of Paington, of a 
close called Under Yolland, and reciting a former lease of the same 
dated 1 Sept. 4 James I. by Sir George Gary deceased, " late fermor 
of the manor of Preston." 

26 July, 2 Gharles I. Assignment by Edward Gary of Stantor, 
Esq. and George his son and heir apparent to Sir John King, Kt. of 
the manor of Stokenham and manor and advowson of Ashwater, Devon, 
and of the Rectory and Sheaf of Dongarvon, co. Waterford, provided 
the said George Gary should ratify the same within one month after 
coming of age. 

The Ashwater Manor Rolls describe the lord as Edward Gary, 
Esquire, for the last time at the Gourt held 27 December, 3 Gharles I. 
At the next com-t held 7 April, 4 Gharles I. he is styled Sir Edward 
Gary, Knight. 

Gommonwealth. Two bills in Ghancery addi-essed " To the Right 
Honble. the Lords Commissioners for y^ custody of y^ Greate Scale of 


England," filed by Sir Edward Cary of Stantor against Upton, Drew, 
and others, tenants of lands at Shipliay in St. Marychnrch, Devon, 
who, taking advantage of the snspension of the Ecclesiastical Courts, 
had refused to pay tithes. Plaintiff being deprived of other means of 
redress appeals to Chancery. Mentions calves as worth 20s. each, to 
150 lambs as worth £37 10s. and to 200 fleeces of wool as worth £30. 
A small scrap of paper evidently containing a record of the dates of 
birth of children of Sir George Cary of Torre Abbey. 

george 16: march 5 [3] 

John 7 dec: 57 

Eliz. 6 Oct: 59 

franc es 9 June 67 

Mary [Margery?] 23 Oct. 72 

Constance 27 Aug. 73. 
14 Nov. 1657. Sir William Courtenay and other trustees to Sir 
George Cary. Eelease of lands, &c. granted for payment of debts. 
Provides for raising £1,000 each for Cecilia the daughter, and of 
George the younger son, of the said Sir George, and £500 each for 
every other child which should thereafter be born to the said Sir 

17 Nov. 1657. Sir George Cary of Newparke, co. Southampton, 
Kt. to Christopher Maynard of Totnes, merchant. Assignment of 
leases under which Sir George held the Eectories of St. Marychnrch 
and Paington for the lives of himself and his brother Thomas. George 
Blount a witness. 

29 December, 1662. Conveyance by John Stowell, of Parke in 
Bovey Tracy, esq., to Sir George Cary of Newparke, co. Southampton, 
Kt., of the mansion house, site, and demesnes of the late dissolved 
monastery of Torre alias Torre Abbey, &c., formerly in the occupation 
of Sir Hugh Pollard, Kt., Sir Edward Seymour, Lord Seymour, the 
Rt. Hon. the Earl of Londonderry, Sir Robert Parkhurst, Kt., all 
deceased, and of Sir Robert Parkhurst, the son of the latter, and now . 
of the said J. Stowell. 

13 February, 166i. Appointment by Sir George Cary of Torre 
Abbey, Kt., of attornies to receive seizin of the tithes of St. Mary- 
church, granted to Sir George by the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, by 
lease dated 10 Dec, 16 Chas II., for the lives of the lessee and of his 
sons Edward and George. John Cary a witness. 

2 May, 1674. Deed endorsed by Sir George Cary, ''The counter 
of my security to my brother Southcote in order to the Rectory of 


St. Mary ell iircli." John Sonthcote is described as of Buckland Tout- 
saints, gent. 

1675. (?) From a pajier containing observations in the handwriting 
of Sir George Gary, apparently to supply particulars as to title. " Mr. 
Edward Gary was second nephew unto S^ George Gary, long since 
deceased, and reputed ever, to have been the father of the present S"" 
George Gary. The estate was given by his uncle S^ George Gary 
unto his sayd nephew Mr. Edward Gary, during his naturall life, and 
after his decease to his eldest sonne, which is the present S"" George 

Gary " " Mr. George Gary is noe other than the present 

S^" George Gary, who, by the importunities of the late Lord Francis 
Earle of Rutland, whose niece he married, was by King Gharles the 
First knighted at Greenwich, not alike against his inclinations." 

" Mr. Edward Gary was the second nephew to that S'" 

George Gary long since deceased ; he was three yeares Lord High 
Treasurer of L'eland, and three years after that Lord-Dej^uty of 
Ireland, and this Mr. Edward Gary was then principall Secretary 
unto his uncle S^' George Gary." 

5 Dec. 1678. Lease of Tremlynch in St. Mary church by Dame 
Elizabeth Gary and Edward Gary to R. Sprague. Elizabeth Gary is 
a witness. 

21 and 22 March, 167f. Dame Elizabeth, widow of Su* George 
Gary, Kt., deceased, and Edward the eldest and George the second 
sons of the same, to trustees. Gonveyance of several manors, &c., for 
payment of debts and raising £5,000 for younger children. Recites 
Will of Sir George, dated 15 April, 1678, devising to his wife and 
sons, Edward and George, his manors, &c , for discharge of debts and 
raising £5,000 for his daughters Elizabeth, Frances, Margery, and 
Gonstance, and his four younger sons Ghristopher, John, Charles, and 

Paper endorsed (probably in 1709) by George Gary, who died 
1758. " My onkle Norbett's accounts and aunt Drew," containing 
an account of sum due from Norbert Gary's estate for his " dyet, 
funeral expences, suit of clothes, &c." Below are memoranda signed 
by Thomas Manby, Ghristopher Gary, and Frances Gary, 3rd April, 
1697, and by George Blount, 26 Oct. 1698. By another account it 
appears that the shares of Gharles and Norbert Gary, the deceased 
sons of Sir George, were divided amongst their mother, brothers and 
sisters, and that Gharles must have died 12 years before Norbert. 
This paper affords evidence that Thos. Manby and Geo. Blount had 


previously married the daughters of Sir George Gary, but that 
Frances's marriage to Thomas Drew had not yet taken place. 

From a schedule in the handwriting of Nicholas Gove, steward of 
the Gary estates. 

Oct. 1718. Letters administration to G. Gary, Esq. to his father. 

Jan. 1721. Administration to Geo. Gary, Esq. to his brother 

April 1721. Administration to Geo. Gary, Esq. to his sister 

10 Aug. 1723. Receipt from Mr. DrcAV in full for his lady's 
portion, and his share of Mr. Gharles and Mr. Norbert Gary's. 

3 April, 1697. Mr. Ghristopher Gary's Release to his brother 

25 June, 1684. Mrs Eliza Gary's Release to her brother Edward 
of her portion. 

2 May, 1724. Mr. John Gary's full discharge to his nephew 
George Gary, Esq. for his portion given by Sir George Gary. 

4 Sept. 1735. Mr. John Gary's widow's acquittance of her hus- 
band's share of Mr. Gharles and Mr. Norbert Gary's portions. 

26 Aug. 1723. Mr. Manby's release of his dividend of Mr. Thos. 
and Mrs. Wine Gary's effects. George Gary and Peter Gary (?) are 

7 Jan. 1722. Mr. William Gary's ditto. 

3 Jan. 1722. Mr. Isacke's release of his share of Mr. Thomas 
Gary's estate (signs Saml. Isacke of city of Exeter, junr.). 

12 May, 1705. Bill filed in Ghancery by Thomas Drew, of Har- 
vington Hall, in the parish of Ghaddesley Gorbett, co. Worcester, and 
Frances his wife, one of the daughters of Sir George Gary, late of 
Torre Abbey, Kt. deceased, against George Gary, Esq. arising out 
of the will of Sir George, and referring to the various members of the 
family, as already mentioned. 

Papers relating to a suit of Gibbon v. Gary, showing that Mr.- 
Gibbon died September 1713. 

7 Jany. 171 g. Isacke et Uxor v. Gary. Depositions in Ghancery. 

These supply the history of the stolen match between Samuel, son 
of Samuel Isacke, the chamberlain of Exeter, and Ann, eldest child of 
Edward Gary, Esq., of Torre Abbey. They shew that Isacke was an 
attorney of no estate, except " one little house worth about 40^. a year 
in the citty of Exeter, which his father had given him to make him a 
free voater upon certaine elections in the said Citty "—that he 


neglected his business and '' sometimes uses hunting and sometimes 
shooting " — that he had secretly married Ann Gary three years before 
the date of the paper — that about three weeks after the marriage Ann 
fled from her father's house in the night by a back way, leaving by an 
extinguished candle the note already printed in p. 88. Among the 
deponents is George Gary, of Tormohun, gent., a^t. 18. 

17 April, 1728. In Ghancery. Moore v. Bealing. The deeds 
constituting a mortgage of Ton-e Abbey for £1,500 are certified to 
be held by Mr. Pigott as trustee of Lady Moore, the Plaintiff. (This 
was Mary, daughter of Edward Gary, who was married first to Sir 
Francis Moore.) 

8 Aug. 1728. Assignment by George Gary, of St. Giles Middlesex, 
gent., uncle of George Gary, of Torr Abbey, Esq., to the said G. Gary, 
of all his interest in the fortune of his sister Margery Gibbon. 

19 Feb. 1729. In Ghancery. Gibbon v. Gary. This Bill, re- 
lating to the marriage portion of Margery Gibbon, deceased, was filed 
by George Gibbon against George Gary, Esq., and states that he was 
oldest son and heir of Edward Gary, Esq., the eldest son and heir of 
Sir George Gary, both of Torre Abbey, and tliat Margery was wife of 
Thomas Gibbon, serjeant-at-law, the deceased father of the plaintiff. 
There is a bundle of papers relating to this suit, including several 
letters addressed to George Gary, Esq , of Torre Abbey, by E. Manby 
(son of Sir Thomas Manby), a lawyer who seems to have had the 
conduct of the defendant's case. He addresses Mr. Gaiy as " D^" 
Gousen," and on the 4th Feb. 17-^, refers to the recent death of his 
father, and to his having by his will left his share " of Aunt Gibbon's 
fortune to my brother Robert and me." He had also written to " my 
uncle in Portugal " [John Gary]. In another letter the same writer 
refers to his "uncle John in Portugal," and in one of 13 Oct., 1730, 
he observes " my imcle Drew [who married Frances Gary] was seized 
yesterday morning with an apoplectick fitt and dyed in a quarter of an 

27 Jan. 1730. The answer of the defendant George Gary to the 
above bill states that his father Edward Gary was one of three brothers 
and three sisters left surviving the said Margery Gibbon, who had 
died without issue. 

18 June, 1736. Agreement for a settlement of the above suit. It 
appears that, in the absence of issue of Margeiy Gibbon, the Plaintiff 
claimed her marriage portion as administrator of his father Thomas 
Gibbon, who had survived his wife, but that G. Gary the defendant 


claimed it as administrator of Margery Gibbon. G. Gary was to pay 
G. Gibbon £1,326, and each party to pay his own costs. 

Michaelmas Term, 1749. In Chancery : Geo. Gary Esq. ads. John 
Gary, gent. This Answer of George Gary, the Defendant, refers to a 
deed of his parents Edward and Mary Gary in May 1688, by which 
Thomas Wyndham and Edward Blount, Esqrs. were appointed 
trustees of the wife's estates in Wilts, Leicester and Middlesex ; also 
to sums of £800 each settled on Frances, Margery, and Gonstance 
Gary, and £400 each on John, Charles and Norbert Gary. 

13 Jan., 1752. In Ghancery : George Gary v. Anne Rowe. 
Deposition of Francis Gary of Berry Pomeroy, Gent., shewing that 
on the death of his brother William Gary, Anne Eowe the Defendant 
" possessed herself of his effects in a very unbecoming manner, abused 
his brother's relations, and acted quite disagreeable to the interest of 
his children," that she was unfit to have the guardianship of William's 
daughter Dorothy, an infant ; and deponent considers his eldest 
brother George, the Plaintiff, the fittest to be Dorothy's guardian ; 
being " a gentleman of a large fortune and good character, and being- 
able (and as this deponent believes, intending) to advance his said 
deceased brother's children as may be expected in a family where 
there are no other children of the name." 

17 May, 1759. Release of Glaini of Francis Gary and others to the 
effects of John Gary. Parties : Francis Gary of Berry Pomeroy, 
Gent. ; Mary Manby, late of St. George-the-Martyr, co. Midd., 
but now of .... CO. Essex, widow ; John Rowe of Sparkwell in 
Staverton, co. Devon, surgeon ; and Ann his wife, only child of Ann 
(Gary) wife of Samuel Isacke, deceased. Recites that John Gary of 
Ghescombe in Marldon, Devon (see p. 32), gave 100 guineas each 
to F. Gary, M. Manby, and Elizabeth Gary (who died before him 
whereby her legacy lapsed), and appointed his brother W^illiam 
executor, who dying in testator's lifetime, the residuary estate lapsed 
and became divisible between George Gary, late of Torre Abbey ; the - 
said Francis Gary and Mary Manby; and George, Edward, and 
Dorothy, children of the said William Gary. Also recites Adminis- 
tration to George Gary to estate of his deceased brother John, which, 
being insufficient, George Gary nevertheless paid all the debts and 
some of the legacies beyond the amount of John's assets. 

13 July, 1764. Release by Dorothy Gary of Torre Abbey, spinster, 
to her brother George Gary of Torre Abbey, of all claim to her share 
of the estates of her father William Gary, and of her uncles George 


and John. Reciting that George Gary had l.y his will charged his 
estate with £10,000, the interest to be paid to his widow the Hon. 
Ann Gary for life, and the principal to be divided at her death as she 
might by her will direct amongst her nephews George and Edward, 
and her neice the said Dorothy ; also reciting the will of said Ann 
Gary, dated 11 October, 1758, giving £4,000 to the said Dorothy 
" her dear beloved god-danghtei* and neice," on her giving this release, 
and that the said Dorothy accej^ted the bequest subject to this condi- 
tion. She therefore (with the consent of her intended husband Edward 
Meynell of Kilvington, co. York, Esq.) discharges her brother George. 

15 June, 1785. In Ghancery. Rowe v. Gary. John Rowe, late 
of Kingston, Devon, but now of New Norfolk Street, Hanover Square, 
Middlesex, Esq. prays an enquiry into the accounts of a partnership 
between himself and his kinsman, George Rowe of Kingsweare, Devon, 
Newfoundland merchant, which was to expire at Lady day 1748, if 
both should so long live. George died 17 November, 1745, leaving 
his sister Dorothy, then the wife of William Gary of Kingswear, gent. 
his residuary legatee and sole executrix. Dorothy having died in 
1746, her husband became George Rowe's legal representative, and 
took possession of his property. Difficulties arose between the Plain- 
tiff' and William Gary, on whose death in December 1750, intestate, 
his brother George of Torre Abbey, as his administrator, became 
George Rowe's legal representative and guardian of William Gary's 
two sons, George and Edward, and daughter Dorothy, all under age. 

11 March 1814. Manor of Hampstead. Surrender by Thomas 
Seymour to John Gary, Esq., and the latter's admission as tenant of a 
house at West End, Hampstead, in which he then resided. Gon- 
sideration £1,200. Gourt fees £112 "2s. 

Survey Book of the Mallock family at Gockington. 

10 Jan^ 1653. Dudley Gary, gent, held by grant of Sir Henry 
Gary, K*, a tenement (including a house) at Livermead [in CockiugtonJ 
for the lives of Henry Gary, Dudley Gary Jun»', and William Gary, 
children of the aforesaid D. Gary the elder, 1653. Grant of tenement 
to Edward Gary, gent, by copy of Court Roll. 



The genealogy of tliis family as given in Douglas's Baronage, 
p. 255, seems to be one of those which must be classed as 
" doubtful." It begins with various notices of persons of the 
name whom it does not pretend to connect with one another, but 
an examination of the authorities referred to shews that these 
Adams are just as little to be believed in as the more regular 
pedigree which follows. 

Sir Duncan Adam, knight, is said to have witnessed a donation 
to the monastery of Soltray in the reign of Alexander II., and a 
reference is given to the chartulary of Soltray, Soltre^ or Soutra, 
which, I may remark, was not a monastery, but a church and 
hospital "for the relief of pilgrims and poor or sickly people." 
No Sir Duncan Adam is there to be found, but among the names 
of witnesses are domino Henrico de Ahirnyte et domino Duncano 
jiliis Ade tnilltibus ; that is to say, two brothers, sons of Adam, 
the elder taking his name from his lands, the younger being 
simply Duncan son of Adam. These brothers are also witnesses 
to a charter of Malcolm Earl of Fife to the Abbot and monks of 
Dunfermline, thus, Henrico de Ahirnithe, Duncano Jilio Ade. 

Alexander Adam is stated to have been a contemporary of 
Alexander III., but as no authority is given his existence need 
not be discussed. For " Duncan Adam who flourished in the 
reign of King Robert Bruce, and had four sons, Robert, John, 
Reginald, and Duncan Adams," from whom '*all the Adams, 
Macadams, Adamsons, and Adies in Scotland are descended," the 
chartulary of Dunfermline is made responsible. They are not to 
be found named there, however; but there is a genealogy of John 
son of Adam resident at Kinglassie, Adam being son of John 
Scoloc, whose father and grandfather were respectively Alan 
Gilgwer and Patrick Scurfarauch. 

Nisbet, who is referred to a little lower down, apparently, as 
stating that the younger Duncan accompanied Sir James de 
Douglas in his expedition with King Robert's heart, and " upon 



this occasion added the cross crosslets to his armorial bearing," 
says nothing in the least resembling this ; he quotes from the 
Haddington Collections a letter of manumission by Kobert 1. in 
the fourteenth year of his reign, in favour of Adam (not Duncan) 
son of Adam and his four sons, Robert, John, Reginald, and 
Duncan, persons in a somewhat lower grade of life than "brave 
Scots gentlemen " bearing arms to which cross crosslets could be 
added to commemorate a journey undertaken to the Holy Land. 

Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops is next impressed into 
the service of the Adam family to vouch for '* Reginald or 
Ronald Adam, Bishop of Brechin, probably elder brother of 
Duncan." No Ronald or Reginald appears in that list at all. 
There is Adam, Bishop from 1328 to 1349, without any sur- 
name, but a suggestion is made in a footnote that he might be 
"Adam of Aberbrothock " who appears in the i?o^^^^^ Scotice as 
clerk to Alan Bishop of Caithness and Chancellor of Scotland ; 
in the preface to the Registrum JEpiscopatus Brecliinensis his real 
name Adam de Moravia is given. 

There are then mentioned several families of Adam, Adie, 
Adamson, and Macadam, which really existed, but do not as 
our author asserts all carry "the same figures in their armorial 

The earliest grant in the Lyon Register of an Adam coat is in 
1731 to James Adam of Whitslaid, co. Selkirk, Argent, three 
passion crosses gules; he is probably identical with James, son 
and heir of John Adam, writer in Edinburgh and macer of the 
Court of Session, who died about 1713. James had acquired 
Whitslaid a few years before the registration of his arms, from 
John Scott; and died in 1738^ leaving a son John, who was 
succeeded by his sister Agnes, widow of John Lauder of Carol- 
side, CO. Berwick: so this family soon ended in the male line. 

The M' Adams of Waterhead, a family of good position in the 
stewartry of Kircudbright, bear three arrows; their more ancient 
bearing, one arrow, is said to be cut in stone on their tombstones 
and house ; they claim descent from a younger son of the chief of 
the Macgregors. 

The Adamsons of Craigcrook, co. Edinburgh, and the ^dies 
or Edies of Monecht, co. Aberdeen, both families founded by 


buro:esses, the former in the sixteenth, the latter in the seven- 
teenth century, bore cross crosslets, and the ^dies had the crest 
and motto which were afterwards appropriated by the Adams of 
Blair- Adam. 

The lands of Craigcrook were acquired in 1542 by William 
Adamson, burgess of Edinburgh, and held by his descendants till 
1659, during which time the family intermarried with Napier of 
Merchistoun, Brown of Fordell (twice), Macgill of Rankeillor, &c. 
Their arms, cut on the gateway of the courtyard at Craigcrook 
with the date 1621, were a mullet gules between three cross 
crosslets fitchee azure, with a crescent or for crest, and the motto 
Virtute crescit. It is probable that Patrick Adamson, Archbishop 
of St. Andrew's 1576, who died in 1592, was of this line. 

It is a pity that one family of the name of Adam, who really 
can be traced as small landowners for at least three centuries, is 
left out; they were resident in the parish of Galston, co. Ayr, 
and one of them, George Adam, a mason, was beheaded for 
murder at Edinburgh in lo80. They possessed before this time 
a small property called Brewlands, near Galston, which descended 
to John Adam, who died about the year 1757, when his grandson, 
John Sawer, a cooper in the Gorbals of Glasgow, was served heir 
to him. 

Reginald Adam, according to the "MS. of the Blair- Adam 
family," in the reign of Robert II. '' joined a body of his 
countrymen under the command of Sir James Douglas, who, 
together with John de Vienne, Admiral of France, made a 
successful incursion into Northumberland. It was Reginald's 
fortune to bring off a lady named Catherine Mowbray, daughter 
of an English knight, who being of uncommon beauty, he soon 
afterwards married her." Ridpath in his " Border History " does 
not allude to Reginald and his prize, and Hume of Godscroft in 
his " House and Race of Douglas and Angus " also overlooks this 

The lineal descendant of the marriage, John Adam, is said to 
have lost his life at Flodden; he is the first of six generations of 
Adams of Fanno and Queensmannour in the county of Forfar, 
the sole authority given for whose existence is " Attestation from 
the magistrates of Forfar taken from their books, penes magi^t. 

K 2 


Adams de Maryburgli.'^ One would greatly like to see this 
document, and to know how the descent of a family from 1513 
or earlier to about 1700, with the names of the wives and 
children of its different members, was revealed to the worthy 
magistrates of that quiet old royal burgh. 

I have searched in vain for any notices of these Adams ; none 
of them is to be found named in the Acts of Parliament as 
commissioner of supply, member of the committees of war, 
justice of the peace, officer of militia, or in any other capacity. 
The only special retour in which the name is mentioned in the 
county of Forfar down to the year 1700 is in 1620 of George 
Adam in Ballegarno as heir of his uncle, James Adam, in the 
half of a tenement in Dundee. The index of retours does not 
give the lands of Fanno or Queensmannour at all; these names 
do not appear in Thomson's large County Atlas, nor in the 
modern County Directories of Scotland. Neither the Adams nor 
these lands are named in the Chartularies of Brechin or Arbroath, 
nor in Jervise's Memorials of Angus and Mearns. 

In the Acts of Parliament in 1669 mention is made of the 
widow of John Adam as having occupied part of the lands of 
Torsappie as a tenant. 

This total absence of evidence where it might be expected to 
be found can lead to but one conclusion, that these lairds of 
Fanno and Queensmannour never existed at all. 

VIII. of the genealogy is William Adam, an architect resident 
in Edinburgh, who was interred in the Grey friars churchyard, 
29 June, 1748. A very handsome monument was erected to his 
memory in 1750 by his eldest son John, and in 1827 this was 
repaired and lengthy inscriptions commemorative of various 
members of the family were put up on white marble mural 
tablets by the Right Hon. William Adam. 

The older inscription supplies only the dates of the birth and 
death of William Adam; I have searched the registers of Forfar 
and Edinburgh, but no entry of the baptism of this William, said 
to be son of John Adam and Helen Cranstoun of Lord 
Cranstoun's family, is in either. As the magistrates of Forfar 
attest his parentage, that is the locality in which one would 
expect him to have been born. 


The architect married Mary Robertson, aunt of Principal 
Robertson, and had a large family, of whom Robert and James 
rose to eminence in their father's profession, and both held the 
appointment of architect to the King. In 1773 they commenced 
the publication of plans and elevations of the principal works 
designed by their father and by themselves, among which were 
the Register House and University in Edinburgh, Portland Place 
and the A^delphi in London, Hopetoun and Gosford Houses in 
Scotland, Sion House and Luton in England, and many others 
of importance. These form a series of 105 plates, and are much 
valued, the work, in three imperial folio volumes, fetching a high 
price. The biographical notices of Robert Adam agree in 
making the date of his birth 1728, but differ as to the locality, 
one saying Edinburgh, another Kirkaldy, but his baptism is not 
registered in either place. The family at this time, in spite of 
their alleged descent from a line of Forfarshire landowners, had no 
rio;ht to bear arms, for a ffrant was made to William in 1765 more //J'^ "^ ^^ 
allusive to his professsion than his descent: Yert, a Corinthian ''^' ^ 
column proper between two cross-crosslets fitchee or; crest, the 
original {sic) of a Corinthian capital proper ; motto, Divino Palladis 
arte. In 1765, however, John of JMaryburgh, also an architect, 
the eldest son, was allowed to drop these bearings entirely, and 
to take (quartered with the arms of Robertson, why it might be 
difficult to say as his mother was not an heiress) Argent, a mullet 
pierced azure between three cross-crosslets fitchee gules; crest, a 
similar crosslet, and a sword proper in saltire; motto. Crux mihi 
grata quies. These, with the single exception of the mullet in 
the shield, are the bearings registered about 1673 by David 
-^die of Monecht. 

A further change in the coat armorial of the family was made 
in 1815 for the following reason: John Adam of Maryburgh 
married Jean Ramsay of the family of Woodston in Kincardine- 
shire. In 1758 Alexander Littlejohn, who had a few years be- 
fore inherited Woodston from his uncle John Ramsay, executed 
an entail containing a clause binding all successors to the estate 
to bear the arms of Littlejohn. No such arms, I may remark, 
existed at the time; but in 1761 this deficiency was supplied by 


a grant to tlie entailer, of Argent, three arrows gules, the middle- 
most paleways, the other two saltireways, points downwards* 
banded together, vert; accompanied with six trefoils slipped of 
the last, two in chief, two in fess, and two in base. Mr. Littlejohn 
died soon after, and was succeeded by Thomas, son of Thomas 
Forbes of Thornton, who did not long enjoy the property, and at 
his death in 1769 was succeeded by John Adam, architect in 
Edinburgh, the husband of Jean Kamsay. 

Although the Baronage says that William the first architect 
"purchased many lands, particularly those of Blair in Kinross- 
shire, where he built a house and a village to which he gave the 
name of Mary burgh," it is to be presumed that this property was 
of very moderate extent, as he did not take his designation from 
it. On the tombstone and in the general service of his son John 
(who has no designation), to him in 1748 he is styled simply 
architect in Edinburgh. In 1754, however, the son, as John 
Adam of Maryburgh, architect, is served heir special to his father, 
William Adam, architect in Edinburgh, in one-fourth of Blair of 
Crambeth, and in the south half of the hill of Dowhill, co. 
Kinross. Again, in the services in 1770 and 1777 of this John 
to Thomas Forbes of Woodston, he is designed John Adam, 
architect in Edinburgh. 

In 1792 he died, and his son is served heir special cum heneficio 
inventarii to him, William Adam of Woodston, M.P., to his 
father, John Adam of Maryburgh. 

Mr. William Adam obtained a private Act of Parliament in 
1803 empowering him to sell Woodston, and purchase lands in 
the counties of Kinross and Fife adjacent to Maryburgh, which 
were called the Blair- Adam estate, and to which the entail of 
Woodston with all its obligations was transferred. To enable 
him legally to fulfill these obligations Mr. Adam, then the Right 
Hon. William Adam of Blair- Adam, Lord Chief Commissioner 
of the Jury Court of Scotland, Baron of Exchequer, and a Privy 
Councillor, obtained the sanction of the Lyon Court to bear the 
arms of Littlejohn quartered with the Adam coat granted in 
1765, that of Robertson being very properly dropped. 

Mr. Adam married a daughter of the tenth Lord Elphinstone 
and had a large family, among whom were, John, a member of 


council in Bengal, and in 1823 acting Governor General of India, 
who died before liis father; Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick, 
G.C.B. and G.C.M.G. who died in 1853; and Admiral Sir Charles 
Adam, K.C.B. of Blair- Adam, father of the present William 
Patrick Adam of Blair- Adam, M.P. 

It was the Lord Chief Commissioner who by his success in 
political life rather than as a lawyer raised the family to the 
position it now occupies. The establishment of the Jury Court 
of Scotland is described by Brougham in 1814, writing to Earl 
Grey, as a " glaring job," and of the Chief Commissionership 
with a salary of 4,000/. given to his kinsman Mr. Adam, he goes 
On to say, '^the place may suit him, but that he can suit the 
place is impossible," as his practice at the bar was diminished to a 
mere nothing, and he had not seen a jury for years. Mr. Adam 
had arranged to have the auditorship of the Duke of Bedford's 
estates transferred from himself to his son, and "gets a court 
erected where he may preside without an absolute rebellion of 
the bar after having in vain attempted to find something for 
himself in London, where the profession never could have 
submitted to it." 

There was so little to do in this newly established Court that 
the following riddle by some wit of the Edinburgh Parliament 
House was at once felt to be full of point: Why is the Jury 

Court like Paradise? Because it was made for Adam. 

c * * * 



C Continued from p. 5 5, J 

Bishop Richard IV. de Aungervile alias de Bury 
(1333 — 1345) advcinced tlie position of the see considerably. 
He introduced a circular seal of modest proportions for his 
chancery at Durham, and instead of the book-wise register of his 
predecessor Kellaw for acts in the supposed palatinate and out of 
it, episcopal and civil, we find many of Bury's civil acts in 
chancery rolls which gradually expanded into imitations of the 
royal patent and close rolls. 

None of his own charming seals give the OlOIOUetteb ifHltte, 
but there is no mistake about its assumption, 
as it is the only object on the small seal of his 
sheriff, John de Menevill, above the initials I. M. 
The coronet resembles the crowns on the coins 
of the Edwards. It is here engraved from an 
Indenture made at Gateshead die Mercuric in 
festo Purificacionis B. Marias V. anno pont. d'ni 
R^ de Bury Dunelm. Ep'i sexto (Feb. 2, B. 
1339-40), stating that Walran de Lomley, mayor 
of Newcastle, delivers to John de Menevill, 
sheriff of Durham, the body of Symon Scot, 
taken in Newcastle " pro raptu Agnetis filiae 
Hugonis de Hely in villa de Gatesheued infra 
etatem existentis." 

It appears that this shrievalty device con- 
tinued with Bury's successors. Another example 
is attached to the following instrument : — 

Pateat &c. me Robertum de Laton vie, Dunelm, assignavi 
&c. Robertum de Skelton &c. subballivos meos &c. ad delibe- 
rand. Willelmo de Kellawe averia sua &c. tociens quociens ea 
capi contingerint apud Harbarws et Kellawe per Petrum Teil- 
lyoff [Tillioll] militem. In cujus &c. sigillum meum apposui. 
Dat. Dunelm. die Lunae prox. ante festum S. Petri in Cathedra 
QXiiio pout. nri. Dunelm. quinto (sic). 

The year was 5 Fordham, and the date would be Jan. or Feb. 


1385-6, as if Laton (sherifF 1381-1384) was reinstated after Tho- 
mas de Boynton, 1385, between him and William de Bowes, who 
was appointed 29 Apr. 5 Fordham. 

The next bishop of Durham, Thomas de Hatfield, carried 
matters much further. The episcopal seal, which under Bury 
had arrived at unequalled beauty and truth of portraiture, lost 
the episcopal effigy. The new chancery seal was replaced bv a 
coarse imitation of the royal seals of England, with the bishop 
armed, on horseback, in his feudal aspect, on the obverse, and in 
pontificalibus, seated (as Bek only had been before, and that onlv 
on an episcopal seal,) on the reverse. And the saintly counter- 
seal of vesical shape became a circular privy seal with armorial 
bearings. Bury^s coronet never disappeared. It surrounds Hat- 
field's and Fordham's mitres on the obverses of their palatine seals. 
In the shrinekeeper's account of 1383 (two years after Bishop Hat- 
field's death) two lines have been erased, and their space is occu- 
pied with " Item, here are wanting a coronet of leather, covered 
with sea-green velvet, belonging to Bishop Thomas Hatfield, for 
passages of arms."^ The mitre seems to be omitted in the 
crests of Bishops Skirlaw and Langley, Fordham's successors 
(1388 — 1437). The coronet is there, of three trefoils and two 
pearls as before. On Bishop Langley's (1406 — 1437) stalls in 
Auckland church, a coronet of fleurs a7id plain crosses occurs 
above his private coat and also above a shield with a plain cross. 
Bishop Keville (1438 — 1457) restores the mitre on his palatine 
seal, with a coronet of seven trefoils. Bishop Dudley (1476 — 1483) 
gave five only, but on his privy seal these are much enriched and 
four plainer ones are inserted between them, making a very beau- 
tiful object. The subsequent coronets are comparatively coarse 
and need not be minutely traced. In the Tudor period crosses 
formee are introduced as in the royal crowns. After the Refor- 
mation the coronet frequently occurs on privy seals and behind 
the armed horseman on the obverses of palatine seals rightly, and 
on episcopal seals and reverses of palatine seals wrongly. But 
in this later period, as a rule, the Bishops strangely omit the 
coronet from their helmets on the obverses of their palatine seals. 
The coronet on the episcopal and privy seals (now again vesical) 

» Raine's S. Cutbbert, p. 129. 


of Bishops Trevor and Egerton is a beautiful one of Rvo enriched 
trefoils. One of Bishop Cosin's mitres in the castle of Durham 
does not spring from the coronet but is encircled by it. The 
more ordinary form (with three trefoils only) is placed on a shield 
at the side of that prelate's portrait, in Basire's sermon at his 
funeral in 1672. But on the obverse of his palatine seal, which 
differs from the general series, the helmet is surmounted by an 
earVs coronet and plumes. Bishop Trevor's, if rightly engraved, 
as prefixed to his life in the Allan Tracts, presents the same 
coronet^ which also occurs on plates and cuts which need 
not be enumerated. It arose from a notion that the bishops 
were Counts-palatine of Durham and Earls of Sadberge, a 
demesne manor and wapentake in the county of Northumber- 
land (in which Durham was also a franchise), which Bishop 
Pudsey had acquired with most of its knights' services in the 
reio-n of Richard 1. The subject is not worth much investiga- 
tion. The idea was older than Cosin's time. Hegge, in 1625, 
speaks of Pudsey 's purchase of " the Earldom of Sadbury," and 
there are probably much earlier instances, arising from Sadberge, 
in common with other smaller franchises, being sometimes called 
a county^ a term as elastic as that of shire. It is curious to 
compare the first occurrence of the crowned mitre on a sherijf^s 
seal with Drayton's marshalling of the counties : 

To be embarked when every band comes down 
Each in their order as they mustered were, 
Or by the difference of their armings known 
Or by their colours ; for in ensigns there, 
Some wore the arms of their most ancient town, 
Others again their own devices bear. 

a flaming lance, the Yorkshiremen for them ; 

As those for Durham, near again at hand, 

a MiXxt rrotonetr iuitift a Utatrem.' 

Bishop Bury died in 1345, and was buried in the south-east 
corner of the Nine Altars in his cathedral. He seems to have had 

• " Expect not that to make this Bishoprick uniform with other counties, I should 
present a catalogue of the Sheriffs thereof. For the Princely Prelate of this Bishoprick 
(his seal not Oval like others, but Round, the more princely proportion; and, as I 
remember, gave a Crowned Mitre for his Crest,) was himself always paramouDt 
Sheriffe. "—Ft' ^^er's Worthies. 


some sort of authority for lils chancery seal, as one was provided 
for the vacancy on his death. ^ 

Bishop Thomas Hatfield (1345-1381), as already men- 
tioned, went the length of making a coarse imitation of the great 
seals of the realm. ^ His introduction of the " magnum sigillum 
clausum ad similitudinem sigilli regii in cancellaria sua usitati," 
and the continuation of it by his successors, constituted one of the 
charges in parliament against Bishop Langley in 11 Hen. VI. 

The history of the palatine coronet, which occurs on this seal, 
has already been traced, and before passing to other objects 
occurring in Hatfield's time it will be convenient to consider the 
palatine i^lumeiS. 

There is no trace of a feathery crest for a Bishop of Durham 
prior to Hatfield's palatine seal.^ The object given by him 
strongly resembles that presented in the seal of William de Lati- 
mer (1372). Latimer's crest proceeds out of a sort of flower-pot 
continuation of his helmet. Hatfield's issues from a coronetted 
mitre. The two are presented side by side in Montagu's Heraldry^ 
p. 49, and Latimer's crest is engraved alone in Boutell's English 
Heraldry, p. 143. Each of the designs in question, as engraved, 
looks like one gigantic feather or fern-leaf They are totally 
different from the ordinary panaches, whether of the feathers of 
ostriches or of other birds. 

The succeeding bishops wore differing crests, evidently private, 
and Cardinal Langley's (1406-1437) " crowne of gold above his 
helmet, and within the crowne the crest, being a hush of ostrich 
feathers, finely sett forth in redd and green painted glasse," above 
the altar of SS. Oswald and Lawrence, in the chapel of the Nine 
Altars at Durham, and in the cardinal's palatine seal, where it 
resembles an ordinary panache, can hardly be regarded as an 
exception. Bishop Sherwood's ( 1485-1492 j crest on his pala- 
tine seal is possibly a plume. Bishop Fox's (1494-1502) looks 

' 19 Edw. III. No. 120. De sigillo pro officio cancellarii Ep. Dunolm. Sede 
vacante. Rymer's Syllabus. 

* The effect of the document of 1355, mentioned in Rymer's Syllabus as " pro 
Episcopo Dunolm. de jurisdietione brevia sigillandi," is that the Bishop's writs should 
run in the manor of Crayk, co. York, as they did in the Bishoprick of Durham. 

3 Surtees, Plate IV. No. 1. 


like three small feathers erect, with four others appearing from 
behind. That of Bishop Bainbrigge (1507-1508) is similar, but 
smaller. Bishop Tunstall (1530-1559) gives no crest above the 
mitre at all ; and no palatine seals of his predecessors Ruthall 
and Wolsey, showing a corresponding part of the seal, have 
occurred. In the Parliament Roll of 1515, published by Wil- 
lement, the mitre of the Bishop of Durham is coronetted, and 
seven ostrich feathers are placed within its cavity. 

Bishop Matthew (1595-1606) gives a p>lume of jive ostrich 
feathers behind his helmet, and the seal prepared, about the same 
time, for issuing such processes as, after the time of Henry VIII. 
were to be issued in the county by the Crown, gives a similar 
plume of eight feathers. This seal is still in use. All the subse- 
quent bishops appear to have used these lolmnes, and there is no 
material difference between their appearance on the palatine seal 
of Bishop i\Iatthew and on that of Bishop Van Mildert, with whose 
death the palatinate, such as it w^as, in name expired. That last 
palatine seal is now in the British Museum. The plumes on 
the palatine seal of Bishop Morton (1632-1659) are unusually 
spirited. There is one distinction between the episcopal helmets 
of the pre-Reformation school and those of the modern church 
militant. The post-Reformation folk omit the mitre above the 
helmet in their equestrian portraits. 

The form of the plume when used above the shield may be 
seen at tlie close of the first volume of Hutchinson's Durham 
(1785), where five feathei's, disposed in a semi-circle behind the 
mitre, rise from an earl's coronet. 

We have not any instances of ^ItupalCtltCUtS of the official and 
private arms of the Bishops of Durham until the time of Bishop 
Fox (1494-1502), although such impalements had to some ex- 
tent been used by the Archbishops of York and Canterbury in 
the latter part of the 14th century. It is indeed said that Bishop 
Hatfield gave a banner at the Siege of Calais, displaying " the 
paternal arms of his family, viz. Ermine^ a chevron S. impaled 
with the See of Durham."^ But if this is derived from one of 

' Collier's Ecc. Hist. i. 572, per Hutchinson's Durhana, i. 300; 4 Ant. Rep. 1809, 


the rolls of the persons present at tlie siege, other copies give 
E. a chevron S. without the impalement, and the arms them- 
selves can hardly be sustained. Nicolas, in his preface to his 
edition in 1828 of the Roll of Arms temp. Edw. 11. , observes that 
it is very doubtful whether the blazon of the arms existed in the 
original of the Calais Roll. The coat is that of the Hatfields of 
Holderness according to their Elizabethan pedigree. But Bishop 
Hatfield's seals give for his shield and trappings a chevron betiveen 
three lions rmnpant, and, as to the tinctures, irrespective of pre- 
sent appearances on his noble tomb, we have the evidence of 
Dugdale's Church Notes, and an earlier writer, Theophilus 
Brathwaite, c. 1655, that they were 13* a C^Cbron (B* t)ft\XI0Cn 
ti^ree Itong rampant !,♦ The bishop's privy seal gives Uo7is as 
supporters. His chalice, having on its boss " scuta armorum ejus- 
dem Episcopi cum iij leunculis argenteis,^' is hardly evidence, for 
Bishop Skirlaw also had three cups, each standing on three lions, 
and the priory in 1446 had one standing on thi^ee gilded leopards. 
On first consideration no reason might suggest itself why the 
chevron might not be taken from the Holderness coat, with the 
tinctures altered, and the lions added from the arms of the church 
of Durham, to distinguish Bishop Hatfield as a younger son. 
But it must be remembered that he names no Holderness relatives 
in his will. He leaves his worldly wealth to Thomas de AVood- 
stock, whose wife was heiress of the Bohuns, and to his own 
nephew, John de Popham, whose name savours not of York- 
shire. John de Bohun Earl of Essex was the patron of our 
Thomas Hatfield in his early days, having presented him to the 
living of Dibden in Essex in 1332, and is said to have been some 
relation^ of him, although the Bishop's bequest may have merely 
been one of gratitude. This John de Bohun died in 1335, 
seised of Hatfield in Essex, and he had no connection with 
Holderness. The Bohun arms were B. a bend A. cotised 0. be- 
tween six lions rampant 0. The clergy, even when of hio-h 
family, as in Bishop Bury's case, generally took the name of 
their birthplace, which only occasionally coincided with the 
surname of their parents. In this case, however, it is remark- 

1 1 Hutchinson, 300. 


able that in tlie rolls preserved by Charles (Harl. MS. 6589) we 
have among the chevrons, between Sir Thomas Dagworth^ and 
Sir de Gumnoys, this entry: " Et Sr. de Hatfeld p. de Sable 
un cJieveron ctOr et trois lionceiix d'Arg. et un molatt Sable 
en point le clieveron" Changing the field from black to blue, 
and omitting the mullet, these are Bishop Hatfield's arms. They 
occur also in a collection of arms from rolls prefixed to Robert 
Surtees' copy of Glover's Ordinary. There they are given, for 
" Tho. Hatfeld," between Thomas Eussell and Thomas Hes- 
larton. The suggestion of these things is that Bishop Hatfield 
came from a Hatfield in the South, and brought his arms with 

The subject is complicated further by the posthumous history 
of the arms worn by Bishop Hatfield. During the episcopates 
of Bishops Fordham, Skirlawe, and Langley, his immediate suc- 
cessors, we see nothing of them, but Bishops Xeville, Booth, and 
Dudley (1438-83) used the chevron between three lions rampant 
under S. Osivald's image at the dexter side of their seals ad 
causas, which present S. Oswald's coat, the plain cross between four 
lions, at the sinister side under S. Cuthbert ; the private arms of 
these prelates being under the central figure of the Virgin. I 
can only conjecture that the heraldry is taken from some seat 
made in Hatfield's time, whereon justice in the causes was ad- 
ministered, on one of the shields of which the personal arms of 
the reigning bishop were painted on each change of episcopate. 

So far, at all events, the coat is thoroughly episcopal. Yet 

' This name, unusual in the North, occurs in Hatfield's Rolls. In 19 Hatfield 
there was a recognLzance from Rohert Gray of Neubiggyng to the Bishop and Tho- 
masia widow of John de Dagworth. In 20 Hatfield it was stated that Thomasia de 
Dagworth had received a grant of the custody of some of Thomas de Esshe's lands. 
Thomas of Woodstoch, to whom Bishop Hatfield left his chattels, was son of 
Edward III. and married Eleanor, elder daughter and coheir of Humphrey de Bohun, 
Earl of Hereford, and was murdered in 1397. His wife's father was nephew and 
heir of Humphrey de Bohun (who died 1361), and heir of John de Bohun men- 
tioned in the text. John de Bohun had a sister Alianor, married first to James 
Butler, Earl of Ormond, and secondly to Thomas de Dagworth, whose son Sir 
Nicholas is a witness to Hatfield's will. In 1382, Sir Nicholas Dagworth, in the 
name of Thomas [of Woodstock, afterwards] Duke of Gloucester, John Fordhome, 
Bishop of Ely [Hatfield's successor], and Isabella [de Coucy] the King's daughter 
were sponsors together. (Beltz's Garter, 191.) 


some (the editors of the Monasticon^ amongst others, if we may 
believe the initial letter,) have supposed that the sigillary and 
monumental coat was not Bishop Hatfield's private coat, but the 
bearing of the priory. I have a note, " Priojy of Durham, arms 
of, according to Eeyner in his Apostolatus Benedictinorum in 
Anglia, A chevron between three lions argent. Grey's MSS." 
Then we have the modern dictionaries giving for Durham 
Monastery,^, a cross between four lions rampant 0. {var. A.) ; 
for Durham Priory, B. a clievron hetweeii three lions rampant 0.; 
for Durham See, B. a cross 0, between four lions rampant A.; 
and for Durham Deanery, B. on a cross 0. between four lions 
rampant A, the letter D S. These last coats occur together under 
old views of the cathedral, with the lions 0. 

The notion about the priory having Hatfield's coat may be 
founded upon its occurrence in the -large window of the hall in 
the prior's house, now the deanery. The coloured glass is poor 
and coarse, and consists of four roundels containing shields with 
ogee ends. 

I. Dark purple. Arms : G. a lilaiii cross hetween four lions rampant 0. [S. Os- 

II. Green, with tracery as diapering. Arms: £. a chevron 0. hetween three lions 
rampant A. [Bishop Hatfield.] 

III. Green, with tracery as in No. ii. Arms: B. a cross pato7ice 0. hettveenfour 
lions rampant A. [S. Cuthbert.] 

IV. Golden rays from the shield. Arras: B. a sword in pale A. hilted and ]yomellecl 
0. transfixing a heart G. winged 0. [Our Lady, or Prior Castell.] 

Judging from the seals of Hatfield and the early armigerous 
priors, neither the shape of the shields nor the bad character of 
the glass is sufiicient to prove that it is of late date ; but on the 
whole the work very likely is CastelPs, and unfortunately he was 
a restorer and given to imitating the Decorated style. It is always 
difficult to say whether he is copying, or attempting to renew 
a dead style, or paying compliments, or really exemplifying the 
feelings of his own day.^ The deanery glass, therefore, must not 
be accepted as strict proof of anything more than that the coats 
contained in it were well known and respected at Durham. 

That the arms ascribed to S. Cuthbert, B. a ci'oss patonce 0, 

1 Edition 1817, i. 219. 

2 To "the works of Prior Castell," enumerated by me in Archceologia ^liana, 
vi. 201, must be added the beautiful ceiling in the deanery. 


betiveenfour lions rampant A. were the real arms of the priory as 
early as Hatfield's time, is plain from the seals of the priors who 
succeeded Fossor. But before proceeding to them, the con- 
tinuation of the history of the (CroSSeS b3itf)0Ut liOttS claim our 

During his episcopate the Battle of Keville's Cross was fought. 
Knio-hton, who wrote soon after it, speaks of the monks singing 
Te Demn on seeing the victory from the summit of the bell 
tower of the cathedral, and of the special faith of the English in 
the sio-n of the Cross which was borne with other ensigns before 
their army. That this was the standard of S. Cuthbert is pro- 
bable enough, but we need not accept all the statement in the 
Rites of Durham y written soon after the Dissolution. According 
to it Prior Fossor was commanded in a vision 

to take " the holie corporax cloth, which was within the corporax, wherewith Saint 
Cuthbert did cover the chalice when he used to say masse, and to put the same 
holie relique, like unto a Banner {var. Banner Cloth), upon a speare point," and to 
repair to the Red Hill, and there to remain with the relic during the whole of the battle. 
" Shortelie after the said prior caused a goodly and sumptuous Banner to be maid, 
and, with pippes of silver, to be put on a staffe, being fyve yerds longe, with a device 
to taike of and on the said pipes at pleasure, and to be keapt in a chyste in the 
Ferretorie, when they weare taken down. Which Banner was shewed and carried in 
the said abbey on festival and principall dales. On the highte of the overmost pipe 
was a faire pretie Crosse of silver and a wand of silver, having a fyne wroughte knopp 
of silver at either end, that went overthwart the Banner Cloth, whereunto the Banner 
Cloth was fastened and tyed, which wand was of the bignes of a man's fynger, and 
at either end of the saide wande there was a fyne silver bell. The wand was fast by 
the myddle to the Banner staffe, hard under the Croose. The Banner Clothe was a 
yerd brode, and five quarters deape, and the nether part of it was indented in five 
parts, and frenged, and maid fast withall about with read silke and gold. And also 
the said Banner Cloth was maid of read velvett, of both sydes most sumptuously 
imbrodered and wrought with flowers of grene silke and gold. And in the mydes of 
the said Banner Cloth was the sayde holie relique and corporax cloth inclosed and 
placed therein, which corporax cloth was covered over with white velvett, half a yerd 
square every way, having a Red Crosse of read velvett on both sydes over the same 
holie relique [here the writer seems to return to the banner as a whole], most artifi- 
ciallie and cunynglie compiled and framed, being fynely fringed about the edge and 
scirts with frenge of read silke and golde, and three litle fyne silver bells fast to the 
scirts of the said Banner Cloth, like unto sackring bells, and, so sumptuouslie finished 
and aVjsolutely perfitted, was dedicated to holie Saint Cuthbert, of intent and purpose 
that the same should be alwaies after presented and carried to any battell, as occasion 
should serve ; and which was never caryed or shewed at any battell, but, by the 
especiall grace of God Almightie, and the mediacione of holie Saint Cuthbert, it 
browghte home the victorie. 


That Prior Fossor renovated the old standard at tliis period, 
placing the Norman design the opposite way, is likely enough. 
I need not pursue its history more than heraldry demands; but its 
red cross, to whatever it alluded, fitly commences a summary of 
the remaining evidences as to Crosses in connection with Durham, 
whether of any local bearing, or connected with SS. Michael and 
George. I begin with the latter class. 

The church of S. Michael at Durham, where the body of 
Bp. William I. temporarily rested,^ is now unknown, but the 
churches of the Bishop's demesne manors of Houghton and 
Heighington are dedicated to that archanged. 

An early seal of the borough of Alnwick presents the patron 
saint of its church, S. Michael, with a shield bearing a c7'oss 
patonce, with reference to which it is to be observed that G. a 
cross patonce A. composed the arms of the Vescies Lords of Aln- 
wick; but on the great seal of King Henry V. S. Michael has 
a plain cross.^ Bearing this variation in miod and that Bp. Hat- 
field had a blue bed with images of S. George,^ we come to the 

' Bedford's Symeon, 247. 

2 1348. Ego Willelmus de Insula, Magister Domus de Fame, recepi de domino 
Miduiell de Chilton tunc procuratore ecclesise de Norham 10/. S' Willelmi de 
Insula. A figure stqrplicating S. Michael, wlio hears a shield charged with a plain 
cross. (Raine's North Durham, Appendix, 127.) 

^ Bishop Hatfield, in his will, bequeathed " domino Thomae de Wodestoke, Comiti 
de Bukyngham, lectum meum broudatum cum signis de wodtvese et arhoriius.'''' And 
the same bishop's mortuary includes " lectus cum v cortinis de samytte et satyn indict 
coloris, cum ymaginibus S. Georgii martiris armatis, et viij tapecia lanea ejusdemlecti 
et coloris cum Wodwysse in avniis ejusdem intextis." Chambre says that Hatfield 
gave to the church " unum lectum de hlodio brudato cum woodwise, cum multi 
tapesiis et cortinis de eadem secta." W^ith reference to these wild men of the woods 
and S. George, I would quote a passage from a volume of inventories (1376-1470) 
of C. C. C. Cambridge, which Mr. Riley, in the Historical MSS. Commissioners' First 
Report, p. 6Q, translates thus : 

"The fourth set of vestments consists of a bed and ' coverlyt,' and ' boster ' 
(bolster), and ' powdrer ' (? pillow), and three * ridelys ' (curtains), the set of which 
is of white linen cloth, and dyed (steynatse}, after the following fashion, namely : 
There is a man \<'hose name is ' Wodewose," standing by a tree, and extending his 
hand to his crest, and upon his shield is written thus, ' Rad I ivyst ;'' and on the other 
side there is a woman standing, ' Sivodewose ' by name, and extending one hand to 
her breast, and near her other hand is this writing, ^ And y icyst ;" and between them, 
the man and the woman, namely, there is a tree, and upon the tree there hangs a 
shield, the ' chawme ' (field) of which is white, and there is a red cross painted in the 
middle of the shield. And Master Thomas de Eltisle, master of the college, gave all 


cases where we have the two warlike saints or their respectiA^e 
arms together. 

In the first window, from the east, of the north aisle in York 
Minster tlie following figures occur in the border, on each side of 
the arms of England. At the dexter *' a knight in white banded 
mail ornamented with the yellow stain, wearing a coiffe de mailles 
and having a spear, belted sword, rowelled spurs, and long sur- 
cote displaying G. a cross ^." At the sinister "a knight in 
yellow banded mail without a spear, but in other respects like 
the last, on whose surcote is displayed A. a cross (r. ; "^ but I 
hardly like to found any argument on this glass.^ 

On the reverse of the palatine seals of Bishops Fordham, Skir- 
law, and Langley (1381-1437) the bishop is seated between 
figures of SS. Michael and George, each saint having a shield 
charged with, a plain cross. Bishop Neville (1438-1457) changed 
the type. The two saints remain, but S. George has no shield, 
and S. MichaePs has some fanciful device.^ The same may be 
said of his shield on the palatine seal of Bishop Dudley (1476- 

those six pieces, that is to say, the whole set of bedding, to the college, upon whose 
soul may the Most High have mercy. And also upon one ' ridel ' (curtain) there 
are six pairs of men and women, that is, twelve men and women, that is to say, six 
men and six women. And on the ' powdrer * (pillow) there are nine pairs of men 
and women, making eighteen in all; and on each side of that ' powdrer' there are 
added three pairs, that is, three heads of men, with bodies, and three heads of women, 
with bodies, and three tops of trees, with the trunks with a shield of S. George thereon, 
and the same words. And at the foot of the same * powdrer ' there are three pairs, 

namely, three heads of women, and three crests and trees with a shield of S. 

George, and the same words. And the * cuverlit ' contains three pairs of men and of 
women, and the tester consists of one ' ridel,' each ' ridel ' being as well 20 (feet) in 
length as in breadth." 

" The latent meaning of the above description, so curiously worded too, it is pro- 
bably impossible to guess," says Mr. Riley. 

Several families of Wood (as those of Barnsley, co, York, Baronets, now extinct,) 
bear Azure, three naked woodmen or savages carrying clubs and shields A. charged 
with a crosj G. 

' Winston and Walford. 

2 The glass is obscure to the naked eye. The red surcote has the lower limb of its 
white cross very long, and in 1641 it was drawn as A. tuv jmles G. The red cross 
seems to be on a slueld rather than on a surcote. In 1641 it was drawn as a doi(hle- 
headed eagle S. I feel equal reluctance in mentioning a shield in the opposite 
window, the first of the south aisle, T". a plain cross G. 

3 Surtees, Plate IV. Nos. 5, 6. 


1483). On Bishop Sherwood's (1485-1492) the warlike saints 
have disappeared. 

On the gateway of Kaby castle a shield with a -plain cross is 
placed between the arms of Neville and Latimer. All three 
shields are within garters, and the builder, John Neville, husband 
of Elizabeth Latimer, was a knight of the order and died in 
1388. His son Ealph, the great Earl of Westmerland, was also 
a K.G., and the occurrence of the plain cross beside the saltire of 
Neville on the ten stone brackets which supported the old leaden 
roof of the chancel of Gainford church,^ and above the doorway 
there,^ and upon the great gateway of Hilton castle^ may pos- 
sibly be explained by that circumstance. The instances following 
are more interestinor. 

Dugdale, in 1666, saw in glass in windows of the 14th cen- 
tury in the Neville aisle of Staindrop church, G. a plain cross A.^ 
and A. a plain cross G. together beside Neville.* In glass at 
Woodhouse Chapel, Leicestershire, of Henry VI.'s period, Burton 
saw A. a crosse G., but does not mention the only shield with a 
plain cross which is now there, and which is G. a plain cf'oss A. 
Were both there ?^ At Brancepeth church is a coved piece of 
wainscot bearing the Stafford knot of the countess of the fourth 
Earl of Westmerland, and among its coats are A. a plain cross G. 
and G. a cross patonce A, placed together. This fourth earl was 
also a K.G. All over the curious post-reformation roof of Brance- 
peth chancel are these shields, copied or imitated, doubtless, from 
the wainscot from some preceding roof: 1. a plain cross ; 2. a cross 
patonce ivithin a hordure^ the first of these being tlie most plen- 

' Surtees, iv. 9. ^ Walbran's Gainford, 28. 

3 Surtees, misled by the mouldings of the crosses at Hilton, thought that the plain 
one was the interlaced osiers of Bishop Skirlaw. 

■* See the description in Surtees. 

^ There was much interesting Neville Armory in the same glass. See the descrip- 
tion of it by J. G. Nichols, 1860. 

^ In the church of Sheriff Hutton, a great seat of the Nevilles, which passed with 
Middleham and Barnard Castle to Anne Neville the wife of Richard III. there are 
the remains of an altar-tomb of alabaster with canopied niches on its sides. The 
only arms upon it are two great plain red crosses. The effigy is that of a eoroneted 
youth, and the villagers call him " Little Crumpling." Crumpling means " a dimi- 
nutive or deformed person," and crump, " crooked, crump-back, &c. crumpt or 

L 2 


Upon a little seal ad causas of Bishop Hatfield S. Cuthbert 
stands between two shields. That to the sinister is his own coat, 
which we shall presently consider. That to the dexter presents 
a singular cross, which is difficult of description. The plate vi. 
of Seals in Surtees' Durham does not accurately repre- 
sent it. If a cross formie in wood were taken, and the 
ends were pared down by a knife into round ones, some- 
thing of the figure would be obtained. 
Without oflTering any opinion whether this was the old red 
crosSf or the yellow cross, which is sometimes found separately 
from the lions, I shall, towards elucidation of this point, here 
enumerate the occurrences after Hatfield's time of crosses alone in 
connection with Durham, and in cases where S. George and 
S. Michael will hardly explain them. It should not, in limine, 
be overlooked that Bishop Fordham (1381 — 88), Hatfield's suc- 
cessor, instead of giving Hatfield's B. a chevron 0. between three 
lions rampant A., gives for himself S. a chevron between three 
crosses patonce 0, 

Shields, with a plain cross only, icithout lions, occurred on 
Cardinal Langley's (1406 — 1437) new gateway at Durham,* 
which was used as a gaol. And at Auckland, in the church, the 
same prelate, upon the stalls, gives two coronetted shields, one 
with his own arms, the other with a plain cross. The seal of 
Bishop Neville's vicar-general, used in 1438 and afterwards, 
gives S. Cuthbert with S. Oswald's head in his hand, between a 
shield with a plain cross on the dexter, and one with a plain 

crooked." Nomenclator, p. 44. (Halliwell.) Thus L ' Estrange, " When the work- 
men took measure of him, he was crwrnp-shouldered, and the right side higher than 
the left." The villagers know nothing about the identity of Little Crumpling, but 
the monument is of the architecture of Richard's period, and I know not to whom to 
ascribe this superior monument save to his son, who, though he did not die at Sheriff 
Hutton, could easily have been taken thither. Dr. Raine initiated the idea some 
years ago. Taking the father's peculiarity of shape into consideration, it does not 
appear a necessity that the son was also deformed. We should, at the present day, 
possibly, have called him Little Crouchback. It must not be disguised that the lad is 
in a civilian's dress, full of folds, and that " crumply " means wrinkled ; but the name 
and the coronet are remarkable, and the monument is probably that of the son of 
Richard, irrespective of them. The crosses may either be of S. George or Burgh. 

' Old Richardson shows them on his fine aquatint of this noble structure now 


cross bettveen four lions rampant on the sinister. At Auckland 
Castle Bishop Ruthall gives a similar shield with a plain cross. 
It has a rest for the lance, but this also occurs in some of his 
other coats both at Auckland and Durham. 

So much for the plain cross up to a certain period. As to the 
cross patonce, there is on the band for fastening around the neck 
of a cope of blue cloth of gold, of late fifteenth-century workman- 
ship^ preserved at Durham, a regular shield B. a cross patonce 0. 
Bishop Dudley (1476 — 83) quarters with his two lions passant 
a cross patonce in the second and third quarters. This is gene- 
rally considered to be, and probably is, the Malpas coat, A. a 
cross patonce B. quartered by the Dudleys;^ but it is very remark- 
able that Bishop Sherwood (1485 — 1492), on the reverse of his 
palatine seal, under his feet, and on his trappings on the obverse, 
places a cross pato?ice in the first and fourth quarters of his armorial 
insignia. Moreover, on the same reverse the shield to the dexter 
of the bishop presents a cross patonce alone^ that to the sinister 
containing the bishop's own coat. 

In the stained glass at S. CutJiherfs church on Peasholme 
Green, York, were these shields: B. a cross patonce 0? and 
A, a plain cross G. 

Aske the rebel, when in the Tower, 11 April, 28 Hen. YIII. 
deposed thus : — 

The Lord Darcy gaf him a crose tvith the V. woundes in it. Who y' was the furst 
inventor of that bage Aske cannot say. As he remembreth, that bage with a Blake 
crose came furst with [in consequence of, as the sequel showeth] them of Seint Cuthert 
Baner^ [its last, and, if only in the first rising, not unsuccessful appearance beyond 
Tyne and Tees]. Why al men wore the seyd V. woundes or els the bage of %f)0 was for 
this cause. Mr. Bowes, befor our furst meting at Doncastre, scrymaged with his com- 
pany with the scoweres of the Duke of Norfolk host. Then one of Mr. Bowes's own 
servaunts rane at a nother of his own fellows because he had a crose on his hake 
[evidently confounding some cross worn by the Bishoprick men with S. George's 
cross of the royal army], and went he had been on the partie of the Duke host, and 
ther with after killyd his own fellow. For that chance ther was a cry al men to have 
the bage of %\)0 or the Fyve Wounds on him both befor and hynd them. 

1 See his Episcopal Seal in Surtees, PI. III. No. 4 ; and his Private Seal in PI. V- 
No. 7. 

2 Drake's Eboracttm. It must of course he remembered that this, as a private coat, 
was that of Ward. 

3 Aske elsewhere says, that the Lords Neville, Latimer, and Lumley, and 10,000 


On the arrival of the pardon Aske " pulled of his bage and 
crosses with v. icounds, and in semblable maner did all the lordes 
ther and all other ther present, saying all these wordes, " We 
will all wer no bage nor figure but the bage of our soveryng 
lord." The five wounds, cross-wise, are on the ceiling in Dur- 
ham monastery, but they had no special connection with it. 

Why (interrogates Henry VIII. of Lord Darcy,) did you gyve badges of the Five 
Woundes of Christ ? Was not that badge of V. woundes your badge, My Lord Darcy, 
when ye were in Spayne ? Were those badges new made, or the same wich ye gave 
in Spayne ? Could you not have disposed the said badges afore theis insurrections ? 
Whether kept ye thaim stylle for that purpose ? If they were newe made, who made 
and embrodered them, when, and in what place, for what intent ? If ye were sodenly 
talien in of the comons whether it is like that than ye had leisur to make suche 
badges ? Did you cause your souldiours and servantes within Pomfrett castell, or 
without, to wear those badges in the Kynges part afore ye were joyned with the 
rebellys? Why brought you forth those badges when ye were joyned with the re- 
belles rather than afore when ye shewed yourself to stande for the Kinges part ? ' 

In the Elizabethan Eising of the North " the Xortons' ancient 
had the Cross with the Five Woimds our Lord did bear." ^ But 
on 3 Dec. 1570 Sir F. Leek writes to the Privy Council that he 
was informed how that " all theyr force, both horsemen and foot- 
men, do wear red c7'osses ;^ and we are also told by an anonymous 
writer of a letter in the State Paper Office, that Oswald Wilkin- 
son jailor of York had, before the rebellion, worn the badge of 
the rebels, viz. " a gold crucifix about his neck."'* 

" aS^. Cuthberfs Standard of Duresme, to make their foes to 
flee," was one of the local objects of faith which the King, in 
Holme''s metrical account of Aske's rebellion, is made to tell the 
rebels, " thanked be God," were " spied." It is said to have 
fallen after the Dissolution into the hands of Dean Whitting- 
ham's wife, who burned it,^ apparently before the Rising of the 
North in 1569. 

At the time of the Dissolution every person accepting sane- 
men came " with the Banner and [var. or] the armys of Seird Cv.thert.'''' The various 
readings of his examinations prevent our determining whether he thought the Red 
Cross was the Saint's arms, or whether the arms ascribed to him by Tonge appeared 
in addition. 

' State Papers. 2 Ballad in Percy's Reliques. 

3 Sharp's Memorials, p. 91. * Ibid. p. 363. 

* Rites of Durham. 


tuary at Durham was " to have a gowne of blacke cloth maid 
with a cross of yealloice cloth, called Sancte Cuthberfs Cross^ sett 
on his lefte shoulder of his arme, lo tiic intent that every one 
might se that there was a frelige graunted by God and Sancte 
Cuthbert." 1 

The Weardale Survey of Bishop Toby Matthew (1595-1606J 
is sealed in its corner with SIG. avd. M.S., an unequally octago- 
nal seal which contains a shield of the period bearing a cross 
patonce^ and surmounted by a mitre without any coronet. The 
present seal of the auditor is a copy of it, with H.w. at the sides 
of the shield instead of the M.S. of the older one. 

The rest of the post-Reformation evidences of Durham crosses 
without lions are principally connected with the City, and per- 
plexing enough they are. 

There had been three boroughs at Durham, all governed by 
bailiffs appointed by the bishops and priors as their respective 
lords: the prior's old borough of Durham or Crossgate, his new 
borough of Elvet, and the bishop's borough of Durham, which 
lay between the other two, severed, except as to Framwell- 
gate, by the Wear. That river winds round the peninsular priory, 
cathedral, and castle, which long claimed to be exempt from 
burghal jurisdiction. Durham, however, was no place to support 
two or three sets of companies. Xew Elvet was decreed in 
the 16th century to be in the city, and Framwellgate, which 
seems, to some extent, to have been considered as separate, 
was formally joined to the city by the episcopal charters of 
Pilkington in 1565 and Matthew in 1605, confirmed by the 
Crown in 1606. Both charters give power to have a common 
seal. Xo early seals of any of the boroughs have occurred to 
me. The present one is a large silver seal presented by Matthew 
Pattisonne, the son of "a burgess, in 1606. This S. COMVNE civi- 
TAT . DVNELMIE presents St. Cuthbert standing under a de- 
based Gothic canopy, with S. Oswald's head in his hand. Above 
the canopy are an estoile and a crescent, and on each side is the 
shield of England only (without France) surmounted by a mitre. 
These arms, which are the only ones appearing on Bishop Bury's 
seals, and the subjects of the seal altogether, suggest their deriva- 
tion from some much older seal, and this must be considered in con- 

1 Rites of Durham. 


nection with tlie coat under S. Cuthbert. It consists of a plain 
cross charged icith another plain cross ^^ and tlie same coat, appar- 
ently of stone, untinctured but in relief, is let into the city police 
court. It is a year older than the seal, being dated 1605, when 
Matthew's charter was granted. Beneath it, and attached to it 
by a ribbon, is a wreath containing a plain cross between four 
martlets,'^ all untinctured. The local notion is, that these are the 
arms of some one who restored the corporation buildings in 1605/^ 

Speed, however, in his bird's eye plan of Durham city (1608) 
gives the Cuthbertine coat B. a cross patonce 0. between four 
lions rampant A. in the same way as he gives the arms of other 
towns. Lea, in introducing the plan into Saxton's map of the 
county, copies Speed. Gwillim (1679) also gives that coat for 
Durham City. But, of course, the city had no right to use the 
arms of the church purely and simply, and we must assume 
either that Speed had made an error, or that the arms in the 
evidences of 1605 and 1606 are not those of the city, and that he 
introduced the arms of the cathedral as all he could do. In the 
Lambton codex of Hegge^s Legend of S. Cuthbert (1625), in 
my possession, there is a plan of the city strongly resembling and 
perhaps conventionalised from Speed's, and there is also a larger 
view of the abbey, but no arms are given. Before 1701,* the 
mayor's unequally octagonal silver seal had been introduced. It 
contains nothing but a shield charged with one plain cross, with- 
out trace of fimbriation. 

But to revert to the cross upon cross ; that coat, untinctured, 
with 1636 above the shield and R.A. at its sides, for Ralph 
Alison, mayor, occurs on the silver badges or armlets worn hy 
the mayor's sergeants. And in the mayor's chamber is the same 
old coat in relief, but coloured, within the last few years, with 
the field B. and both crosses 0., to resemble B. a plain cross 0. 
the arms now worn. 

In the Road-book engraved on copper-plates by Eman. Bowen, 
entitled Britannia Depicta, or Ogilby Improv'd, 1720, at 

' Is it possible that the upper cross betokens Framwellgate ? Durliam would keep 
the field. 

2 Or are these the arms of Framwellgate ? There may be another explanation. 
MS. Rawl. 128, gives A, a cross imtonce between fow martlets S. for Bishop Bury. 
(Bedford.) The same coat is in Glover's Ordinary for " Bury." 

^ Ex inf. J. R. A. ■* Impression in that year. 


p. 19 "ye Arms of y^ City of Durham " are represented as S. on 
a j^lain cross A., another plain cross G. 

In 1745 the Bucks' stiff ^ "prospect" of the city was published. 
It gives the double crosses, with the same tinctures. Smaller plates, 
copied from that of the Bucks, have the same. In 1 749 a map of the 
county, "printed for J. Hinton," presents the same coat as "the 
arms of Durham/' But in 1754, the large plan of the city, by 
T. Forster, gives as " the City Arms :" B. a plain cross A. It 
is observable that, in this example a slight bordering or fimbria- 
tion, as a matter of drawing, is added to the cross, as if it had 
been derived from one resembling Bucks', but no tincture indi- 
cative of one cross above another is shown. 

Among the additional armorial bosses placed in the roof of 
S. Nicholas' church, ^Newcastle, in 1783, there is one for the 
" Tyne Bank," consisting of two shields : \. G. a sheriffs 
castle A. \ 2. ^4. a plain cross G. These appear to mean the 
Counties of Xorthumberland and Durham. My description of 
the first coat may be grotesque, but the coat itself is so. There 
is a strange modern notion that all counties have arms. Each 
sheriff, as a rule, had a seal with a castle, supposed to be the 
demesne castle of the comes^ for whom tlie sheriff was vicecomes, 
Durham itself had such a seal.^ There must have been a fancy 
that such a practice existed in Northumberland alone ; and what 
every sheriff used was assumed to be a proper coat for that parti- 
cular county. 

Three years afterwards, in 1786, Eitson, that most honest anti- 
quary in his own way, writes to Harrison thus: 

Will you have the goodness to look over my Bishopric Garland, and suggest any 
alterations or remarks which may occur to you for the improvement of a second 
edition. The Northumberland and Yorkshire Garlands are in great forwardness. The 
Bishopric arras on the title page, you will observe, differ from those at the conclusion. 
The first I got cut myself, and suppose I thought them correct at the time. You 
know best whether they are or not.^ 

' I have a pretty view, at a little earlier date, from much the same spot, by Francis 
Place. The difference of treatment is marvellous. 

2 Bishop Barnes orders that " all writs passing out of the county court shall pass 
under the scale of the castle^ to be assigned for that purpose to such persons and to noe 
other as shal be lawfully deputed by Sir Wm. Hilton, knight, head sheriff within this 
county of Durham." ^ Nicolas' Life of Ritson, i, 110. 



Botli editions of the Bishopric Garland are rare ; I only have 
the second edition, and presume that it represents Ritson's 
matured conclusions. Its date is 1792, it has no tailpiece, and 
on the frontispiece are two shields, surmounted by a sword and a 
crozier in saltire, and a mitre. The coats are, \. B. a plain cross 
0. (fimbriated A. — this probably is merely Bewick's notion of 
uniformity,) between four lions rampant A. [for the see, obviously] : 
2. S. on a plain cross A another plain cross G. [the arms given 
by the Bucks for the city]. The Northumberland Garland^ pub- 
lished the next year, has a cut upon the title-page on the same 
principle. The sheriff's castle, ascribed as arms to the county of 
Northumberland, is accompanied by those worn by Newcastle 

Eaine engraves on the title-page of his Saint Cuthbert the 
design of a brass matrix in the Chapter Library, of the history 
of which I know nothing. It is a coarse inaccurate imitation 
of the Priory seal (given above, p. 7), and no document, I believe, 
bears an impression from it. In this seal the centre of the cross 
is transformed from a jewelled quatrefoil into a mere square, 
making the cross a cross formee quadrate. This cross was assumed 
for the armorial shield of the new University of Durham, with a 
canton of Bishop Hatfield's arms. 

From Ornsby's Durham. 

Some thirty years ago, mayhap a little more, there was a grand 
City of Durham Cricket-club. Its chosen members were in white 
or cream-coloured dresses, with great red crosses thereupon, and 


they were soundly beaten by the rustics of my native village. 
But as, on inquiry at Durham^ I find that the cricketers were 
called the Albion Club, their attire might merely refer to Saint 
George, who was for England in the general, Durham city in- 
cluded. In the year of grace 1.870 I saw an almanack in Sun- 
derland, distributed by some building society which at that time 
purported to benefit the county, and it adopted the arms given 
for the city by the Bucks. 

And finally, as to Durham crosses sans lions, I observe that^ in 
1866, a Durham newspaper reported, in seeming gravity, as 

At Chester le Street church " over the main entrance " was " a banner with the cross of 
S. Mary and S. CiUhhert.'''' In the cathedral, dedicated, before the Reformation, to SS. 
Cuthbert and Mary, and after it to Jesus and his Mother, there were " two S. 
Andrew's crosses " [which, considering the works of tlie Nevilles, were not out of 
place, noil ohstante Dean Waddington's destruction of their badges in glass]. At >S'. 
MargareV s church were " approjiriate devices, such as Latin, Greeks and S. Andrew^s 
Crosses,''' etc. S. Oswald's Church presented "two banners, one bearing upon it a 
S. Oswald''s Cross, and the other a plain Latin cross, — two »S^. Cuthbert Crosses,''"' &c. 

To an inquiry as to the form and colour of these crosses there 
was no reply. 

By Bishop Baring's episcopal seal it appears that the Bishops 
of Durham still use the palatine arms with the plain cross. Con- 
sidering 6 Will. IV. cap. xix. section 9, and that the Bishops still 
hold Auckland, I am inclined to think that this is not an improper 

I now come to the regular coat IS. a Cl'OSiS patOTtCe (©. !)etb3em 

four lions rampant* 

It has already been stated that the pretty seal of Prior Fossor 
(1341-1374) has no trace of arms. Bishop Hatfield reigned from 
1346 to 1381. The seal of Prior Robert Barrington de Wall- 
worth (1374 — 1386) is a poor thing. It presents S. Cuthbert 
sitting between two shields, both giving the coat a cross patonce 
between four lions rampant. Thus it would appear that the coat 
of the church, attributed to S. Cuthbert, B. a cross patonce 0. 
between four lions rampant A. existed in Bishop Hatfield's time. 
There is no trace of it on his seals or monument. It occurs on 
the sinister side of his own coat in the deanery glass, while on 
the dexter side are the arms of S. Oswald. I next find it, un- 


tinctured, in tlie cloisters of Durham, which were in progress on 
the death of Bishop Skirlaw, in 1405. John de Hemingburgh 
(1391-1416) was then prior. I have not seen his seal, but it 
must have been identical with Prior Walworth's. Walworth had 
obtained the use of the mitre and staff, and the seal of Prior 
John Washington (1416-1446) seems to be Walworth's altered; 
the sinister shield presenting the personal arms of Washington, 
and the kneeling prior having a mitre and pastoral staff. In the 
inventory after his death we find ^Hhe arms of the church of Dur- 
ham!'' " the arms of John AYessington late prior," and a "dorsal 
with the hirds of S. Cuthhert and the arms of the Church.'^ This 
brings us into the time of Bishop Neville (1437-1457), when we 
have in the east window of Leek church, in Allertonshire (a 
liberty belonging to him), B. a cross patonce 0. between four 
lions ra7npant A . accompanied by his personal coat.^ In the time 
of Bishop Booth (1457-1477) we have a rude sequestrator's seal 
with S. Cnthbert holding S. Oswald's head, the bishop's personal 
coat onlv appearing below him. I have an electrotype fac-simile 
of a seal similar in all respects except that the cross patonce between 
four lions takes the place of the coat of Booth. In the initial 
T of Titulus Eccles' CatK Dunelm^ in the obituary roll for Prior 
Ebchester, 1488, this coat occurs. In 1494 Thomas Castell 
became prior, and we have it on the roof of the abbey gateway 
which he built, and most beautifully wrought on the carved 
ceiling of his official house, now the deanery. 

Up to this time it is difficult to connect the coat heraldically 
with the bishops, although there is no reason why they might 
not sometimes use it with reference to their great predecessor S. 
Cuthbert, or to their cathedral. But during Castell's priorate a 
great change takes place. 

In 1509 Thomas Ruthall became bishop, and his episcopal seal 
is the first seal of a bishop of Durham which gives the cross 
patonce between four lions rampant? It is on the dexter side of 
the kneeling bishop, his own coat being on the sinister. His 
palatine seal retains the Oswaldine form. On Auckland dining- 
room the latter does not occur for Ruthall, but the Cuthbertine 
coat occurs both alone and impaled with his personal coat. An- 

» Dugdale's Notes, 1665. 2 Surtees, Plate IIL No. 6. 



other good specimen of the impaled coat exists on a stall now in 
the chapel of Durham Castle. An imitation stall, and of poorer 
work, perhaps Cosin's, stands opposite to it, and, for appearance 
sake, the arms are reversed. This has given rise to two notions, 
one that Wolsey impaled his arms with those of the Crown, and 
placed them on the dexter side; the other that the carver was 
working from a matrix of one of Euthall's seals. In Tunstall's 
time we have the Cuthbertine coat impaled witli the combs of 
his family arms on Durham Castle, and on the 7'everse of his 
palatine seal.^ On the same reverse, however, there are two 
single shields, one with the Oswaldine, the other with the Cuth- 
bertine coat, and on the obverse the Oswaldine coat only occurs, 
and in an unimpaled form. On his episcopal seal the Cuthbertine 
coat occurs under S. Cuthhert and the Oswaldiyie one under S. 
Osioald. And then we have the express entries in Tonge's visi- 
tation : 



These [the impaled coat of B. a cross patonce 0. heUoeen four lions rampant A. 
impaling B. three corahs A."] be the armes of the Reverend father in God Cuthbert 
Thunstall, Bysshop of Duresme. 

These \_B. a cross jpatonce 0. between four lions rampant A.'\ ben the armes of the 
monastery of Durham, which ys founded by the Bysshop of Durham in the honour of 
Saint Cuthbert, and these armis present ys the armes of Saint Cuthhert. 

The same authority under Nostel Priory states that 

These [*©. a ptain tiQ^s BettDcen four tionj5 rampant <0.] be the Armes of 
Saynt Osteoid, and the armes to the monastery of Saynt Oswold, by cause the monas- 
tery ys edified of hym." 

The saint was doubtless honoured with coat armour as early as 
Saint Cuthbert was, and this, his shield, occurs in the dexter post 

' Surtees, Plate VI. Nos. 3, 4. 


of honour at the side of Hatfield's shield in the deanery glass. 
The saint-king's coat, however coloured, appears from the first to 
have been preferred by the princely prelates of Durham to that 
of the saint-monk's, whicb was more accepted by the priors. 
In tlie window already mentioned as being in the deanery hall, 
the undifFerenced coat of S. Oswald appears next to Bishop 
Hatfield's arms, and on the monument in Canterbury Cathedral 
of Archbishop Chicheley, who died in 1443, among a selection 
of arms of sees, we have G» a cross between four lions rampant 0., 
inscribed I^UllfllU.^ And yet, in the east windows of the cathe- 
dral, beside the personal coats of Bishop Skirlaw and Langley 
(1 388-1437) > a differenced coat with Cuthbertine colours occurs 
at an earlier date. Among Dugdale's notes of the glass it occurs 
thus : 

14. Langley, difiTerenced by a plate. 

15. France and England. 

\^ 16. ^» a plain cross f)umettee (f^, tietbjeen four lions ram:; 
pant E. 

17. Bishop Skirlaw (1388-1406). 

18. Cardinal Langley (1406-1437), with his usual difference 
of a mullet. 

The humettee form of the cross is also found in the en^ravinors 
of Bishop Fox's monument at Winchester, where the arms of 
his quondam see of Durham are given ; but his seals for Durham 
do not agree as to this shape of the cross. Attempts at differencing 
S. Oswald's arms do not seem to have been peculiar to Durham, 
as Bardney Abbey had long since adopted a different form of 
cross, ^ yet Xostel (with, if the dictionaries^ speak truly, Oswestry) 

1 Willement's Canterbury Cathedral, p. 54, 

^ See p. 2. The seal in Surtees, pl.xii. 3, described as that of Galfrid de Hem- 
mingbrough, Abbot of Abingdon, is unattached to any document. It really reads S. 
Galfridi de IIeriiyngh\j'\ a66[atis de Bar] c^e/ia?/. The arms are A cross patonce 
between four lions rampant and Semee oj fieurs de lis (not shown in the plate) a lion 
rampant, over all a bend. Geffrey de Hemmingby, Abbot of Bardney, died in 1435. 
The seal was altered, merely in name, for Johannes de Haymvile (or some such 
word), who does not occur in the Monasticon list. Radulphus Horn (?), Abbas 
Abendonise, in 1432, sealed with a cross patonce between four martlets. 

^ They also give G. a cross between four lions rampant A. for Fountains Abbey, and 
another coat B. three horse-shoes 0. This last coat is in the east window of Richmond 
church, and, although they are not found on any seal, they occur on the steeple of 


was wearing the same coat as Durham. However this may be, 
certain it is that in or before the episcopacy of Bishop Ruthall 
(1509-1523) an Oswaldine coat, undifFerenced by any humettee 
terminations of the cross, but with Cuthbertine colours, was fully 
introduced. In the Parliament Roll of 1515, published by iMr. 
Willement, the dexter side of that bishop's coat is 'i3, E plaiU 
cross <©♦ llCtbcen four ItonS rampant ^* This is the distinctive 
coat of the see of Durham. 

That the coat was fully understood to denote the Bishoprick 
is obvious from its occurrence behind King Henry VI. on the 
fine seal sede vocante {sic, the see calling out for a bishop!) pre- 
served in the British Museum. It may be that the differenced 
shield, however much it failed in its purpose, was intended to 
apply to both saints, S. Cuthbert being represented as holding 
S. Oswald's head. Its occurrence in connection with the monas- 
tery is exceedingly rare. It is placed indeed on Castell's ceiling 
in the Prior's house or Deanery, but perhaps, like other objects 
there, only by way of compliment or historical sentiment. It 
seems to be also found under S. Cuthbert with the head, in 
1439, on a seal of an official of the Pri07'^s peculiar archidia- 
conate of his own churches. Dr. Raine's impression from this 

seal, which reads S ArcJiidiaconatus : p m, is labelled 

by him " Officialis Prioris Dunelm'. 1439." The first appear- 
ance of the Oswaldine arms, sede plena, on a seal is on that of the 
vicar-general, formerly considered to be earlier, but really used 

the abbey church, and on a tile. On the tile they are accompanied by the words 

Benedicite fontes Domino, and it has been suggested that originally the horse-shoes 

were fountains. In 1410 Abbot John de Ripon uses a coun- 

terseal with the same inscription, but it surrounds the shield 

containing the cross beUceen four lions rampant. In 1502-3 

Abbot Huby had licence to build a chapel at Wynkesley, " ubi, 

ut dicitur, S. Cuthbertus aliquamdiu — ducebat vitam." An 

inscription is preserved there : Soli Deo honor et gloria, in honore 

Dei, et Sancti Cutherti et Oswaldi. This abbot built the steeple 

at the abbey, whereon he placed the horse-shoes and another 

very singular coat, "a cross flory, heticeen a mitre and key 

erect in chief, and a hey erect and mitre in hase^ (Walbran.) Among the seals 

found in the ruins, Burton give3 two small ones with these arms : 1. A chevron 

{charged with five crosses formee) between three horse-shoes. 2. A chevron charged with 

three horse-shoes. Tonge assigns the coat of B. three horse-shoes 0. to the monastery. 


from 1438, during Bishop Neville's episcopacy. There S. Cuth- 
bert, holding the head of S. Oswald, sits between two shields, 1. A 
plain cross ; 2. A plain cross between four lions rampant. On the 
peculiar seals of Bishops Neville, Booth, and Dudley (1438-1483), 
where Bishop Hatfield's arms are given, those arms are placed to 
the dexter, under S. Oswald, and the Oswaldine coat is under 
S. Cuthbert, although that saint does not hold the head of the 
other one in these cases. But they prove nothing, for on Bishop 
Dudley's episcopal seal, where Hatfield's arms are absent, the 
Oswaldine coat is under S. Oswald, and Dudley's two lions 
quartered with a cross patonce (Malpas or S. Cuthbert) under S. 
Cuthbert. The Oswaldine arms do not appear on any palatine 
seal of a bishop until we reach that of Bishop Fox (1494-1502), 
who impales them on the obverse, as on his tomb at Winchester. 
On the reverse, S. Oswald being absent, they are under the 
Virgin, who occupies the dexter side. Fox's pelican being under 
S. Cuthbert. Senewes (1502-1505) in his episcopal seal has the 
Oswaldine coat under S. Cuthbert, his own under S. Oswald. 
Bainbrigge (1507-1508) arranges his palatine seal like Fox, and 
Euthall (1509-1523) seems to follow suit, while on his episcopal 
seal he places the Cuthbertine coat under both Cuthbert and 

Notwithstanding the predilection of Bishops Ruthall and Tun- 
stall for the Cuthbertine coat, tbey retained the Oswaldine one 
on the obverses of their palatine seals. And in the sculpture of 
the Auckland dining-room, while Ruthall impales S Cuthbert 
only, Tunstall impales S. Oswald only. I speak from my own 

Since the Reformation, the same has been usually borne by 
the Bishops, and it appears on the King's seal for the County 
Palatine and for the Commonwealth and for Cromwell on Simon's 
magnificent seals ad hrevia sigilland' for the county of Durham. 
When we compare Charles II. 's seal, sede vacante^ in 1671, with 
James I.'s order for one with the same inscriptions in 1617 — 
*' for the Bishoprick and co. pal. of Durham, to be used during 
the vacancy of the Bishoprick," we see that this coat was alluded 
to when James ordered the reverse to consist of " the arms of the 
Bishoprick, with a mitre on the escucheon." The rarity of its 




occurrence for tlie monastery extends to tlie dean and chapter. It 
occurs on their wretched bookplate, which reads " Eccles.Dunehu." 
the two words differing in character, as if the plate had been en- 
graved in blank to receive the name and arms of any church. 

Sometimes, as in Heylin's "Help to English History, 1671," 
the lio7is are stated to be 0. This is the present colouring in 
Bishop Egerton's arms on the roof of S. Nicholas' church, New- 
castle, placed there in 1783. The authority, probably, is j\Ior- 
gan's Sphere of Gentry, 1661, Lib. 3, p. 68: "The See of 
Durham beareth Saphyre, a crosse between four lions rampant 

The Cuthbertine coat is rarely found for the bishops per- 
sonally, and when we do find a blazon for it, in connection with 
them, it is generally differenced by making the lions 0. Philip- 
son, printing the Visitation of 1575, gives the impaled official 
coat of Bishop Pilkington as B. a plain cross heticeen four lions 
rampant 0. But in a note he says that 

In the visitation the arms of the see are depicted Azure, a cross flory [i.e. patonce] 
between four lions rampant or. At Durham, in various ancient and modern sculp- 
tures, and on the monument of Hutton at York, as well as on the great seals of 
Pilkington's successors, the plain cross is adopted. It is therefore for antiquarians 
to determine which is the true coat of the see. 


The same peculiar coat is emblazoned on Bishop Cosin's 
charter of 1671, incorporating the free masons and other crafts at 
Gateshead. The Cuthbertine coat, in whatever manner coloured, 
appears in Bishop Barnes's beautiful seal for his spiritual chan- 
cellor in 1577, on the reverse of Bishop Button's palatine seal, 
on Bishop Morton's privy seal, and on the screen of the chapel 
of Durham Castle. It also occurs in the seal of the bishop's con- 
sistory court, made in 1750. The previous seal, used in 1731, 
presents a more unusual form, that of a plain cross couped and 
fliirte between four lions rampant. 

In the senate-room of Durham University is a fine mantel- 
piece, brought from a house in the Bailey, which presents two 
specimens of the arms of Bishop James, that to the dexter side 
impaled with the Cuthbertine coat, that to the sinister with the 
Oswaldine one. In both the field is blue, the cross gold, and 
the lions silver. 

There is a spirited example of the Cuthbertine coat, coloured, 
and supported by a female (the Virgin?) in the centre of the 
Nine Altars' chapel in Durham Cathedral. The work is of 
Cosin's time. The same coat forms the stamp for the bindings of 
the cathedral books. 

Before leaving the subject of the cross and lions, it must be 
noted that very modern Archdeacons of Durham have afiected 
to impale the Cuthbertine coat undifferenced with their personal 
arms on seals and fonts. The lists of bishops and deans (if 
plodders of the school of Le Neve, Randall, and Torre think it 
worth while to keep them up, since the interference with the 
estates of church corporations and of their customary tenants), may 
possibly prevent the occurrence of any practical inconvenience 
from this improper practice. 

It remains only to consider the insignia which may refer to 
THE Virgin. 

It has already been stated, that it is difficult to know when 
Prior Castell's performances are copies of earlier works and when 
they are inventions of his own. The coat 15. a i^eatt ®r» tDiUfietl 
^. transftxetl tg a SbJOrti in pale ppr. occurs in the Deanery 
glass after the shields of S. Oswald, Bishop Hatfield, and S. Cuth- 
bert, and it only is rayed. There is no clue to the date of the glass 



in the south aisle of the choir wlierein 

our Ladyes escutcheon followed that 

of S. George. In one of Billings's 

plates shields with the cross of S. 

George and a chevron appear in 

this window ; but they are on a small 

scale and cannot be depended upon 

as to detail. Old glass and old stone 

have vanished thence. The new 

glass is plain. There is no authority 

for ascribing the coat to Prior Castell 

beyond the evidence of works done At Brancepeth (see p. 164). 

in liis time. It does not occur in Glover's Ordinary. The Prior's 

epitaph would rather point to his having borne the canting coat 

given for the name : 

Mortuus hoc tumulo Thomas sub marmore duro 
Casiellus recubat, pietatis turris ahena — 
structuris turn probe notus. 

His devotion to Our Lady is plain from the inscription under 
his kneeling effi-gy in the great window which he restored : 
" Virgo tuum natum fac nobis propitiatum." 

He acceded in 1494, and w^as prior for 25 years, and he is ex- 
pressly stated by Chambre to have rebuilt the east gateway of 
the abbey from the ground. In the vaulting of the gatew^ay are 
two shields : one with the cross jjatonce beticeeu four lions ; the 
other, the heart loinged cmd pierced. The very beautiful roof ^ 
in the deanery, formerly the Prior's house, whether in situ or 
not, is divided into two sections. There does not seem to be 
much system in the arrangement of their bosses. In one section 
are shields bearing respectively a monogram of t C, the initials of 
the Prior, and the plain cross between four lions of S. Oswald. 
The other produces the two coats of the gateway. Thus in three 
instances they are in close proximity, and may well be intended 
as the arms of the SS. Mary and Cuthbert, to whom the church 

' Gale supposed the date of this ceiling to be the reign of Richard II. from the 
occurrence of a chained Hart upon it. But the animal is really an Antelope, a Lan- 
castrian beast, the occurrence of which in Henry the Seventh's time is intelligible 

M 2 


was dedicated.** There are two other instances of the iviiiged 
and pierced heart in the county of Durhatn. One is in the 
south Neville chapel of the chancel of St, Brendan's church, 
Brancepeth. There it occurs in quasi-Decorated panelling against 
the south wall. The chapel is, I believe, in an old plot of the 
church, called that of Our Lady, but I have no evidence of any 
chantries at Brancepeth beyond S. John's chantry and Jesus' 
altar, which was somewhere on the south side of the church. 
Billings has engraved a most intricate array of cotemporary pat- 
terns, which occur on a coving of wood fixed above the chancel 
arch at Brancepeth, and all such work there was probably 
brought from Jesus' altar in Durham Cathedral, before which 
<]astell was buried, and close to which was the Nevilles' altar, 
Above Jesus' altar was " the most goodly and famous rood that 
was in all this land." The bringer was, in all likelihood, George 
CliiFe, rector of Brancepeth, prebendary of Durham, and for- 
merly a monk there. The other instance of the device is on a 
stall-end, in the same reactionary style, in S. Paul's church, 
Jarrow, a cell of Durham. There it occurs without a shield, and 
very beautifully fills up the poppy-head. 

In the section of the ceiling in the Deanery whicK contains 
the Oswaldine coat there are some devices: a lion rampant 
within a border of leaves, a chained antelope, a Jleur de lis^^ and 
a rayed rose? The two last may either be regal or saintly. The 
rose is small. There are other roses without the rays, and a rose 
occurs on the boss above tlie shield containing the winged and 
pierced heart on Castell's gateway, on which we also Kave the 
device of a sun within a Mary-go\di. I promised, on p. 51, to 
take up the subject of the 1^0S$ again with Cardinal Langley. I 
have not found, however, that any object would be gained by 
enumerating the bishops after Hatfield, as the list will better be 
continued in some treatise on their private coats, which begin 
with him. But as to the rose^ I have to note that on Langley's 
Auckland stalls Mr. Hodgson Fowler, the architect of the chapter 
of Durham, has observed a shield containing a rose. Langley 

' The connection between this lily and the Virgin has been already alluded to. 
2 " A rose with glory, which must not be confounded with the Tudor Rose en 
Soleil." {Hints by the Cambridge Camden Society.) 


uses his own badge, a mullet, for the purjDose of powdenng the 
field of his palatine seal ; but his predecessors, Fordham and Skir- 
law, had powdered with roses^ and his successors, Neville, 
Dudley, and Sherwood, diapered with them, beautifully. Bishop 
Booth has a rose in the centre of the coins struck by him at 
Durham in the early part of the reign of Edward IV. Bishop 
Dudley, his successor, gives a small rose within his crozier head, 
and Bishop Sherwood seems to do the same, unless the object in 
his is a sun. On Bishop Fox's monument at Winchester there 
is a collar of double roses ^ surrounding his impaled coat of Dur- 
ham. Collars of roses surround the impaled arms of Bishops 
Kuthall and Tunstall, and the unimpaled Cuthbertine coat on 
Auckland Castle ; and of the same date there, some objects like 
roses occur under the plain cross (without lions), and above and 
below another example of the Cuthbertine coat. In the bede 
roll of 1488 for Prior Ebchester, the titulus of Durham monas- 
tery is repeated. The first T, as already noticed, contains the 
Cuthbertine coat. The second one " seems to represent a branch 
of a rose tree, with a rose in blow, coarsely delineated and shaded 
with a pen."^ By the statutes of the new chapter, drawn up 
in Bp. Tunstall's time by himself and other commissioners, 
" eiglit poor men, such as are disabled by war or age, or other- 
wise reduced to poverty," are to be appointed by royal mandate, 
and maintained by the church: — the poor men to wear a rose 
of red silk upon the left shoulder, and never to appear in public 
without their livery gowns. Queen Elizabeth, in the seal for the 
vacancy of 1576, sits on a side saddle, fronting the spectator, 
and holding a sceptre with her right hand, and a slipped rose in 
her left one. This may only be a Tudor rose ; and the fine rayed 
rose in which Bishop Barnes places his impaled coat in a seal 
of 1577 has no reference to his church, but is derived from his 
private arms. 

Bishop Hatfield, as we have seen, used lions as quasi Sup- 
potters on his privy seal. Bishop Fordham used angels for the 
same purpose. Bishop Langley's shield is held by a single angel. 
Ruthall at Auckland gives angels. Tunstall, at the same place, 
gives angels with cocks between them and the shield, and cocks 

' According to the Antiquaries' plate of 1789. 2 j)j.^ Raine. 


alone. On Durham Castle he uses cocks alone. They refer to a 
well-known badge of the Tunstalls. 

B'nt-COn^Vua-lanX^^a^fm^JBVimAm^ appears on a scroll en- 
twined round an initial ^ of the Chancellor's Receipt Roll of 
16 Booth (1472-1473). In April, 7 Dudley (1483) John Rakett, 
clerk of his chancery, winds round the initial 512E of a document 
passing under the palatine seal the following words in scrolls : 
d^7ie saluu—fac Edward' — cjuintii veru — Regem — Anglie — et 
Francie — d'ne confua — WilVm Dud — ley Ep'ra — Dunelm' — in 
dilecco'e — del Sf px' — p'fecte^ stare. On 20 March, 6 Sher- 
wood (1489) the same person writes: dieu — garde — moun—f 
JoKn—leueske—deBu — resme — Space — ^ grace— q^d Raket^ and 
on 20 November, 6 Fox (1500) : d'ne— saluu—fac— Henric — 
sept — imu — Regem — A ngV — ^' Franc' — d'ne — confua— Ricm — 
Fox — Ep'm — Dunelm' — prime — Exces — trens' — deinde — ad Ba- 
tonie — nse?7i — postea — ad — Dunelm'' — ^- deinde — ad — Wyn — 
t07iien — sem. In a Master Forester's roll of 3-4 Sherwood (1486- 
1487) d'ne saiuu facEpm in like manner occurs on a scroll round 
an initial %. " And I have observed [says Dr. Basire in his 
Dead man's (Bp. Cosin's) Real Speech, 1672] for this forty 
years, that at the General Assizes and Sessions, the Publick Cryer 
concludes in this usual form, God save the King and my Lord of 
Durham.'^ Such exclamations, however, were by no means 
exclusively in favour of royal and palatine personages. Raket in 
another initial of the document relating to Bishop Sherwood 
remembers the prior: cV7ie — saluu^ac Jo — h'em—priore EccVie 
— Du7ielm\ and the posy or device of Robert Peirson, Vicar of 
Sock burn, in 1567 was God save the Bui of Westmerland} 

Up to the Restoration, there is no trace of any continuous 
sigillary or heraldic iUottO. Each bishop had his oAvn set of 
words. Bishop Cosin (1660-1672) introduced on the obverse side 
of the palatine seal, round the armed figure on horseback, the 

words: liopterea acctptte annaturam UBii, zt galcam ^alutis 

aSSUmtte, et glatlium SpiritUS, This continued in the same place 
until the cessation of such seals in 1836. 

There may be earlier instances of the Ci^osier a7id Sword sal- 

• Sharp's Memorials of the Rebellion. 


tirewise behind the shield than those of Bishop Trevor's time 
(1750-1752). " Prelates (says the Glossary of Heraldry) halving 
temporal jurisdiction as the Bishop of Durham had, may bear a 
crosier and sword saltirewise behind their arms; the hilt of the 
sword should be uppermost." In this fashion they occur in 
Jefifery's County Map of 1768 and Ritson's Garland of 1792, 
with the sword to the dexter. But in the tailpieces to Allan's 
Tract on Bishop Trevor, 1776, and Hutchinson's Durham, vol. i. 
1785, the crosier occupies the post of honour. Under the former 
there is the motto Stold tt tU^t, under the latter (for Bishop 
Egerton) tWM tt Stola. It is derived from an old saying. Gib- 
son, in his edition of Camden in 1722, says: "Though the 
canons forbid any clergyman to be present, yet the Bishops of 
Durham did and may sit in court in their putplc robes upon the 
sentence of death; whence it used to be said, Solum Dunelmense 
Stolajus Dicit et Ense^ Spearman, in 1729, speaks of the '^united 
power of the Sword and Goicn, as appears found [not by me] in 
Bracton, Dunehnia Solajudicat Ense et Stola.^^ '' Those privileges, 
now remaining in the county palatine, are too great for a subject; 
and as little become a clergyman as a suit of armour would, when 
he officiates at the altar. Nay, it would be even as much out of 
character as to see a Bishop ride with a martial air, accoutered 
with a sash or military scai'f, and in a lay habit, to a review of 
the troops in Hyde Park^ The Flying Post, of 14 June 1722, 
explains these italics of Spearman. " The Bishop of Durham 
[Talbot, the " Prince of Durham,'^ "Great Prelate," and "Grand 
Prelate " of the correspondence of that time,] appeared on horse- 
back at a review in the King's train in a lay habit of purple, 
with jack-boots, and his hat cocked, and black wigg tied behind 
him, like a military officer."^ Surtees (vol. i. No. xvi.) gives the 
maxim as " Solum Dunelmense Stola judicat et Ense y 

The hoods of students of the University of Durham are lined 
with purple or violet, in allusion, I have understood, to the 
palatine p)U7ple. 

' "Though not immediately connected with the city, I did not know where better 
to place this curious picture from Malcolm's Anecdotes, p. 431." Surtees' Durham, 
vol. iv., Durham City, p. 11. 


I conclude with a quotation by William Lee, who greatly 
lacketh a successor. 


Postscript — In March 1871, two oblong octagonal dishes, as 
if for meat, were sold among the effects of Mr. Wilkinson, at 
Oswald Hill, Durham. They were thick and glazed, and on their 
white ground were drawings in blue. On the edges were flowers, 
and in the centre was a circle, surrounded by branches and shell- 
like bordering, after the manner of the fancy shields in old book 
plates. In this circle, on a blue ground, was a cross flurte^ dotted 
all over, as Or. Beneath the circle was a bending figure of a man 
in a hat and jacket, among trees, and below them, the figures 
1538. These and all the details were inconsistent with such a 
date, but one of the dishes had been mended and was of no very 
modern manufacture, and I should be inclined to think that the 
design was modified from an older one. 

Dugdale, in his church notes for Yorkshire, gives from the 
east window of Burton 7\gnes the two coats o^ A. a plain cross 
G; and G. a plain cross A. He also gives, from Hull church, 
A. a plain cross G., and the strange coat Quarterly G. and A. a 
plain cross A., touching which I suspect that the ruby glass of two 
quarters had perished and been supplied by ordinary white glass. 

Valet e. 

Gateshead^ Jan. 1872. 



Compiled by Joseph Foster. 

The nature and general character of Mr. Foster's important under- 
taking have been described in our former notice, at p. 55 ; but our 
space did not there allow us to give any account of the contents of his 
Lancashire volume. This we shall now proceed to do. 

We stated before that the families of which he presents distinct 
notices are in number 125, but that the descents of many others 
which have eventually coalesced with the main subjects of his tables 
are included. It will be understood that his object is to set forth the 
existing aristocracy of Lancashire, not extinct families, except in 
those cases where extinct families have existing representatives. 

The pedigrees of the Peers and most of the Baronets belonging to 
the county are included ; and, besides Stanley, Egerton, and Moly- 
neux, Bridgeman and Kenyon, Lancashire still cherishes many 
ancient houses of high historic fame, as (among others, some of whose 
names will be presently mentioned,) there are Assheton, Blundell, 
Chadwick, Hornby, Nowell, Ormerod, Patten, Radclyffe, Standish, 
Starkie, Towneley, Walmesley, Weld, and Whitaker. All these are 
of old nobility, though without hereditary titles. 

Rather more than half a century ago Dr. Whitaker wrote, " Such 
is the scarcity of titles in this county, it would be impossible to 
assemble four Baronets in Lancashire at present." (^History of 
WliaUey, edit. 1818, p. 309). Dr. Whitaker perhaps intended to 
write "more than four", for so many are the Lancashire Baronets 
which we muster for the year 1818, viz, Hoghton of Hoghton Tower 
and Gerard of Bryn, both of the very first creation in 1611, Cunliffe 
of Liverpool, created in 1759, and Hesketh of Rufford, created in 
1761 ; not reckoning Bridgeman of Great Lever (1660), which is 
merged in the Peerage of Bradford. But in 1873 the Lancashire 
Baronets are nearly four times the number they were in 1818, in con- 
sequence of the following creations : — 

1831. Anson of Birch Hall ^ 

1831. Birch of the Hazles.^ 

' Mr. Foster's pedigrees do not include those of Anson, Tempest, and Edwards- 

2 A small portion of the pedigree of Birch occurs in his pedigree of Heywood. 

M 5 


1838. Hey wood of Claremont. 
1841. de Trafford of Trafiford Park. 
1846. Feilden of Feniscowles. 
1849. Kay-Shuttleworth of Gawtliorpe. 
1863. Brown of Liverpool. 

1866. Tempest of Heaton (before created in 1841, and extinct iu 
1865; see onr vol. iv. p. 191). 

1868. Edwards-Moss i of Roby Hall and Otterspool. 

1869. Fairbairn of Ardwick. 

1869. Earle of Allerton Tower, near Liverpool. 

Of these, Anson is a cadet of the Earl of Lichfield's family, and 
Trafford and Tempest are of ancient nobility ; but the majority are 
the offspring of the great commercial prosperity which has in this 
century enriched the county of Lancaster. Besides, this county also 
claims Sir Thomas Bazley, a Baronet created in 1869, long President 
of the Chamber of Commerce of Manchester, and M.P. for that city. 
Mr. Foster gives his pedigree ; but at his creation he was styled " of 
Tolmers in Hertfordshire." 

Lancashire may fairly indulge in some patriotic pride in reviewing 
its new Nobility, and more particularly when the name of Peel is 
added to those already mentioned. The first Sir Robert Peel built up 
his great fortune at Bury in Lancashire, though before he was created 
a Baronet in the year 1800 he had already seated himself in the 
domain of the ancient barons Basset at Drayton near Tamworth. 
When we open the broad pedigree of Peel contained in Mr. Foster's 
volume 1 we contemplate a marvellous display of wide-spread pros- 
perity. From Robert Peel of Peel Fold near Blackburn, the father of 
the first Sir Robert, are descended more than thirty families in the 
male line, all having children in the present generation; whilst 
another branch, as numerous as an ordinary family, is descended from 
Joseph Peel of Fazeley, co. Stafford (ob. 1820), an uncle of the first 
Sir Robert. The eldest representative of the whole race, Capt. Wil- 
liam Henry Peel, of Trenant Park in Cornwall, retams, besides, the 
old designation — "of Peele Fold." This is a small estate in the 
township of Oswaldtwisle, near Blackburn, which is now rendered for 
ever famous as the cradle of the Peels. 

' Some years ago a " Pedigree of the Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel and the Peels of 
Lancashire" was produced by Mr. John Davies, a printer of Manchester. We have 
never seen it, but feel sure that it would bear little comparison with the pedigree 
before us, though described at the time as " a beautifully executed genealogical tree." 


In these pedigrees we find also the names of three eminent states- 
men of our own day, Gladstone, Cardwell, and Wilson-Patten; as 
well as those of many men who have done much public service, in 
parliament, in municipal government, and in scientific discovery. Sir 
William Fairbairn, F.R S., a Corresponding Member of the Institute 
of France, was created a Baronet in 1869 expressly in recognition of 
his services rendered to the workers of iron ; his late brother, Sir 
Peter Fairbairn, was knighted by her Majesty at Leeds on her visit 
to that town during his mayoralty in 1858 ; and his nephew. Sir 
Andrew Fairbairn (son of Sir Peter), received the same honour when 
her Majesty opened the new Town Hall at Leeds in 1868. This 
family is a migration from Glasgow, and originally from Roxburgh- 

There is a pedigree of Brancker, which is that of the late Sir 
Thomas Brancker, Mayor of Liverpool in 1830; and we may notice 
that he is presumed to descend from a younger brother of Sir William 
Brouncker of Erlestoke in Wiltshire, and of Sir Henry Brouncker, 
Lord President of Munster, whose son was created a Viscount of 
Ireland by Charles L, and was father of the second Viscount, for 
fifteen years President of the Royal Society. 

In other pages we find the names of Wm. Harrison Ainsworth, 
F.S.A., the distinguished author, with two cousins almost as well 
known in the paths of geography and medicine ; of Dr. Hornby, the 
present Head Master of Eton ; of Sir Henry Rawlinson, the Eastern 
traveller ; of George Ormerod, the veteran historian of Cheshire ; and 
others that must be regarded with general interest. 

We m-ay add that in the pedigree of Sandys, which includes that of 
Birket of Birket Houses, we find the name of the Editor himself. 
Mr Joseph Foster is the eldest son of the late Mr. Joseph Foster of ff 
Sunderland, who was an elder brother of Mr. Myles Birket Foster, :] 
a distinguished and well-known member of the Old Water-Colour 
Society. Myles is an old name with the Birkets, and previously for 
many generations an old name with the Sandys'. In the same table 
also occurs the name of the late Mr. Davies Gilbert, President of the 
Royal Society, who, through the families of Davies and Nov, was, it 
will be recollected, a coheir of the Barony of Sandys of the Vine. 

In the modern armory of Lancashire there is a somewhat favourite 
charge, which in its import is as creditable as any other badge what- 
ever of honourable distinction. We allude to the Bee. The first Sir 
Robert Peel, whose motto was Industuia, placed a bee upon the chief 







of his armorial shield, and a shuttle in the paws of the demi-lion, his 
crest. Sir Thomas Bazley, a cotton prince of, more recent days, has 
also adopted a bee, an emblem of similar perseverance, and of similar 
success. We give the engraving of his arms, as a specimen of 
Mr. Foster's armorial illustrations, and add their blason : Per pale 
azure and sable, a bee volant or between three fleurs-de-lys argent. 
Crest, a cubit arm proper, charged with a bee volant or, the hand hold- 
ing a chapeau gules, turned up ermine, the whole between two branches of 
oak vert. This was formed, we perceive, upon a former coat of Bazley, 
which we find in Burke's General Armory^ as, Azure, three fleurs-de- 
lis argent ; with Crest, a hand holding a chapeau between two branches 
of laurel in orle. Again, we may remark that a bee plays a similar 
part in the arms of Fort of Read Hall, another Lancashire family, two 
of whose members have represented the borough of Clitheroe ; and 
again in that of the coat of Horrocks, granted in 1825 to Samuel 
Horrocks, esq., M.P. for Preston, which has a bee volant between two 
shuttles or. Bees also figure in the armorial shields of the towns of 
Blackburn and Burnley, accompanied in the former case with the very 
appropriate motto, arte et labore. 

The '' Roman Fasces" is another, but less happy, resource of 
modern heraldic composition. This is not a device very accordant in 
character with our armorial system. It savours too much of the classic 
taste of "the First Empire," and seems to remind one of Brutus and 
his Republicans. It has, however, we believe, been occasionally 
adopted for some of the London aldermen,^ as symbolic of their 
magisterial functions : and, with a similar meaning, we presume, it is 
given to the family of Rathbone of Liverpool ; which, after having 
for a century and a half occupied a prominent place among the mer- 
chants of Liverpool, now furnishes a representative for that town in 
Parliament. These arms are Ermine, on a fesse azure, between two 
roses in chief gules, barbed and seeded, and the Roman fasces erect in 
base proper, three bezants. Crest, the Roman fasces fessways, in front 
of a lion's head proper, gorged with a collar argent, charged with two 
roses gules. There are more ingredients in this composition than are 
pleasing to our taste. The fasces would have looked more shapely 
under a chevron than a fess; and their repetition, laid prostrate, before 
the crest, might, we think, have been spared. 

The arms of Crossley are designed with far greater taste. Though 
a comparatively modern coat,^ it is not crowded with charges, 

' See the arms and crest of the late Sir Francis Graham Moon and of the present 
Sir James Clarke Lawrence. 

' We believe it was granted to John Crossley, esq. of Scaitcliflfe in 1821 : and yet 


whilst it is anTthing but common place : Per chevron or and vert, in 
chief a tau betAveen two crosses potent fitchee gules, in base a hind 
trippant argent, charged on the neck with a tau gules. Crest, a 
hind's head argent, charged on the neck with a tau gules, and holding 
in the mouth a cross potent fitchee azure. The crosses and the tau 
cross of Saint Anthony typify at once the surname and the baptismal 
name of Anthony which has been maintained in every generation of 
the family for three centuries. A late head of this family was John 
Crossley, esq. F.S.A. of Scaitcliffe, who died in I860; and it is now 
i-epresented by his grandson Croslegh Dampier Crossley, esq. who 
assumed the name in 1864. 

These examples show the spirit with which the armorial embel- 
lishments to Mr. Foster's pedigrees are executed, by Mr. J. Forbes- 
Nixon. We cannot approve the unmeaning corners of the shields, but 
this bad pattern of fifty years ago appears to be already condemned, 
as it is occasionally abandoned. There are besides several plates of 
arms and quarterings, engraved and lithographed; and we cannot but 
notice, as an important defect in regard to the armorial bearings 
throughout, that quarterings, and the few impalements that occur, are 
none of them named.^ We have already mentioned the omission of 
blason, and, if Mr. Foster pursues his undertaking, we would suggest 
that the usual descrij)tion of armorial bearings, both by names of 
families and by blason, should be supplied. 

Like other editors similarly situated, Mr. Foster, in conducting his 
important enterprise, must be on his guard not to receive all that is 
offered to him without some caution and consideration. In one 
instance he has already been betrayed much too far, oblivious 

be bore it somewhat differently, viz. Per chevron or and azure, in chief a tau 
between two crosses potent of the second, in base a hind trippant argent (iiot charged 
u'ith another tau). In Burke's Armory — but not in any older authority that we have 
found, there is this simpler coat assigned to Crossley of Scaitcliffe: Per pale or and 
azure, in chief a tau gules between two crosses potent of the second. The family of 
Crossley is itself of high antiquity at Scaitcliffe and Todmorden, up to the reign of 
Edward III. : but whether bearing any arms we cannot ascertain. 

' The arms of Colonel Whitehead of Uplands hall, displayed in a plate, are totally 
different from those in the woodcut accompanying the pedigree. None of the charges 
are in common : but we presume the arms in the plate (which we do not find 
described in Burke's General Armory) may have been granted to the Colonel's father 
the late Lieut. -General Sir Thomas NVhitehead, (K.C.B. 1835,) as there is an embat- 
tled chief charged with an Eastern crown between two swords inclosed in wreaths of 
laurel. This is a case in which some explanation is evidently required 

Again, we observe that the crest of Hulton is correctly drawn in the woodcut, but 
not in the plate. It is, Out of a coronet or, a hart's head guardant argent, horned 
g4iles, between two branches of hawthorn proper. 


of the sentiment quoted in his Preface from the Historian of 
Northumberland, that ''The day is past to publish apocryphal 
pedigrees," for he has admitted into his book the perfectly fabulous 
genealogy of Coulthart, which has already been so often put forward 
by a gentleman resident at Ashton-under-Lyne, but was thoroughly 
exploded in 1865 in the book entitled Popular Genealogists, and has 
been repeatedly exposed since.' The whole of that extravagant ro- 
mance is now displayed once more to our astonished eyes, not varied 
from its first composition by the late ingenious Mr. Knowles.^ Only, 
on the present occasion, Mr. Coulthart is content to exhibit the shield 
granted to him by the College of Arms in 1859,^ of a fess between 
one colt courant and a water-bouget in base; but yet the reader is 
still assured that the Coultharts have ever borne three colts courant 
as part of their armorial ensigns from the time of King Malcolm 
Kianmore ! ignoring the fact of the expose above mentioned having 
shown that this coat of three colts was purloined from the English 
family of Colt. 

There is, unavoidably, some inequality in the composition of 
Mr. Foster's pedigrecvS, according +o the completeness or imperfec- 
tions of the materials placed at his disposal ; and possibly some other 
matters may be detected of a somewhat apocryphal character. In this 
light we are disposed to view the greater part of the pedigree of 
Whitehead. Captain Richard Whitehead, too, the presumed ancestor, 
was a Captain on the side of the Parliament, not of the King, temp. 
Charles I. Incidental errors will happen, such as styling the heir of 
Towneley '° in holy orders," though he is an oificer in the army; and 
the Rev. Mr. Molesworth still Yicar of Rochdale, as "the late"; but 
the general character of the work is that it shows evidence of accurate 
revision as well as diligent inquiry and fullness of detail. 

' Our readers will recollect how often we have taken the pains to point out the 
ubiquitous efforts of this indomitable gentleman, — ever recurrent like his favourite 
colts, which ought now to be thoroughly well known, did not authors freshly under- 
taking to write on heraldry and genealogy approach their work without sufficient pre- 
paration or inquiry. See our vol. iii. pp. 150, 352 ; vol. iv. p. 178. 

2 Mr. George Parker Knowles, "genealogist and heraldic artist," of Manchester, 
was the fabricator of the Coulthart pedigree and of its armorial embellishments. See 
our vol. iii. p. 150, vol. iv. p. 179. 

^ See our vol. iii. p. 353. 


Whitmore of the Haywood, co. Hereford. Vol. vli. p. 366. 

In the last volume I gave some facts relative to the family above cited, 
and have since gleaned a few more. The reference to William Whitmore 
of White-hall led me to surmise that he might hold some office at Court, 
and I was soon able to confirm the supposition. It seems that in 1693 
William Whitmore heads the list of Grooms of the Great Chamber, and 
Thomas Duppa was first of the Grooms of the Privy Chamber. In 1707 
Whitmore takes Duppa's place : his name occurs also in 1723 probably by 
mistake. There was therefore good reason for styling this William Whit- 
more "of White-hall." Colonel Chester followed this clue and found on 
record the will of William Whitmore "of White-hall, co. Middlesex, esq." 
dated 18 July, 1719, and proved in the Prerogative Court, Canterbury, 

15 June, 1720. He mentions his children Thomas, Mary, and Ann; his 
nephews John and William; and his nieces Elizabeth West and Margaret 
Haywood. He is silent as to any connection with Herefordshire or any 
relationship to the Duppas. 

Still it is very evident that this is the person who was buried at Callow 

16 Aug. 1719 aged 70. 

It also confirms my supposition that Ann and Mary were daughters of 
William, and that John Whitmore who married Mary Capell was not his 
son. It seems clear that William had a son Thomas, as well as two daugh- 
ters, but that the estate of the Haywood came to his nephew John. 

Colonel Chester also writes me that neither at Saint David's nor at 
Brecknock are there any Whitmore wills, and that there are none among 
the Radnorshire wills at Hereford. We can amend the pedigree given on 
page 365 of vol vii. as follows : 


I I 

John Whitmore,=f= William, of=p Duppa 

of Woomaston. | White-hall. | probably. 

I 1 1 J H 1 

John, eventual=Mary William, Thomas, Ann, Mary, 

heir to his uncle Capell. living 171 9. died s.p. died s.p. died s.p. 

I suppose the first name on the pedigree may be William Whitmore, 
"purchaser of the rents and mansion-house of the Haywood about 1650." 
It seems also almost certain that William Whitmore of White-hall married 
a sister of Sir Thomas Duppa; but we are still unable to continue the 
pedigree back, so as to learn the origin of this William who first became asso- 
ciated with the Haywood. It is very certain that he did not belong to the 
branches of the family settled at Apley or at Ludstone, co. Salop There 
were undoubtedly younger branches of the Whitmores of Thurstanton, co. 
Chester, and William may yet be traced to one of them. 

Boston, U.S.A. W. H. W. 



I. The Lawrences of Massachusetts. 
IL The Lawrences of Xew York. 

1. A Genealogical ?>renioir of the Family of John Lawi*ence of Watertowii, 

163G, with brief notices of others of the name in England and America. 
Boston. 1847. Pp. 64. 

2. Genealogy of the Ancestors and Posterity of Isaac Lawrence. By Frederic 

S. Pease of Albany. Albany, 1848. Pp. 20. 

3. Genealogy of the Ancestry and Posterity of Isaac Lawrence and Centennial 

Meeting of his Descendants, November 27, 1851. Albany, 1853. Pp. 76. 

4. A Genealogical Memoir of the Families of Lawrences, Mith a direct male line 

from Sir Robert Lawrence of Lancashire, A.D. 1190, down to John Lawrence 
of "Watertown, A.D. 1636. With notices of others of same name in different 
states. By [Miss] Mercy Hale. Boston, 1856. Pp. 20. 

5. The Genealogy of the Family of John Lawrence of Wisset in Suffolk, 

England, and of AVatertown and Groton, Massachusetts. Boston, 1857. 
Pp. 191. 

6. Historic Genealogy of the Lawrence Family, from their first landing in this 

country, A.D. 1635, to the present date, July 4th, 1858. By Tko:\ias 
Lawrence, of Providence, Rhode Island. New York, 1858. Pp. 240. 
(Note. — Pp. 177-234 are a reprint of No. 3, concerning Isaac Lawrence, (fee.) 

7. The Genealogy of the Family of John Lawrence, of Wisset in Suffolk, 

England, and of Watertown and Groton, Massachusetts. Boston, 1869. 
Pp. 332. 

8. Holgate's American Genealogy. Albany, 1848. (See pp. 201-227. article 


9. Bond's Watertown Genealogies. Boston, 1855. (See pp. 330-332,817-850, 


10. The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record. (See the numbers 
for January, July, and October, 1872.) 

The preceding list will be accepted as proof that the American 
families of the name of Lawrence have been zealous in preserving their 
history, if not always wise in their adoption of materials. 

The books, however, may be divided into two classes, each treating 
of a distinct family. Nos. 1, 4, 5 and 7 relate to the descendants of 
John Lawrence of Wateitown in Massachusetts; Nos. 2 and 3 relate 
to a sub-division of the same, Isaac Lawrence being a great-grandson 
of John. Nos. 6 and 8 record the families settled in New York, and 
springing from ancestors distinct from the Massachusetts colonist 

It will be safe to assume that No. 7 contains the substance of all 
the earlier treatises in this branch, and to confine our criticisms to its 
pages. It may be mentioned, however, that when the first book was 

VOL. VII 1. N 


published, nothing was known of the parentage of John Lawrence, of 
Watertown and Groton. The family had continued to hold its place 
for about two centuries without furnishing any very prominent mem- 
bers, until, in the first half of the present century, the brothers, 
William, Amos, Abbot, and Samuel, became distinguished as mer- 
chants and manufacturers. The prevailing interest in the subject of 
genealogy then took possession of some one of the Lawrence family, 
and the wealthy members furnished the means for examinations in 
England. The results were first given to tne public in 1855 in Bond's 
Watertown Genealogies, and it is certain that John Lawrence, the 
emigrant, was the son of Henry Lawrence of Wisset, in Suffolk. Mr. 
H. G. Somerby, who discovered this fact, prepared also a pedigree of 
the Lawrences of Wisset and Rumburgh, co. Suffolk, which is printed 
in Bond's book, in the New England Historical and Genealogical Re- 
gister, vol. X. and in various other works. 

It is due to Mr. Somerby to say, that he has traced the family with 
great diligence and success through six generations prior to Henry, to 
Thomas Lawrence of Rumburgh, who died in 1471. Here, we fear, 
the authentic pedigree must cease, though the family in its publications 
since 1855, and notably in this genealogy of 1869 (our No. 7), proceeds 
to annex the Rumburgh Lawrences to the ancient line of Ashton Hall 
in Lancashire We do not hold Mr. Somerby responsible for this, as 
the most that he asserts is, that a pedigree of the Lawrences of Ashton 
Hall says that the Lawrences of Suffolk come froia this stock. But 
we are constrained to doubt the value of such authority because the 
connecting link is " Nicholas Lawrence of Agercroft," whose fourth 
son John is called the father of Thomas of Rumburgh. 

It seems to be pretty well established in our volume iv. p. 533, that 
Nicholas L. of Agercroft never existed, and that he was the invention 
of Isaac Lawrence. It is true that apparently there was a grandson of 
Sir Robert Lawrence, named Nicholas, but the same authority that 
gives his name says that he died s. p. 

It seems very clear, then, that the Lawrences of New England, 
descended from the family at Rumburgh, in Suffolk, have yet to 
prove theu' connection with far-away Lancashire, and apparently their 
known ancestors did not use coat-armour. 

The New York family of Lawrences claim a very different origin. 
They asserted in Holgate's American Genealogy, a pretentious volume 
recording some few of the old families in New York, that three 
brothers, John, William, and Thomas Lawrence, came thither, and 


that ^' these three brothers, as well as Henry Lawrence (Cromwell's 
President) were all descended from John Lawrence, who died in 1538, 
and was buried in the Abbey of Ramsey." It is also said that their 
wills on record bear the arms of the St. Ives family of Lawrence. 
These statements are repeated in the Lawrence Genealogy (No 6 in 
our list) ; and again, in the New York Biographical and Genealogical 
Record for July 1871, it was stated that the Barclays, Livingstones, 
and Lawrences of New York, each of them had '' a proved pedigree of 
more than 700 years," and that the three emigrant brothers " were 
cousins of Henry Lawrence," the famous President of Cromwell's 

But by this time it became necessary to j)i*ove the truth of these 
repeated assertions, and in the same f)eriodical for January 1872 
there appeared an article cpiestioning the correctness of the pedigree. 

It was clearlv shown that in 1635 there embarked for New Eni2-land 
John Lawrence aged 17, William L. aged 12, Mary L. aged 9, with 
John Tuttell, a mercer, Joan T. and four children, and that John 
Tuttell was the stej^-father of these Lawrences. These emigrants had 
a certificate from the minister at St. Alban's, Hertfordshire, and we 
may suppose that they were from that parish or vicinity, but a search 
there has, we are informed, been fruitless. 

This article brought forth a rejoinder in July from one of the family, 
as already noticed in our last volume, p. 570, which, though charac- 
terised by much warmth, did not touch at all upon the real point of 
the controversy. Mr. Watson Effingham Lawrence (who is since 
deceased) merely said that more than fifty years ago he examined the 
seal affixed to one of the ancient wills, and then " the cross-raguly 
and the fish tail could be distinctly traced," though at present as he 
was informed " the seal was nearly or quite obliterated." He stated 
also that Henry Lawrence the President had an uncle William who 
settled at St. Alban's, Hertfordshire, whose sons were the emigrants. 
For this no authority was given, and it is totally at variance with 
the received pedigrees. Take, for example, the one published in 
Hoare's South Wiltshire; Sir John Lawrence of St. Ives i>5 put down 
as an only son, though junior brandies are carefully recorded in earlier 
and later generations. It is clearly the duty of any one claiming so 
near a relationship to the main line of the Lawrences of St. Ives to 
furnish indisputable proofs of it. 

At present, however, the known facts are simply these: — that John 
and William Lawrence came to America in 1635 ; probably they were 

K 2 


brothers, and possibly tbej had a third brother Thomas ; an early 
settler, John, left no descendants of the name, his three sons dying 
childless. William was the progenitor of the family in and about New 
York, and Thomas seems also to' have numerous descendants. There 
is not a single fact to show where these Lawrences were born or their 
parents' names, and for all that can be seen they might as well be 
called cousins-german to Oliver Cromwell as to Henry Lawrence. 

In the Herald and Genealogist, iv. p. 465, is a pedigree of a family 
apparently claiming to be allied to these three brothers. It begins 
with a Thomas, born at St. Alban's, in 1666, whose grand-daughter's 
will is proved in 1831 ! 

There is clearly some error in this, but until the author gives more 
details it cannot well be examined. One fact can be confirmed — a 
John Lawrence married Elizabeth Francis. She was born 1733 ; 
died 1800 ; was daughter of Tench Francis, junior, and grand-daughter 
of Tench Francis, uncle of the well-known Sir Philip Francis (see 
The Shippen Papers, Philadelphia, 1855, xlii-xlvi.), and her daughter 
married James Allen, as recorded in our vol. iv. p. 465. The second 
marriage of Mrs. Allen to a John Lawrence is not recorded in our 
books, though of course not imj^ossible. It is certainly desirable to 
know more of this Thomas, the emigrant, and we would ask : 
1st. Is his baptism recorded in 1666 at St. Alban's, and if so are 
there other entries of the name ? 2ndly. Where in New England 
did he settle, where marry, and where were his children born ? 3rdly. 
Can an abstract be given of the will of Lawrence Lawrence of 
Jamaica, so as to prove his connection with the New England 
settler ? 

In the controversy in the New York Record, besides the question 
as to the ancestry of William Lawrence, there was another point, 
which the late Mr. Watson Effingham Lawrence resented and argued 
with great bitterness. It was in regard to the name of the wife of 
Joseph Lawrence, oldest son of William L. The Lawrence Gene- 
alogy (1858), at p. 30, said that she was " Mary, daughter of 
Sir Richard Townley," and that her sister married " Francis Howard 
of Corby, afterwards Baron Howard of Effingham, and who, on the 
8th of December, 1731, was created first Earl of Effingham." Also, 
that Joseph Lawrence had a grandson named Effingham " in compli- 
ment to this Earl." In the Jan. 1872 number this was shown to be an 
error, so far as it concerned the Earl of Effingham, who had no 
Townley wife. In July, Mr. W. E. Lawrence attempted to correct 



the story by saying that it was Francis, fifth Baron Effingham, ^\ho 
married a Townley. This has also been proved to be an error, in our 
pages (vol. vii. p. 571). 

It seems, morover, that there is no evidence whatever as to the name 
of Joseph Lawrence's wife. Why that of Townley should have been 
assigned to her remained to be accounted for. It was natural that, 
as there was an Effingham Lawrence born in 1760, his descendants 
should cling to the idea that they were related to the Lords Effingham ; 
but as none of these noblemen married into the Townley family, it was 
hard to account for the indignation provoked by any insinuation that 
Joseph Lawrence's wife was not a Townley. 

The Lawrence Genealogy, and some facts which have recently come 
to light, explain this. It seems that the Lawrences believed that this 
Mary Townley was the heiress to an immense estate, which was to 
devolve upon them. On p. 120 of the book we read : — 

The ToAvnley estate is of many millions, and situated in Lancashire. The 
Lawrence estate is in Chancery. 

And again, after many confused and absurd statements, not ex- 
pressed in the most approved grammar : — 

The two above named estates, Townley and Standish, descends {sic) to the 
La^vrenGe family, by intermarriage in the following- manner, to wit : — Cecilia, 
daughter of Ralph Standish, Esq. and Philippa Howard became before her death 
the sole heiress of her grandfather, Henry Howard, sixth Duke of Norfolk. The 
said Cecilia Standish married Sir William Townley ; by said mairiage the pro- 
perty became vested in the Townley family ; and by defect of heu'S descends to 
Mary Townley, who married Joseph Lawrence." 

Such are the false statements which have imposed upon the cre- 
dulity of the silly bondholders who have entered upon this speculation ; 
and, although (as the Buffalo Express informed them,) Mr. Somerby, 
the American genealogist resident in England, had ascertained for 
them that there are no Townley estates except those in the hands 
of the rightful heirs, we are not surprised to hear that they do not 
readily forego the expectations they have been allowed to entertain 
during many years. We are now told that Mr. Jasiel Lawrence, not 
content, has accused his former associate, Mr. Carr, of defrauding 
him out of moneys received for the sales of bonds, and of making this 
disclosure in bad faith. In another Buffalo journal the editor 
writes : — 

Mr. Lawrence now claims to have established his case beyond question. In 
fact he ^\-rites us that he has advices from England that an amount has aheady 
been paid on his claim. 


But we have now said enough upon a matter which is sure to die 
away into oblivion, though its history is very characteristic of that 
stage of American genealogy in which the pride of ancestiy is rein- 
forced by mercenary motives. We return to the simple question of 
pedigree, and the conclusions which appear to have been honestly, 
though mistakenly, entertained by the late Mr. Watson Effingham 
Lawrence ; who shortly before his decease repeated his belief that 
Francis Lord Howard of Effingham really had a wife Dorothea 
Townley who accompanied him to New York with her sister Mary, 
the future wife of Joseph Lawrence. 

To sum it all up — the marriage of Joseph Lawrence is nowhere on 
record, so far as is known. There has never been a document pro- 
duced, or the record of any tradition, previous to the present genera- 
tion, to show that his wife's maiden name was Townley. It is known, 
however, that William Lawrence's widow married Col. Richard 
Townley of New Jersey, and that consequently Josej)h Lawrence had 
a step -brother Effingham Townley. These facts would explain the 
name of Effingham Lawrence, and even any tradition, did one exist, 
that the Lawrences and Townley s were connected. 

But in the face of such credulity on the part of the genealogist of 
the Lawrences, who can doubt that he was equally misinformed about 
the origin of his family ? He invalidates even his testimony as to 
the seals legible to him fifty years ago, and to whose existence he was 
the sole witness. We may certainly dismiss all his claims to be 
related to Henry Lawrence, the Lord President. 

Of the two American families it may be said that the New England 
one has a proved pedigree as far back as a.d. 1450, and may even- 
tually be joined to some other recognised line. As to the New York 
family, it begins with the emigrant, and is chiefly memorable genea- 
logically for the incapacity of its historians and the fabulous size of 
its pretensions. 



To the Editor of The Herald and Genealogist. 

Sir, — Referring to my letter printed at p. 369 of your sixth volume, 
and to the letter signed W. vol. v. p. 530, I wish to ask if you can 
help me to any independent authority for the reading sane baro. As 
to the interpretation thereof, I do not much care who first hit on it. 


THE hospitallers' MOTTOES. 183 

" Truly a Baron" was too tempting not to be jumped at by somebody. 

The only authority you cite in your note at the end of W.'s paper 
is that of Dugd ale's Warwickshire, by Thomas, who notices the beam 
at Temple Balsall where the motto occurs with the arms of Docwra. 
The arms, as you observe, are blundered; so also, I suspect, is the 

In the British Museum is a fine cartulary of the Priory of the 
Hospitallers (Cotton. MS. Claudius, E. vi.) containing transcripts of 
leases made at various chapters held at Clerkenwell between 1503 and 
1526, during the priorate of Thomas Docwra. 

In the initial letter C of the word CAPITULUM, fo. ccxxx. recto, the 
scribe has illuminated a shield of the arms of Docwra, from the sinister 
chief of which proceeds a scroll with the motto sane boro in Roman 
capitals ; and at foot of fo. i. recto is drawn the same coat of arms 
with the same motto in a scroll beneath the shield. The words sane 
BORO, in a mixed character, are separated, preceded and followed by 
*' roundels charged with pallets," taken from Docwra's arms. 

Now until some equally good and authentic evidence is produced 
for the reading sane baro, besides Thomas's version of the Balsall 
carving, I shall take leave to assume that either the carving, or the 
printed version of it, is a blunder for sane boro ; for the evidence of 
the cartulary is first-hand, and the book was written at Clerkenwell pro- 
bably under Docwra's eye. Further, I think it must be admitted that 
this motto was personal to Prior Docwra, as it occurs in combination 
with his arms both in the MS. just noticed'and at Temple Balsall, 
(though recorded as sane baro). Whence Mr. Willement derived his 
SANT boro does not appear, but he also attributes it to Docwra. 
There is what would seem to be another form of this motto vouched 
by respectable, but second-hand, authorities. This is sans roro, for- 
merly on Clerkenwell Gate, if we may trust Dingiey, History from 
Marble, p. ccccliij ; and an anonymous MS. ascribed by Mr. R. B. 
Phillipps to Brome circa 1720 (for the reference to which I have to 
thank you and the Rev. J. C. Robinson,) states that this motto 
occurred with the arms of Sir Lancelot Docwra, Master of Dinmore, 
20 Hen. 7. The reading sancte boro at Dynmore rests only on the 
authority of a correspondent of the Gentleman'' s Magazine of a not 
very critical period. 

Next, let me ask, who first started the idea of sane baro being an 
"official motto"? I know no other instance of such a thing (as old as 
1505): and cannot help thinking the notion to be a mere consequence 

184 THE hospitallers' mottoes. 

dra\Yn from the assumption that the words are Latin — truly a 

Until very lately I was unaware whether the notion that the Prior 
of the Hosj^ital in England was " Primus Baro Anglise " rested on any 
surer or earlier foundation than the loose statement of Camden, in the 
chapter of " Degrees of Men in England," where, at the end of a list 
of abhots and priors who used before his days to be summoned to 
Parliament, he adds (in Gibson's English version) the prior of St. John 
of Jerusalem, " commonly styled Master of the Knights of St. John : 
who would be accounted the first Baron of England;" or, as Gough 
not very happily puts it, " commonly called Grand Master of the 
Knights of St. John, and claiming to be the first Baron of England." 
From a marginal note in Gibson I presume that the passage is trans- 
lated from the Latin edition of 1607. I have had no opportunity of 
verifying this ; but it is remarkable that it does not occur at all in 
the earlier Latin editions which I have been able to consult. In 
particular it is wanting in the edition of 1600. 

Whilst these remarks, however, were passing through the press I 
have examined the Patent Roll 1 Edw. IV. pars 2*^% m. 13, being 
one of the records (the other, 10 Edw. IV. pars 1% m. 13, seems to 
be a mistake,) on which, as well as the passage in Camden, Anstis 
mainly relies (Appendix to Fiddes's Life of Wolsey, p. 113, ed. 1724, 
quoted Herald and Gen v, 534) in support of his statement that the 
Prior was called Primus Baro, &c. and that he sat at the head of the 
Barons in Parliament. The record in question is of a licence under 
the Great Seal tc.ste'^ Nov. 17, 1 Edw. IV. authorising John Lang- 
strother, preceptor of Balsall, and Cinthio dei Orsini (Cincius de 
Ursinis, pra?ceptor prioratus Urbis,) to execute a commission from 
James de Mylly, Master of the Order, and the Convent of Rhodes for 
visitation and survey of the revenues of the English possessions of the 
hospital, with a proviso that such visitation, Szq. is not to be exercised 
to the prejudice of Robert Botyll, prior of the hospital in England, 
who is expressly called " Primus Baro Regni nostri Anglian et consi- 
liarius noster carissimus." The title is certainly remarkable: was it 
ever given to any other Prior of England previously or subsequently? 

Anstis in support of his other statement, that the Prior " formed 
no part of the clergy," gives a marginal note referring to "Te^ Bret 
Playdoie 27," whatever that may mean. 

One thing however is certain, that from the time of Henry III. to 

I " Le " in 2nd Edition of Fiddes. 

THE hospitallers' MOTTOES. 185 

tbat of Edward IV. at all events, the Prior was always summoned to 
Parliament among the spiritualty, along with tlie Prior of the Gilber- 
tine canons of the order of Sempringham, and (until their suppression) 
the Master of the Templars, by writs consimilar to those addressed to 
the Prior of Canterbury and other prelates, abbots and priors. 

I have never read that the Hospital held its possessions in England 
per haroniam, nor is it a priori likely that it did so hold: but, supposing 
this were so, the Prior cannot, I venture to think, have been a Baron 
in any other sense than the Bishops who actually held by this tenure, 
or those parliamentary Abbots w^ho are said so to have held their 
lands, and who, if we may trust i^nstis, are drawn with ''Baron's caps" 
in a procession roll in the Ashmolean Collection, 

Those of your readers who have taken an interest in this question 
may recollect that in my former letter I expressed some doubt whether 
Axi BORO was an independent motto, or only a corruption of sane 


Lately, however, by the kindness of Sir Albert Woods, Garter, I 
have obtained a tracing of Sir Richard Weston's standard from the 
book in the Office of Arms, the description of which Bentley printed 
in Excerpta Historica. On this standard the motto is ani boro 
plainly and clearly : and as this book, if not contemporary, is of con- 
siderable antiquity, I am willing to accept it as good authority, and to 
admit that axi boro was Sir Richard's motto, and also that of Prior 
Weston, for I am told that on close inspection of Storer's engraving 
the words on his tomb are any boro. Schnebbellie certainly gives 
them so in his print 1787 in Malcolm's Londiniuia Reclivivum. 

If then SANE BORO was a motto personal to Docwra, as now seems 
likely, it may well be that ani boro was a motto personal to the 
Weston brothers, which was your correspondent W.'s proposition. I 
still should like to know how old "the tradition " or "legend" (vol. v. 
pp. 531, 532,) may be, accounting for the assumption of the Weston 
crest of a Saracen's head. 

Meanwhile, sank baro having I hope been eliminated from the 
different readings, and rejecting for the present sans roro, as resting 
on second-hand evidence, we have 

ani boro (Weston), 

sane boro (Docwra) ; and 

SANE^ THELE O THEOS (Sheffield) 

' I read sane, uot save, because I prefer the testinionj' of Cole's drawing from the 
Sliingay Window, where tiie motto is in capitals, admitting of no mistake between N 
and Y, to that of the printed book? which have souc and savi . 


and my original remark (vol. vi. p. 372) remains in full force, namely, 
that the three mottoes (all used by Hospitallers) are connected by 
common words, evidencing a common origin, and requiring an uniform 
interpretation to be sought in one and the same language. 

While on the subject I may perhaps be allowed to notice with 
reference to Sir Thomas Sheffield's motto that, soon after my commu- 
nication to you appeared, I was favoured by a letter from a gentleman 
for whose learning I have every respect, suggesting that the whole 
and not merely the last two words of that motto were capable of inter- 
pretation as Greek. He proposed to read san ethele o theos, or in 
Greek character aav edeXr] 6 Geos : auv being (he informed me) a 
modern Greek form of the classical cw. 

Against this I will only observe : — 

1. That the division of the words in the windows of Shingay and 
elsewhere was sane thele not san ethele. 

2. That my correspondent furnished me with no example of aav for 
ar, and that I fail to find the word in such Modern Greek Lexicons as 
I have been able to consult. 

3. That (without going deeply into a philological or orthographical 
argument,) there are grounds for doubting whether the Greek ?; (Hi) 
would be represented, by a person in the sixteenth century turning 
Greek into Roman letters, by the letter e. 

I am, Sir, Your obedient Servant, . 

C. Sp. Perceval. 


To the Editor of The Herald and Genealogist. 

Sir, — Since my Memoir of the Family of Edwin appeared in your 
useful periodical in October 1869 (vol. vi. p. 54), I have met with 
information which enables me not only to add another link to the 
chain of family descent, but also at the same time to furnish a cor- 
rection to the account of the Bradshaighs of Haigh, as given in 
Baines's History of Lancashire (4to. 1836), vol. iii. p. 554. On this 
double ground I must therefore trespass a little upon your valuable 

Baines says, both in the text and accompanying tabular pedigree, 
that " Sir Roger Bradshaigh, the fourth Baronet, who died s. p. m., had 
by his wife Dorothy, daughter of William Bellingham, an eldest 
daughter Elizabeth who married Alexander Lindsey, sixth Earl of 


Balcarres." But this is a blunder so serious and withal so inexplic- 
able that one wonders how it could ever have been perpetrated.^ 

To show that it is an error, and to prove that the Lancashire his- 
torian has not only mistaken the generation in which the marriage 
with the Earl took place, but even twice over the parentage of the 
Countess of Balcarres, it is merely necessary to refer to the Palmer 
MSS. in the Cbetham Library (vol. E. p. 50), to the standard genea- 
logical works of Collins, Debrett, and Burke, to the Crcacford Peerage 
Case, and The Life and Times of Selina Countess of Huntingdon by a 
member of the houses of Shirley and Hastings. From these sources 
we find that Sir Roger Bradshaigh, Bart., who in 1G95, although 
then under age, was chosen M.P. for Wigan, married Rachael daugh- 
ter of Sir Edward Guise, of Elmore in Gloucestershire, and by her 
had issue, besides the Sir Roger above named who married Dorothy 
Bellingham, three other sous who died s.p., and two daughters, Eliza- 
beth and Rachael. The elder, Elizabeth, was married in 1731 to 
John Edwin, fifth and youngest son of Sir Humphrey Edwin, as is 
stated in The Herald and Genealogist, vol. vi p. Q'2, line 7. Their 
only surviving daughter and heiress, Elizabeth Edwin, became the 
wife of Charles Dalrymple, Esq. of North Berwick, (grandson of the 
Hon.. Sir Hew Dalrymple, brother of John second Viscount Stair,) and 
by him had an only child and heiress Elizabeth Dalrymple, who was 
married, 1st June 1780, to her cousin Alexander Lindsay, sixth Earl 
of Balcarres, Lord Lindsay of Cumbernaud, &c. On failure of the 
issue male of the Bradshaighs in 1787, the Countess inherited the 
estate of Haigh, which yet remains with her descendant the present 
Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. She died lOtli August 1816, having 
had issue four sons and two daughters. The eldest son, James, who 
on his father's decease in 1825 succeeded as seventh Earl of Balcarres, 
was in 1826 created a Peer of the United Kingdom by the title of 
Baron Wigan, and in 1848 he established his right to the dormant 
Earldom of Crawford. 

By way of further explanation it may be added that a Charles Dal- 
rymple, who was evidently the individual above referred to, married in 
September 1758 (as already mentioned in mj Memoir) Martha, daugh- 
ter of Charles Edwin, the third son of Sir Huniijhi-ey ; which lady, it 
will be perceived, was cousin to his former wife. 

10 Januarij, 1873. Jas. Edwin-Cole. 

' We find a corrected statement in the new edition of Baines, 1870, ii. 185. 
{Edit. H. & Ct.) 



It may be of interest to some of our American cousins who desire to 
claim from the old stock in the mother country if I send the following, taken 
from Sir Tiiomas Phillipps's edition of the Visitatio Comitatus Wiltonia, 
1623. JNlany of the pedigrees are only those of 1565, and, as Sir Thomas 
Phillipps in printing does not distinguish between these distinct visitations, 
there is no internal evidence to show to which date the following 
pedigree should be assigned.' 

Sir Thomas Phillipps gives no tricking of arms nor the blazon. The 
year 1693 is the date of Dale's MS., where he names Lawrence of Tisbury 
and Sarum, adding " see Dorsetshire et quelle Lancashire." If the family 
were at either of these places at that date the parish registers should connect 
them with a family whose pedigree was entered seventy years before. The 
pedigree as under gives names and matches which do not appear in the 
Dorset Visitation : 

John Uffenbam al's Lawrence, of Downton, in=j=. 
com. Wilts, gent. | 

Roger Uffenliam,=pJane, dau. and heir of Tlios. Burton, of WiUon, gent. John, son 

gent, second son, and Jane his wife, dau. and heir of Edmund Penston, and heir, 

heir to John. of Winterbourne Chirborough, in co. Wilts, gent, son ob. s,p. 

and heir of Edmond Penston of same place and county. 

I ■ 1 

Richard Uffenham,=j=Ann, dau. and one of the heirs of John Gilbert, son Robert, 

and heir of Wm. Gilbert and Elizabeth his wife, dau. second 

and coheiress of John Gore of co. Wilts, gent. son. 

gent, eldest son and 
heir to Roger. 

' ^ I ^ ' -. TT 

Robert Uf- Joane, ni. John Uflfenhara, al's Lawrence=... Emma, mar. J Henry 
fenham.lst JohnSuter of Benger, in co. Wilts, gent. Long, of liVttleton ; 2 

son, o. s. p. ofAberye. son and heir to Richard. John M eggs of Walton. 

There is no date to the above, and I cannot connect it with any particu- 
lar branch. There is at Doctors' Coumions the will of Ric. Lawrence al's 
Uffenham, dated 1558. 

The Downton Lawrence Visitations in the Harleian Collection are 
888, fo. 20b, 1092, fo. 75, 1565, fo. 34, 1111, fo. 82, 1153, fo. 83, 
5184, fo. 50, 1181, fo. 41b, 1443, fo. 251. 

The name of Ufienham was probably derived from Otfenham in Wor- 
cestershire. At Bengeworth, the next parish to Offenham, there was a 
family of Lawrence, and in 1617, 20 Oct. Edward Lawrence of Cumbarton 
•was there married to Susanna Parsons of Pearsonus Uffenham. 

In the papers of the Commissioners on confiscated estates, during Parlia- 
mentarian rule, occurs the name Giles Lawrence, of Bengeworth near Wor- 
cester, gent, connected with Giles Lawrence of Yanworth, co. Glouc. 
(Royalist Composition Papers. Second Series, xlvii. 309.) 

' We find that Mr. Matcham has printed this pedigree in his History of the 
Hundred of Doicidoti, (Sir R. C. Hoare's South Wiltshire,) p. 68, and he says that it 
"appears in the Visitation of 1623,"' but we do not find that he has otherwise noticed 
the family. — EDrr, H. & G. 


There is among the Scame records a long list of Lawrences whose property 
was confiscated at the same period. This may account for the sudden ter- 
mination of some of the branches of the family. 

Tong. K. GwYNNE Lawrence. 

The Wemyss Baronetcy. — Your correspondent S * * * (p- 62 supra) 
seems to be in error as to the son of Sir James Wemyss of Bogie, who 
married the sister of Lord Dingwall. Papers in the possession of the 
AVemyss family of Danesfort, co. Kilkenny, seem to show tiiat the father 
of Sir Patrick Wemyss who settled in Ireland was another Sir Patrick, 
who married Lord Dingwall's sister, and not Sir John. I append a tenta- 
tive sketch of the pedigree : 

Sir David Wemyss, of \Verayss,=pCecilia, dau. of William 
ob. 1591. I Lord Ruthven. 

^__ ^ 

Sir John Wemyss. Sir James Wemyss, of Bogie. 

I ^ I \ 

John We- James Sir Patrick Wemyss, =pA sister of Sir Richard Preston, 

myss, Earl Wemyss, of Rumgally and Craig 

of Wemyss. died v. p. hall in Fifeshire. 

4s ^ 

created Lord Dingwall and Earl 
of Desmond by James I. 


Sir Patrick Wemyss, knt. settled in Ireland. His 
seal of arms, Quarterly, four lions rampant, a 
crescent for difference. 

Sir James Wemyss, of Danesfort, co. Kilkenny. 

If any of the readers of The Herald and Genealogist could give the 
names of Sir Richard Preston's sisters, and their matches, it would settle 
the question. 

Inisnag^ Stonyford^ Maixh 26, 1873. James Graves. 

Inhispreviouscommunication, vol.vii.p.479, Mr. Graves puts Sir Patrick 
Wemyss, first of Danesfort, as son of — Wemyss, a native of Scotland, and 
— Preston his wife, and asks for information as to Sir Patrick's Scotch 
ancestry. He now calls Sir Patrick son of another Sir Patrick, whom he 
styles of Eumgally and Craighall. According to Douglas's Peerage^ the 
founder of the Rumgally or Rumgay family was Patrick, fifth son of Sir 
David Wemyss of Wemyss, and younger brother, not son, of Sir James of 
Bo^ie. The dates of the marriages of the brothers and sisters of this 
Patrick range from 1574 to 1598, so that as far as time is concerned he 
might have been father of Danesfort, who died in 1661, but is there proof 
that he was ? 

Lamont says that in 1658 Wemyss of Rumgay, then a young man, sold 
the estate for 16,000 merks to Mr. James McGill, minister at Largo: he 
adds that Rumgay held of the laird of Craighall. 

Craighall did not belong to the Wemyss; it was purchased by Sir Thomas 
Hope, Lord Advocate, from the old family of Kynynmond, and is still in 
the possession of his descendants. t^ * * * 


Earlt Marriages and Early Knighthood. 

To the Editor of The Herald and Genealogist. 

Sir, — The article on the Pedigree of Fowler of Barnsbury at p. 559 of 
your last volume appears to me to contain some matters that are not a little 

Let it be understood that 1 do not take it upon me to impugn the accu- 
racy of the pedigree, but, if the dates be accepted as correct, it is worthy 
of a note that the family of Fowler must have been remarkable for a pro- 
pensity to contract very early marriages. 

We are told that Edmond Fowler (iv), the father of the first Sir Thomas, 
"died 16 Feb. 1559-60, when his son and heir Thomas was found by inqui- 
sition held on 3 June, 1560, to be aged 3 years 5 months and 5 days." Sir 
Thomas (v) was therefore born on Dec. 29, 1556 ; or (if by " when " the 
writer mean at the date of Edmond's death,) on Sept. 11, 1556. Yet Mr. 
Waters proceeds to inform us that Sir Thomas married his first wife on 
March 18, 1571-2. This would make him only 15 years 2 months and 20 
days old at the time of his marriage (or, if we take the earlier date for his 
birth, 15 years 6 months and 7 days old). 

This Sir Thomas the elder had two sons, both by his second wife, viz. 
Sir Thomas the younger (vi) and Sir Edmond. The first of these. Sir 
Thomas Fowler, Knt. and Bart, had a son (also named Thomas) who was 
baptized 2 Jan. 1602-3 (p. 560). Now, if we suppose the infant to have 
been baptized on the day of his birth, his father Sir Thomas must have 
married not later than April 1601. But the first wife of Sir Thomas the 
elder (v) "was buried 25 April, 1586." Let us admit the possibility that 
the disconsolate widower married his second wife, Jane Charlet, within the 
year of the death of his first boyish flame, viz. in 1586. Even in that case 
Sir Thomas the younger (vi), the first son of this second marriage, could 
not have been born earlier than 1587. And as we have seen that this same 
Sir Thomas must have been married not later than April 1601, it follows 
that at the date of such marriage the young gentleman was barely 14 years 
of age. 

When compared with this precocity displayed by the elder brother, the 
tardiness of Sir Edmond Fowler to enter into the bonds of matrimony may 
be commended. Yet, as the younger issue of the first Sir Thomas's second 
marriage. Sir Edmond could not have been born before 1588. We can, 
therefore, scarcely regard him as entirely exempt from the amiable weak- 
ness of his race when we read that he " married 10 Feb 1606-7 " (p. 560), 
that is, at the age of eighteen. Thus we have a father marrying at the 
age of fifteen, and his two sons following suit at the age of fourteen and 
eighteen respectively. Chacun a son gout. 

I have made a note ; I will venture to add a query. We are told that 
Sir Thomas Fowler the younger — born, as we have seen, not earlier than 
1587 — "was knighted at Whitehall before the coronation of James I. July 
23, 1603" (p. 560), that is, before he was sixteen years old. I would beg 



to inquire whether we have many instances, at the date referred to, of the 
honour of knighthood being conferred at so early an age ? 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 
Felmi7tg7iam, Norwich^ 27 February^ 1873. H. T. Griffith. 

Note.- — AVe received the present letter before the publication of our last 
Part, and consequently before our correspondent could have seen the para- 
graph in p. 61 headed "Knighthood at the age of Thirteen?" It 
seems now not improbable that a little further research would ascertain 
the truth of our surmise, that, besides Sir Gilbert Houghton and Sir 
Thomas Fowler the younger, many of the Knights made soon after the 
accession of Kin"; James the First were at that time still under the ao-e 
of one-and-twenty. — (Edit. H. Sf G.) 

I should be glad to know more about a family of Woods, of whom I have 
found many particulars amongst the family papers of the Cranmers of 
Mitcham. For the sake of convenient reference I have thrown together 
in the shape of a pedigree what I know already about this family and their 

=John Woods, cit. and tallovv-==p2 w. Mary, dau. of Sa-^2h. Joseph 


1 \v. Anne, d.= 
of John Bur- 
net, cit. and 
haberdasher of 
London, of Le- 
wisham, Kent. 


chandler of London, a disitiller 
by trade and descended out of 
Hampshire, died 12 Dec. 1658. 
M.L at St. Mary Hill, London. 
Will dat. 3 Dec. 1658. 

niuel Gott,cit. and iron- 
monger of London, died 
a widow 30 May, 1695, 
bur. at St. Mary Hill. 
Will dat. 4 Sept. 1690. 

gent. mar. 
3 Feb. 

1669-70 ; 
dead ]690. 

son and 
chant, of 





— I 

chant, of 
d. unm. 
25 Oct. 

-, 1 

died 27 


d. 25 


m. Ben- 
of Lon- 

Elizabeth John-= 
son, m. 2 June, 

=... Eaton, a scri- 
vener in Can- 
non Street. 

Mary Woods, =p=Charles Knollys, ti- 

dau. and heir. 
(Second wife). 

tular Earl of Ban- 
bury. Died 1740. 

— I 
Anne, m. 

9 Marcb, 
mer, esq. 
of Mit- 

of Mit- 

John Eaton, esq. of Hendon, — Susan, dau. of Edward Lisle, 
CO. Middlesex, died s. p. esq. of Moyle's Court, Hants. 

Pedigree II. 

Samuel Gott, cit. and ironmonger of London,=pElizabeth Russell, 

at the Three Lions in Thames Street ; buried 
at Battle, Sussex, 18 Dec. 1671. 

bur. at Battle, 19 
Sept. 1658. 

Peter Gott, esq. son 
and heir, ancestor to 
the Gottsof Stanmer, 
CO. Sussex. 

Mary Gott=f=John 
remarried Woods 
Mr. Joseph of Lon- 
Dawson. don. 

Pedigree I. 

Mar-=^Thomas Western, cit. and iron- 
tha monger of London, purchased 
Gott. the manor of Rivenhall in Es- 
sex ; died 11 Jan. 1706, aged 83. 

Western, Barts. of Rivenhall, 


"What is known about the Beauchamps of Pengreep in Cornwall, of whom 
some particulars are subjoined ? Tewars. 

Francis Beaucbamp,=^Ellen,dau. of Joseph Crannier,esq. 

esq, of the Six Clerks 
Office; married by li- 
cence dated 15 Jan. 

of Cliiekney Hall, Essex, Second- 
ary of the Pipe Office in the Exche- 
quer; bapt. at St. Andrew's Hol- 
born, 23 Aug. 1701. 

I ~ ^ — \ 1 

John Beaucharap, esq. son and heir, of=p Elizabeth. Joseph Beau-=p 

Pengreep in Gwennap, co. Cornwall. ) Mary. champ, esq. j 

r ' n I 

Ellen Beau-=Sir John Edward Na- = Anne = 2 h. Rev. James Henry 

champ, CO- Riggs Mil- gle, esq. 1st Cranmer Blencowe, of Robert 

heir, m. 13 ler, Bart. husband, m*. Beau- Pengreep, jure Beau- 

Oet.l801,d. died 2 Aug. at Lambeth, champ, ux., mar 1818 champ, 

5Sept.l860. 182.5, s. p. ..Mar.1798. coheir. [Baker's ^'orth- esq. d. 

aged 84. a^its, i. 640.) 1817. 

The Etymology of Twisell elucidated by Hautwisell. — In writing 
our note on the etymology of Twisell (p. 63) we did not advert to one of 
the places in Northumberland in the name of which it forms a component 
part, — Haltwistle, or Hautwistle as it has sometimes been written, but in 
ancient documents Hautwyselle and Hawtewysle. (Hodgson, III. ii. 33, 
217). Haltwhistle is one of the parishes which Mr. Hodgson described, 
and, as we might expect, he speculates upon its etymology. " In all old 
authorities (he remarks,) this name is commonly written Hautwysel, Hau- 
twisel, or Hautwysill. It is of difficult derivation. Is it Saxon, from Hau 
and Twysel; or Norman, from Haut, high, wes, watch, and hill? My late 
friend Mr. Hedley, of Chesterholme, bid me not 'Venture to doubt' its 
Norman origin, as referring most unquestionably to the earthwork to the 
south-east of the village, where the inhabitants had kept watch and ward, 
and on the top of which there are still remains of an entrenched inclosure 
for the safeguard of themselves and their cattle on any sudden inroad of 
their Northern enemy." (^History of No7'thrimbe7'land, II. iii. 117.) It did 
not occur to Mr. Hodgson to compare this with the other Northumbrian 
iwisells to which we referred in the page above-mentioned, and his deriva- 
vation of wes-hill does not account for their initial T; but his descrip- 
tion of Hautwisell goes very far to confirm the idea we put forward, 
that a tivisell is a double or forked valley. The Castle hill at Hautwisell is 
" a natural diluvial bank cut off from the ground to the north-east by the 
glen of the Haltwhistle burn." . . . "Like the mound on which [the castle 
of] Bellistex' stands [not far distant] and Tomnaheurich on the plain of 
Inverness, it is a natural mass of diluvium of the age of the higher banks 
on eacb side, and left by the currents that swept away the intervening 
deposit." It stands somewhat less than 400 feet above the level of the 
river at Newcastle bridge, (ibid. p. 117). The first syllable may therefore 
well be Nornmn, with the meaning which the historian suggested for it, and 
we conclude that the castle stood on an eminence between two natural 



Cooper of Failford, co. Ayr. 

This is one of those which, notwithstanding the careful weeding out 
of similar performances by the learned Editor of the Landed Gentry^ 
has retained its place in his last edition, and thus still courts 

As will be seen, the family owes its rise to successful trade in the 
city of Glasgow towards the close of last century, but this respectable 
origin is not sufficiently magnificent, and one of the heroes of the 
''Ragman Roll" is claimed as Patriarch. The pedigree is given in 
the second volume of Paterson's History of the County of Ayr (1852) 
with rather more detail than in the Landed Gentry, so I shall quote 
from the former work. 

The introductory paragraphs are chiefly derived from Playfair's 
Baronetage, a work of no great authority. It is stated that " Simon 
Couper, the first ancestor on record of the Coupers of Gogar, swore 
fealty to Edward I. anno 1296." A long leap is then made to a 
*' James Couper, alive in 1592," whose son Adam, " one of the princi- 
pal Clerks of Session," acquired about that time the estate of Gogar, 
near Edinburgh; and after some other particulars concerning this 
'' Gogar" Family, who are believed to have obtained a Nova Scotia 
Baronetcy (which has descended in a very doubtful manner, and seems 
to have expired about 1850), we are introduced to the ancestor of 
" Failford." 

This personage was '' William third son of Sir John Couper of 
Gogar, Baronet" (and No. IV. of the Lineage), stated to have been 
''born 22nd May 1629." This individual ''served as an officer of 
dragoons in the time of the Commonwealth. He married Christian 
Scot, and settled in the county of Dumbarton. Robert Couper is wit- 
ness to the baptism of two of his children." The retired soldier had 
s-everal children. 

V. " John Couper the elder son resided at the Tower of Banheath 
in the county of Dumbarton. He married in January 1676 Christian 
Gray, by whom he acquired property, and who survived him. He 
died in March 1687," and was succeeded by his " eldest survivhig son 

VL " John Couper, born 25 August 1677. He also resided at the 
Tower of Banheath. In November 1708 he married Margaret Thorn, 



a relative of the Rev. William Thorn of Kirkdale, minister of Govan, 
celebrated for his wit and eccentricity, and had issue" [who will be 
noticed presently]. 

Now here we would stop to inquire what authority there is for all 
this particularity of detail ? On which side in the civil war did the 
dragoon officer draw his sword ? In what capacity did his son and 
grandson, the two Johns, reside at the Tower of Banheath ? In what 
record are the births, deaths, and marriages of those respectable but 
obscm'e people to be found ? 

The registers of the parish of Lenzie or Kirkintilloch, in which 
Banheath is situated, are not extant prior to the year 1709 ; so that, 
unless these dates can be substantiated by family records, they can 
neither be proved nor disproved by any other means. Regarding 
Banheath (anciently Badenheath) it may be observed that this estate 
was an old possession of the Boyds of Badenheath, cadets of the 
noble family of Kilmarnock. The last of the name, Robert Boyd of 
Badenheath, died in 1611 ;i and the estate, after being a short time in 
in the hands of Lord Boyd, passed into the family of Elphinstone, 
whether by succession or purchase I am not aware. The late Lady 
Keith (Comtesse Flahault) was ''Baroness Keith of Banheath,^' a 
title created in the person of her father Admiral Lord Keith, and, 
though the old Tower of Banheath has now passed out of their family, 
it belonged to them till 1803 or later. Of course from the manner 
in which this place is mentioned in the " lineage," the inference is 
intended to be drawn that these Coupers were owners of Banheath or 
Badenheath ; whereas if they really did live there it must have been 
as tenants, or in some inferior capacity, under the Boyds or Elphin- 
stone s. 

The last-mentioned John had a numerous family, with three of 
whom only the lineage concerns itself. The eldest of these " the Rev. 
John Couper, born 12 Nov. 1709, was settled as a clergyman in the 
county of Lincoln, where he resided long. He considered himself [on 
what ground is not said] entitled to the Baronetcy of Gogar, and was 

' This person, who, according to Robertson's Ayrshire Families (vol. i. p. 108), 
was the third brother of Robert fourth Lord Boyd, had acquired Badenheath by 
marrying the heiress of the same name. His elder brother Lord Boyd had been at 
an early age " rentalled," i.e. entered as tenant, by Archbishop Dunbar of Glasgow 
in the adjoining estate of Bedlay, belonging to the See. At the spoliation of the Arch- 
bishopric, after the Reformation, the Lords Boyd secured these and many other lands, 
which remained in their family until their forfeiture in the Rebellion of 1745. 


proceeding to claim it, but [considerately] desisted therefrom on the 
appearance of Sir Grey Cooper, claiming descent from an elder 
branch." This reverend gentleman, rather inconsistently one might 
say with his pretensions to the title, changed, in imitation of the 
baronet, the spelling of his honest Scottish surname Couper to that 
of Cooper, and died at Glasgow in 1789, leaving " his property which 
was considerable [but the nature of which is not stated] to the chil- 
dren of his brother William." The brother, who is numbered YIII. 
in the lineage, was a merchant in Glasgow, in the Directory of which 
city for 1787 we find his name " William Cooper, merchant, Curries' 
Close, High Street." By successful trade he augmented, perhaps 
commenced, the family fortunes, and in 1786 acquired by purchase the 
estate from which his successors take their designation. He too 
seems to have been smitten with his elder brother's change of sur- 
name, and " entailed the name of Cooper on his successors along with 
his lands." From which era they held, and doubtless still hold, a 
respectable position among Ayrshire landowners. 

A somewhat imposing paragraph respecting the arms concludes the 
pedigree. The facts, as disclosed in the Lyon Registers, reveal an 
amusing instance of gradual adaptation of arms. The first to obtain 
a coat was " Alexander Cooper of Failford and Smithston," son of 
the merchant, who in 1805 obtained from the Lord Lyon a modifica- 
tion of the coat of an English family of the same name, viz. " Argent, 
on a bend engrailed between two lions rampant gules three crescents 
of the field within a bordure cheque argent and azure. Crest. On a 
wreath argent and azure an oak-tree with a branch borne down by a 
weight. Motto — Resurgo." The next applicant for heraldic honours 
was this gentleman's brother " Samuel Cooper of Failford, Smithston, 
and Ballindalloch," who in 1839 obtained from the Lyon Office right 
to quarter the arms of Ritchie and Crawfurd for his wife, and, in addi- 
tion to his brother's shield and crest, right to use the crest of Couper 
of Gogar, being " a dexter hand holding a garland of laurel, both 
proper," and that family's motto, " Virtute." Lastly this gentleman's 
son " Alexander Cooper of Failford and Smithston, and of Solsgirth," 
in 1852 obtained leave from the Lord Lyon, in addition to the above 
insignia, to quarter the shield of Coaper of Gogar, viz.: " Argent, a 
chevron gules charged with another ermine between three laurel slips 
vert," differenced by a bordure, on the ground of "being believed to 
be descended from that family." Thus, the owner of this composition 
claims, armorially, male descent both from English and Scottish 

O 2 


Coupers or Coopers, which can hardly be correct in the same male 


In the lineage of this evidently respectable Yorkshire family, as 
given in the last edition of Sir Bernard Burke's Landed Gentry, there 
is a very important error or misrepresentation at the link connecting 
it with the ancient house of Fullarton of that ilk in Ayrshire. This 
gap may no doubt be capable of explanation; still, as it is a vital 
point in the pedigree, and unless substantiated by authentic records 
quite cuts off, as there stated, any connection between the two families, 
it is proper to bring it under the notice of the present representative 
of Thrybergh. 

The lineage, commencing with " Alanas de Fowlertoun," who lived 
before the middle of the 13th century, proceeds with unbroken links 
to his lineal male descendant *' James Fullerton of that ilk " at the 
beginning of the 17th, and is undoubtedly substantially correct, being 
simply that of the Ayrshire FuUertons, who, it is truly remarked in 
the opening paragraph, " can claim an ancient and unbroken line of 
descent," possessed by but few families. Their earliest known ancestor 
in Scotland was one of the knights of Walter FitzAlan the first High 
Steward, and their possessions in Ayrshire were held directly under 
that afterwards royal family. For six centuries they held a high 
position among the Barons of Ayrshire. Readers of Burns will re- 
member the allusion in The Vision to '' Brydone's brave Ward," the 
last of the direct male line, Colonel William Fullarton of Fullarton. 

This gentleman, who was an eminent public character, sold in 1805 
the bulk of his ancient domain to the Duke of Portland, and died in 
1808. A collateral relative succeeded him in the representation of 
the family, and by marriage with his predecessor's daughter had 
numerous children, in some of whom it doubtless rests. 

To return to the *' lineage " after this digression : 

James Fullarton of that ilk married Agnes daughter of John Fullarton of Dreg- 
horn by Jean his wife daughter of John Mure of Rowallan, and had (with a daughter 
married to James Blair of Lady Kirk, co. Ayr,) three sons : 

1. James [ancestor of the main line already noticed]. 

2nd. John [ancestor of the Fullartons of Dudwick, Aberdeenshire, now extinct]. 

3rd. William, of whose line we treat. 

This William, who was a clergyman and minister of the parish 
of St. Quivox, Ayrshire, acquired the lands of Craighall, co. Ayr, and 


had au "eldest son, Robert Fullarton, of Craighall, living in 1660;" 
which last (besides a "younger son John, who went to India,") had 
*' an elder son and heir Robert Fullarton of Craighall " with whom we 
shall pause, for here the difficulty occurs. This second Robert is 
said to have had five sons : "John his heir, Robert, William, Adam, 
and George." John the heir is said to have married twice, and by 
his second wife " a Miss Weston of West Horsley Place, co. Surrey," 
to have had 

" I. John his heir. 

" II. Weston, died unmarried, and a daughter Judith " [through 
whose marriage to Savile Finch esq. of Thrybergh it is explained 
that the Thrybergh estate came by bequest into the Fullerton family.] 

** Mr. John Fullerton (it is stated) went to India and escaped the 
general massacre of the English at Gedda on the Red Sea, and was 
succeeded at his decease by his elder son, the Rev. John Fullerton, 
many years Rector of Stratford-on-Avon." He died in 1800, and from 
him the present representative descends. 

Now, whether Mr. John Fullarton, the eldest of the second Robert 
(of Craighall's) five sons, went to India or not, it is perfectly certain 
that his marriage and other relationships have been misrepresented by 
the compiler of the Thrybergh pedigree, as can be shown on most 
undoubted authority. 

His true history is as follows : he was proprietor of the estate of 
Carberry in the shire of Edinburgh. His wife was Elizabeth Coult, 
by whom he had no issue, which disposes of his elder son the respect- 
able Rector of Stratford on Avon, who must be fathered somewhere 
else. In 1774 he- entailed his estate on the daughter of his brother 
William Fullerton of Carstairs, co. Lanark. By this lady, whose 
name was Elizabeth, and who was the wife of the Hon. Captain 
Elphinstone, the estate of Carberry has descended to the present Lord 
Elphinstone, who bears the surname and quarters the arms of Fullerton 
of Carberry. Still, as his ancestress's brother the Laird of Carstairs 
left numerous descendants, Lord Elphinstone is not the representative 
of this branch. The late Lord Fullerton, a judge of the Coiu-t of 
Session in Scotland, was one of these, and left descendants. In 
Robertson's day (the compiler of the ATjrshire Families) 1824, the 
representative of " Fullerton of Craighall, latterly of Carstairs, 
Lanarkshire," was " Robert Fullerton, esq. Governor of Prince of 
Wales' Island " (^Ayrshire Families, vol. ii. p. 107). I am not aware 
where this gentleman's descendants are to be found. 


From all these authorities it is pretty clear that the pretensions 
of "Thrjbergh" to represent the above branch of this ancient family 
and even to descend from it are very ill founded. The Yorkshire 
family state their arms to be " Argent, a chevron between three otter's 
heads erased gules. Crest, a camel's head erased proper. Motto, 
Lux IN TENEBRis." Thcsc, however, are the arms of the family of 
Craighall, or Carstairs, as appears from the following good authority. 
Nisbet, in his Heraldry^ vol. ii. p. 14, says — 

Robert Fullarton of Craighall, W.S. and Comptroller of his Majesty's Customs at 
Leith, eldest son of Robert Fullarton, esquire, of Craighall, who was son of Mr. Wil- 
liam Fullarton of Craighall, a third lawful son of the family of Fullarton of that ilk, so 
matriculated in the Public Register of the Lyon Office, and thus blazoned, viz, : 
Argent, a chevron between three otter's heads erased gules. Crest, a camel's head 
and neck erased proper. Motto, Lux in tenebris. The crest and motto of the 
principal family. 

These were registered by this gentleman about 1725 in the Lyon 
Office, and, while the short genealogical deduction perfectly corrobo- 
rates the pedigTee now imder discussion prior to the doubtful link, it 
fails to give any countenance to the pretensions of Thrybergh. It 
will therefore be necessary for this last family to prove descent from 
" Craighall " before using its arms, their claim to do which is not 
recognised at the Lyon Office. Even if they do make good their 
descent from one of the brothers of John FuUerton of Carberry, (of 
whom there were several,) the arms would require considerable altera- 
tion by way of difference. As the links are so comparatively recent, 
they will surely be able to " mend their Bill" without much difficulty, 
and it may be hoped will do so without delay. 

Wood of Ottershaw Park. 

All Scotsmen, and indeed most Englishmen who have paid atten- 
tion to the early history of their country, must be familiar with the 
name and exploits of the gallant Sir Andrew Wood, which are in- 
scribed indelibly on the naval records of Great Britain. And there- 
fore, however respectable and honourable the family may be which 
claims to represent this eminent sailor, it is all the more necessary to 
subject these to a rigid scrutiny. Li the last edition of the Landed 
Gentry, George Wood, Esquire, foimerly of Ottershaw Park, Surrey, 
now of Feltwell Lodge, Norfolk, and Testcombe, Hants, is " considered 
to be the representative of the ancient family of Wood of Largo, 
Fifeshire;" and we shall accordingly proceed to examine how far 
this claim is adequately sustained by this gentleman's " lineage." 


It begins in this rather vague and inexact fashion. After referring 
to Sir Andrew as " the brave and loyal Admiral of Scotland," we are 
informed that his ^'descendant'' the Rev. Alexander Wood, an 
Episcopalian clergyman, married Jean Brown, only grandchild and 
heir of the Rev. Robert Kerr, of Cessford, and left by her four sons. 
The youngest of these, Mark, married in 1707 Jean daughter of W. 
Mercer of Potterhill, co. Perth (of the family of Aldie) ; and his 
elder son Alexander Wood of Burncroft, Perth, ''became heir, in 
Uneal succession, on the failure of the issue male of his cousin-german, 
John Wood, Governor of the Isle of Man. He inherited some pro- 
perty from his mother, married in 1747 Jean daughter of Robert 
Ramsay, Esq. of the Ramsays of Banff," and died in 1778, leaving 
five sons. 

Three of these sons certainly rose to distinction ; in this respect 
rivahng the three eminent brothers. Sir Frederick, Sir David, and 
Sir George Pollock. 

The brothers Wood were — 

(1) Colonel Sir Mark, of Gatton, Surrey, created a Baronet in 

Of this gentleman, who it is understood rose in the Indian Service, 
which has been the path of fortune to so many Scotsmen in former 
days, the Gentleman'' s Magazine^ noting his death on 6th Feb. 1829, 
aged 82, says, " that he was descended from the Woods of Largo, to 
the honours and estates of whom he succeeded on the death of the 
Governor of the Isle of Man." 

(2) Admiral Sir James Atholl Wood, Knight, K.C.B., com- 
manded the 'Latona' at the taking of Curacoa in 1807, 
died s. p. And 

(3) Major-General Sir George Wood, K.C.B. of Ottershaw 
Park, CO. Surrey, who died in 1824, after a long career under 
Cornwallis, Wellesley, and Moira, leaving George his heir 
chief of the name, who " succeeded to the representation of 
the family," on the death in 1837 of his cousin Sir Mark 
Wood, the 2nd Baronet. 

This is the gentleman mentioned above, and, while it is undoubted 
that he descends from a gallant and worthy stock, we shall proceed to 
show on what grounds his representation of Largo is very question- 

The lineage is traced through "James Wood of Lamblethame," 
the grandson of the Admiral. This personage, who was also styled 


" of Grange," was the third son of the second Sir Andrew Wood. He 
married Janet Balfour, granddaughter of Sir Michael Balfour of Bur- 
leigh, and died in 1596. He had several sons — 

(1 ) Thomas, pre-deceased his father s. p. 

(2) Alexander, his heir. 

(3) James, who died in 1597. 

(4) "William, alive in 1606. This last had a son David, who is 

said to have settled at Earlsferry, a small seaport in Fife. 

II. Alexander, the heir, married before 1597 Elizabeth fourth 
daughter of Sir David Wemyss, of Bogie, by whom he had 

III. James of Grange and Lamblethame, married Margaret Munro, 
and died in 1669. His son 

IV. James Wood, fiar of Grange, " Rutemaster " in Prince Charles's 
Lifeguards, raised a troop of horse for the King's service ; married in 
1644 Elizabeth sister of Dr. William Nisbet of Dean, and died 
(before his father) in 1655, leaving two sons, James born in 1644, and 
John born after 1650. Whether the latter left issue is not mentioned. 
The elder brother 

V. James Wood succeeded to Grange on his grandfather's death 
in 1669, and sold it soon after. 

These particulars are taken from a very interesting and generally 
accurate work, The East Neuk of Fife^ by the Rev. Walter Wood, 
1862, which is compiled from authentic records, and where pretty full 
genealogies are given (pp. 266 and 281) both of the principal family 
of Wood of Largo, and its cadet Wood of Grange and Lamblethame. 
Nowhere is there any record of the Rev. Alexander Wood, the Episco- 
palian clergyman of the present lineage, who, as he died [circa 1690, 
according to the former edition of the Landed Gentry^ though this date 
is now omitted,] leaving a son old enough to be an under- Secretary of 
State (?) in 1705, must have been a contemporary of the last three 
James Woods mentioned in our authentic pedigree of Grange. No 
doubt, as there are one or two younger sons of this family whose 
progeny are unaccounted for, the rev. gentleman may possibly have 
been descended from one or other of them ; but this bare possibility, 
which is a mere suggestion, is a very different thing from his descend- 
ant claiming to be chief of the name of Wood. Even Play fair, who 
was not at all scrupulous in making up pedigrees, only begins the 
present one with " Alexander Wood, of Perth, in the county of Fife " 
{sir?j. This was the father of Sir Mark Wood of Gatton. 

The chief family of Wood of Largo, in whose hands that estate 


remained till 1611, wlien it was sold to the Durhams, appears to have 
had various younger sons in the latter end of the sixteenth century, 
and there is no reason why the representation may not remain in some 
one of their descendants. It will probably be said that, as the arms of 
Wood with the supporters afterwards mentioned, have been three 
times matriculated in the Lyon Office, 1, by John Wood, Governor of 
the Isle of Man in 1775 ; 2, by Sir Mark Wood in 1809 ; and 3, in 
1845 by the present representative of the family, all in the character 
of male representatives of Largo, the question is iwohatio probata^ and 
exception cannot now be taken to the lineage ; but it must be remem- 
bered that 1775 and 1809 were periods of great laxity in Scottish 
pedigrees and grants of arms. For this we have the high authority 
of Riddell and Seton. The latter indeed explicitly states {Scottish 
Heraldry, p. 77,) that of the first two volumes of the Lyon Register 
of arms, "certain portions of the former, which extends from 1672 to 
1804, and the whole of the latter volume," extending from 1804 to 
1822, *' abound with highly questionable grants of supporters." At 
that era, in fact, it was quite a question of money. Supporters, as we 
shall see, had no place in the bond fide escutcheon of Largo. The 
evidence, too, if there ever was any, produced in support of the first 
grant of 1775, is not now to be found. 

The arms so obtained are as follows, " Argent, an oak tree eradicated 
proper. Crest, a ship under sail, the especial badge of Wood of 
Largo, having been added to the coat armorial of Admiral Sir Andrew 
Wood in memory of his victory over the English Fleet in 1489. 
Supporters, two sailors proper, limited to the chief of Largo. Motto, 
Tutus in undis." 

Though these arms may be what were granted in 1775 to the 
governor of the Isle of Man, they are different in some important 
respects from the real arms of the admiral. These as given by 
Nisbet, Heraldry, I. p. 362, were '* Azure, an oak tree growing out of 
a mount in base or between two ships under sail argent, as admiral to 
King James III. and IV. under whose reigns he defeat (5z'c)the English 
at sea. King James III." (continues the worthy herald,) '' gave to 
Andrew Wood, Master of His Majesty's Yellow Kervil, the lands of 
Largo in wadset, and in the year 1482 he got a grant of them 
heritably and irredeemably in consideration of his good services : 
whose issue male continued in possession of the lands of Largo until 
the reign of King Charles I." There is not a word here about the 


two sailor-supporters, "limited to the chief of Largo." These are the 
invention of a later age and were unknown to the gallant old sailor. 
Sir Andrew, it may be observed, was the first landed man of his 
family, being the son of a Leith shipmaster, and had risen to eminence 
by his skill in seamanship, for which he received lands and honours 
from the two sovereigns under whom he served. The arms which he 
obtained were a modification of those belonging to the principal family 
of his name — the Woods of Bonnyton in Angus — to whom however he 
does not seem to have been related. Nisbet (loc. cit.) gives the arms 
of " Sir John Wood of Bonnyton" as '' Azure, an oak-tree growing 
out of a mount in base proper between two cross crosslets fitche or, 
with the badge of a Nova Scotia Baronet ; and for crest a savage from 
the loins upward, wreathed about the head and middle with laurel, 
holding a club. Supporters, two savages, each having a Batton (sjc) and 
wreathed with laurel, as the crest. Motto, Defend." This family 
thus carried supporters. It was extinct however before 1775, and thus 
the " governor of Man," while adopting the tincture of its oak-tree, 
possibly thought he might do the same with its supporters, habiting 
them as sailors ! 

On the whole I think it has been shown that we are far from having 
absolute proof that the gentleman whose lineage has been examined is 
the undoubted representative of Sir Andrew Wood. He may be con- 
soled perhaps by the reflection that the name and fame of the gallant 
seaman are yet fresh in the recollections of his countrymen and 
nowhere more than in the county or " kingdom " of Fife, where Largo 
is situated. When I visited it many years ago it was the residence 
of Admiral Sir Philip Durham, one of the few survivors of the 
'' Royal George." The curious old tower, part of Sir Andrew's 
fortalice, said to have been constructed by tlie hands of his English 
captives, still stands in the grounds, and the natives still point out the 
traces of the canal along which a barge conveyed the veteran to his 
parish church. Another sailor on whom the genius of an Englishman 
has conferred even wider fame — Alexander Selkirk^ — hailed from this 

' It is perhaps not generally known that the Robinson Crusoe of Defoe died a 
Lieutenant in the Royal Navy. His drinking-cup and sea-chest are now in the 
Museum of the Scottish Antiquaries, to whom they were presented, some years ago, 
by Sir David Baxter, Bart, of Kilmaron, Fifeshire. A very interesting description of 
these articles, and some particulars of Selkirk's early life, will be found in the eighth 
volume of the Proceedings of the Scottish Antiquaries (pp. 256—262). 


little seaport. Between these two surnames — Wood and Selkirk — it 
is not likely that the bay of Largo will soon sink into oblivion. 



The pedigree of Burrell, in Blore's History of Rutlandshire (p. 50), 
contains a grave error, and it is always worth while to place on record 
the correction of errors in books of established reputation. 

Blore assumes that Redmayne Burrell, the son and heir of Sir 
John of Dowsby, is identical with Redmayne Burrell who was buried 
at Dowsby 9 Feb. 1682-3, and accordingly states the descent thus: 

Sir John Burrell, Kt. of Dowsby,=f=Frances Redmayne. 
CO. Lincoln. j 


I 1 

Redmayne Burrell, esq. son and heir,=f=Judith, bur at Other 

of Dowsby, aged 18 in 1634 ; bur. at 

Dowsbv 9 Feb, 1682-3. 

Dowsby 8 May, issue. 

1 1 

John Burrell, esq, son Rev. Thomas Foster, =i=Jane Burrell, sister and co- Other 

and heir, of Dowsby; M.A. of Emmanuel 
bapt. 2 July, 1674. Coll. Camb. 

heir; bapt. 25 Dec. 1677; issue, 
mar. 20 July, 1709. 

Foster of Dowsby. 

Whereas in fact a generation has been omitted by Blore, and the 
pedigree ought to stand as follows : 

Sir John Burrell, Kt. of Dowsby. =f=F ranees Redmavne. 

r — ^ n 

Redmayne Burrell, esq. son and heir,=j=Rebecca, dau. of , Sir Thomas Other 

admitted of the Inner Temple 12 Dec. 
1633; lately married in April, 1650; 
died before 1671. 

Gardiner, Kt. Recorder of issue. 

London; occ. widow in May, 



Redmayne Burrell, esq. son=pJudith, bur. 

and heir, of Dowsby ; died 
7 Feb. bur. 9 Feb. 1682-3. 

8th May, 


Burrell and Foster, 
of Dowsby. 

I take this opportunity of recording from wills and deeds the ante- 
cedent genealogy of the Rev. Thomas Foster, who married the coheir 
of Burrell, and who had inherited a good estate of his own in Dowsby. 
His descendants, who still flourish at Dowsby, are set forth by Blore : 



Daniel Foster, of Dowsby, yeoman, died 1680.=t=. . ., 

Will dated 17'Nov. 1680. | 

Thomas Foster, gent.= 
son and heir, of Dowsby 
and Sempringham, co. 
Line; bur. 25th May, 
1681, at Sempringham. 

:Mary, dau. of Matthias 
Brown, M.D. of Horb- 
ling, CO. Lincoln; occ. 
wife 1668; bur. 7 Oct. 





wife of 




wife of 


Rev. Thomas Foster, 
son and heir, of 
Dowsby; mar. 20th 
July, 1709, Jane, 
sister and coheir of 
John Burrell, esq. 

Blore's Hist, of Rutland, 
p. 50. 

Edward, bapt. 
16 Oct. 1674; 
bur. 28th Feb. 
1675-6, at 

wife of 

Clark in 



18 Dec. 





bapt. 2 Jan. 
1677-8 ; 
died before 

Edmond Chester Waters. 



There are two monumental brasses of the 16th century in 
the church of Thames Ditton, which have hitherto attracted 
little notice. They are thus described in the History of Surrey 
by Manning and Bray, vol. i. p. *463 : — 

On a stone, on brass plates, are the portraits of a man kneeling at 
a table, and of a woman ; behind the man are three sons, and behind 
the woman three daughters, all kneeling : and underneath — 

Here under lyeth the bodies of Robert Smythe, gent, and of Katheryn his wyfe, 
doughter to Sir Thomas Blounte of Kinlett, knyght, which Robert dyed the 3rd 
daye of September, 1539, and the sayd Katheryn dyed the x daye of July, 1549. 

On the same stone are also the portraits in brass of a man with 
fourteen sons behind him, and of a woman with five daughters behind 
her, all kneeling ; and underneath — 

Here under lyeth the bodies of William Notte, Esquyre, and Elizabeth his 
wife, daughter to the above-named Robert Smythe and Katheryn his wyfe, which 
William dyed the 25 daye of November, 1576, and the sayd Elizabeth dyed the xv 
daye of May, 1587. 

Above are the arms and crest of Notte : On a bend between three 
leopard's heads three martlets. Crest, An otter with a fish in his 
mouth in a tussock of reeds. 


The text of Manning and Bray tells us nothing about Robert 
Smythe and his wife, and next to nothing about their son-in-law 
William Notte ; nor do I find the Smy thes of Thames Ditton in 
Mr. Grazebrook's " Catalogue of the 250 families of Smith or 
Smythe entitled to bear Arms." 

Katherine Blount, the wife of Robert Smythe, is ignored by 
Sir Alexander Croke, the genealogist of the Blounts, but was 
evidently one of the twenty children of Sir Thomas Blount, who 
died in 1523, by his wife Anne Croft. She was therefore aunt to 
Elizabeth Blount, Lady Tailboys, the mistress of Henry YIII. 
and the mother of Henry Fitz-Roy, Duke of Richmond and 
Somerset. William Notte was lord of the manors of Lono- 
Ditton and of Imbercourt in Thames Ditton, and had other 
estates in Surrey, some of which remained in his family for 
several generations, although their descent is not traced by 
Manning and Bray. He evidently was related to the Xotts of 
Sheldesley in Worcestershire, who intermarried more than once 
with the Blounts of Kinlet, but is not mentioned by Nash in 
his pedigree of Nott. However, some one more conversant 
with Worcestershire genealogies may be enabled to identify him 
from the details of his will. It would appear that out of the 
nineteen children commemorated on the monument only four 
survived him. 

William Nott of Thames Ditton, co, Surrey, esq. Will dated 
10 Dec. J 575. To the repairs of Thames Ditton church 6s. 8d.; to 
my wife Elizabeth Nott my manor of Long Ditton and my lands in 
Surrey, subject to annuities of 101. per annum to each of my sons 
Anthony and Thomas Nott. To my son Thomas Nott at 21 my 
leasehold lands in Goltho, co. Lincoln, and lOOZ. in money. To my 
daughter Elizabeth Nott 100/. at 21, or on her marriage. To my 
son-in-law Henry Standish a silver bowl, and to my daughter Eliza- 
beth his wife sundry plate and bedding. To William, Margery, John, 
Anne, and Margaret Standish, the five children of my said daughter 
Elizabeth, bl. each at 21. The residue to my wife Elizabeth, whom 
I appoint my executrix, with my son Anthony. My cousins and friends 
William Dixe, Nicholas Bristow the elder, and Alexander Whitehed, 
Esqs. to be overseers of my will. 

Codicil dated 12 Dec. 1575. My 40 years' lease of tlie manor of 


Spanbye, co. Lincoln, to the five children of my daughter Elizabeth, 
wife of Henry Standish. My wife Elizabeth, and my two sons Anthony 
and Thomas Nott, and my daughter Elizabeth Nott, to be my only 
executors. (Will proved in C. P. C. 7 Dec. 1576 ) 

Elizabeth Nott, the widow, survived her husband more than 
ten years.. Her will mentions several connexions of her family, 
and may throw some light on her father's parentage. 

Elizabeth Nott of Thames Ditton, late wife of William Nott, 
esq. deceased. Will dated 13 May, 1587. To be buried near my 
husband in Thames Ditton church My youngest daughter Elizabeth 
Nott to have rooms in the manor-house of Imworth, alias Imber, 
which I now occupy, so long as she shall be unmarried, and also 
1661. Ids. id. in money. The residue to my son Thomas Nott, whom 
I make my sole executor. To my cousin Alexander Whitehead a 
gilt bowl. To my daughter Elizabeth Standish bedding, &c., and to 
six of her children 50/. each at 21, and to her youngest son Richard 
40/. at 21. To my nieces Margaret and Grace Smythe 61. each at 
23. To Mrs. Nicholson, Mrs. Cow]3er, my cousin Humphrey Blount's 
wife, Thomas Brown son of my nephew Walter Brown, and to my 
cousin John Croft a gilt spoon each. To my nieces Ursula and 
Elizabeth Grey 20s. each. My son-in-law Henry Standish and my 
friends Rowland Maylard and Samuel Pomphett to be overseers of 
my will. (Will proved in C. P. C. 9 June, 1587.) 

It will be observed that William and Elizabeth Nott had two 
daughters named Elizabeth. The elder married twice, and has 
a monument at Weybridge. (Manning and Bray, ii. 790.) The 
younger Elizabeth married after 1587 Robert Roper, esq. of 
Heanor in Derbyshire, a barrister of Lincoln's Inn. He was the 
uncle of the antiquary Samuel Roper, esq. the friend of Dods- 
worth, and the early patron of Dugdale, and sprang from a family 
of great antiquity in Derbyshire, who derived their descent from 
Hascuit Musard, a Domesday Baron. Thomas Roper, a cadet of 
the Ropers of Heanor, was raised to the Irish Peerage as Lord 
Baltin glass. 

It is known that Samuel Roper collected the evidences of his 
family, but with a carelessness not uncommon amongst great 
antiquaries he neglected to place on record the result of his 











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researches; and I have been unable to find any genealogy of the 
Kopers of Heanor except a skeleton pedigree, almost without 
dates, in Dodsworth's MS. collections at Oxford (xli. 70), which 
has hitherto never been printed. The sons of Kobert Roper died 
without issue, but his daughter Rebecca became the third wife of 
Sir William Villiers, Bart, the eldest brother of George Duke 
of Buckingham. She is erroneously stated in the History of 
Leicestershire (Nichols, vol. iii. p. 198) to have died without 
issue; but it is certain that she was the mother of Sir George 
Villiers and of four daughters, as I have set forth in the pedigree 
annexed. Sir William Villiers was notoriously indifferent to titles 
of honour, and was with difficulty persuaded to accept a Baronetcy, 
but he had no such scruples about increasing his fortune, and in 
1628 acquired by his brother's grant the barony of Dromahaire 
in the English plantation of Leitrim. This noble estate com- 
prised 6,500 acres of arable and pasture land, and 5,114 acres of 
wood and bog, with many seignorial privileges, and from its 
romantic situation on the banks of Lough Gill has always 
attracted the admiration of travellers. But an English Baronet 
of the seventeenth century set little store on the possession of an 
Irish principality, and would have considered its charms dearly, 
purchased by the sacrifice of a single manor in Leicestershire. 
Sir William Villiers therefore devised by his will his estate in 
Ireland to his wife Rebecca for the benefit of their four daughters, 
and it was sold for a trifling sum, on 3rd March, 1664-5, by Sir 
George A^'illiers to Sir George Lane, afterwards Viscount Lanes- 
borough, to whose descendant, ^Ir. Lane Fox, it still belongs. 

Lady Villiers was executrix to her husband in 1629, and 
married secondly Captain Francis Cave, a younger son of the 
Caves of Ingarsby in Leicestershire. He died at Brooksby 
before 28 April, 1646, for on that day his widow Lady Villiers 
renounced the right of administrating to his personal estate. 
By her second marriage she had an only child Elizabeth, who 
married about 1660 William Wollaston, esq. the younger, of 
Shenton in Leicestershire. Their only surviving son Francis 
Wollaston died in 1684 at the age of 17, when his father was 
induced to disregard the natural claims of his two daughters and 
to devise his great estate to a cousin, who w^as neither his male 


heir nor his next of kin. The fortunate devisee was afterwards 
known in literature as the author of The Religion of Nature, 
and was the ancestor of the existing family of the Wollastons of 
Shenton. He was the writer of the well-known narrative of the 
Wollastons, which was published in the History of Leicester- 
shire and reprinted in the first volume of Nichols's Literary 
Illustrations. It has much literary merit, but some of the 
genealogical details are demonstrably inaccurate, and the critical 
reader will suspect that it was written to justify the capricious 
preference of an unnatural will. The two daughters, whose 
fortunes were limited by their father's will to 1 0,000^. a-piece, 
had never disobliged him, and the elder of them. Lady Chester, 
had special claims on his affection; for she continued to live at 
Shenton after her marriage, and all her children were born there. 
Shenton Hall was literally her home from her cradle to her 
grave. Her sister Rebecca married John Wilkins, esq. of 
Ravenston, who was High Sheriff of Leicestershire in 1693. 
She survived her only child, and by her will dated in 1712 
founded the hospital at Ravenston. Their mother Elizabeth had 
Shenton Hall for her, life and survived all her children, for she 
was buried at Shenton on 28 March, 1717. 

For greater clearness I have embodied these details in a tabular 
pedigree. I hope that some one with better opportunities of 
research will fill up the blanks which I have been obliged to 

Edmond Chester Waters. 

Upton Park, Poole. 

Knighthood in Minority (pp. 61, 191.) — In the " True Remembrances 
of Richard 1st Earl of Cork," occurs the following: — "My second son 
Richard born at the College of Youghall, the 20th of October 1G12 : . . . . 
He being Viscount of Dungarvan, was knighted in my house at Youo-hall, 
the loth of August 1624, by the Lord Falkland, Lord Deputy General of 

In Collins' Peerage (1768) vol. 7, p. 145, It is stated that Roger Boyle 
afterwards Lord Broghill and Earl of Orrery " was knighted before he was 
seven years of age, viz, on April 7, 1628." — Edmund ]\[ Boyle. 




Before inserting the communications which we have received regard- 
ing the family of Lawrence of Ashton Court in Lancashire, and its 
branches real or assumed, it may be well very succinctly to give a 
statement of some of the points at issue. 

This family, for which a very high antiquity has been claimed, as a 
Norman-French family name originally Laurans, of Montpellier, in 
Languedoc, has a proved existence in Lancashire, owing to their pos- 
session of Ashton Court, from Sir Robert Lawrence, who died in 1440, 
to the time of John Lawrence of Ashton Court, killed at Flodden in 
1513, when, as will be clearly shown, that property went to coheiresses 
— his aunts — while certain real estates went to the heir at law of Sir 
Robert, one Launcelot Lawrence. 

In a volume of the Harleian Collection (No. 6,159) which is a copy 
of the Visitation of Lancashire in 1567, with additional pedigrees, 
the following pedigree of the family appears : ^ — 

(Harl. MS. 6159, f. 53 b.) 
Edmund Lawrence=F: 

Sir Robert Lawrence. 


"! I 

James and "William, 

both sans issue. 


sans issue. 




Sir =^Elenor, 


dau. to 





1 I — 1 — rn — I 

Ro- Thomas, sans issue. 

bert, Robert. 

sans John, father of 

issue. another John. 

Nicholas and James, 

sans issue. 


1 — I I I — r 

John, William, 
Robert, Rich- 
ard, James, all 
sans issue. 



Sir Thomas, sans issue. 

John, sans issue. 

Robert, parson of Wharton. 

-1 ' 1 

Agnes, ux. Wm. Tunstall, Anne, ux. 
sans issue. T. Latham, 

Jane, died yonge. ^ 

Agnes Xau- 
sier, ux. Wm. 

Thomas Lathom, sans issue. 

In the next century several families of mark existed in other coun- 
ties — notably the Lawrences of Hertingfordbury in Hertfordshire; the 
Lawrences of St. Ives in Huntingdonshire, whence descended Sir 

' This has been published in the Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica as a Visita- 
tion pedigree, but at the Visitation of Lancashire in 1567 the family of Lawrence had 
ceased to flourish in that county, and no pedigree occurs for them in the authentic 
edition of that Visitation, printed for the Chatham Society in 1870. 


Henry Lawrence, President of Cromwell's Council ; the Lawrences of 
Creech Grange in Dorsetshire, a distinguished member of which was 
Sir Oliver Lawrence, who married Lady Anne Wriothesley, sister to the 
Earl of Southampton. Besides these, and distinct from them, were 
the Lawrences of Sevenhampton in Gloucestershire. 

These families either claimed descent from the family of Ashton 
Court themselves, or descent has been claimed for them : that descent 
being traced either through the second son of Sir Robert, Thomas of 
Yealland Hall, or Edmund third son of Sir Robert. 

The Lawrences of Sevenhampton claim through Robert, eldest son 
of Sir Robert, and father of Sir James ; but, as Sir James's sisters were 
coheiresses of his son killed at Flodden in 1513, this is clearly an 
error, and, if descended from the family at all, they must come from 
either Thomas of Yealland or Edmund. 

We have then, according to the pedigree of 1567, as the only 
sources of descent (William the fourth son having died unmarried) : 

1. Thomas.=j=Mabilla Redmayne of Yealland 2. Edmund.=f= 

I Redmayne Hall, j 














1. Thomas. 4. Nicholas. 

2. Robert. 5. James. 

3. John. 

The Creech Grange Lawrences claim descent from Nicholas fourth 
son of Edmund Lawrence ; while it has been asserted that the family 
of Hertingfordbury descended from Richard fifth son of Thomas of 
Yealland ; that John the second son was abbot of Ramsay and uncle 
to John of St. Ives, ancestor to Sir Henry Lawrence of St. Ives. It 
has also been supposed that Sir Oliver was descended not from Nicholas 
but Richard Lawrence and the Hertingfordbury branch. As to the 
descent of the family in Lancashire before the time of Edmund 
Lawrence in 1362 little or no proof has been adduced. They are said 
to have married an heiress of Washington, and unquestionably they 
have in all the coats of arms given of the family quartered the arms of 
Washington. A pedigree of the family in Fosbrooke's Gloucester- 
shire asserts that Sir James Lawrence(1253) married Matilda, daughter 
and heir of John Washington of Washington ; that his son John 
Lawrence levied a fine of Washington and Sedgewick 14 Edw. I. 
(1283); and that his son John Lawrence presented to Washington 
in 1326, and died 1360. This pedigree, however, is in other par- 
ticulars extremely erroneous and has not been verified. The arms. 
Argent, a cross ragide gules, are also asserted to have been granted 



at the siege of Acre to a Sir Robert Lawrence by Richard I. 1191; 
Cf. Add. Cat. 5527, Brit. Museum for earliest mention of the name. 

After these remarks, we proceed to give insertion to the following 
letter from a gentleman who has for many years devoted his attention 
to the genealogy of this family : — 

To the Editor of The Herald and Genealogist. 

Sir, — Much has been published lately, both in your work and in 
the Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, regarding the family of 
Lawrence.^ My present object is to lay before those interested what I 
have collected respecting their earlier descents, supported by the 
evidence hereafter detailed. 
1. William Lawrence. Held lands aX Aslitou (Ashton=j=" •• dau. 


on the Ribble, near Preston) in right of his wife 1311 
Burgess in Pari. 1326, with other knights and squires of 
Lancashire summoned to fix the value of the ninth of 
sheaves, fleeces, and lambs to be given to the King 1341. 

, I 

and coheir 
(qu. of 
Gotham .) 

John, of Ribbleton, Ashton, Preston, Laton, and=j=Margaret. 
Thornton. Son and heir, succeeded 1368. | 

1 -• 

William Lawrence, son and heir, born 1381, aged 18, 1399. 

We find also about the same period : — 

William Lawrence, Seneschal of Henry=j=Alice de Stapylton, dau. of Sir Nicholas 
Earl of Lancaster 134.4 ; Steward of de Stapylton by Sybil, dau. of Sir John de 
Blackbumshire 1351. Bella Aqua by Laderine, dau. of Peter 

Bru3 of Skelton by Helwyse de Lancaster. 

I -• 

Sir Edmund Lawrence.^ Had the manor of Ashton near Lancaster 1362 — Mary.* 
from his grandfather Sir Nicholas Stapylton. Summoned to a Parliament at 
Westminster about the affairs of Ireland 1362, having been in Ireland with 
his cousin William de Windsor ■* in 1361. 

' There is a continuous line of the Laurans family in France : from Arnold de 
I/auran 1110 to Raymond de Lauran 1309. They lived at the Castle of Lauran near 
Montpellier in Languedoc : in 1124 their property was ceded to the Count of Besiers 
and Carcassone, " Donation du Chateau de Laurent par Arnault de Lauran et Pierre 
et Arnaud ses neveux." About this time the L. family was first heard of in England: 
it is probable that the founder of the English L's came over with the Earl of Rich- 
mond, who married a Princess of Provenc. In 1236 Peter de Lauran had married 
Matilda dau. of his sovereign Count Amery III. of Clermont Lodere. Cf. Cheney du 
Bois, tome 8. (2 edition, 1774.) 

^ HeydocTc or EyedocJc of Haydock, a Lancashire family : the main line ended by 
marriage of the heiress into the family of Legh of Lyme. One branch, of Cotham 
(v. Edmondson,) bore Argent, a plain cross sable, in dexter chief quarter a fleur de lys 
of the second. Cotham, Ashton (near Preston) and Ribbleton lie together. Accord- 
ing to Baines (Hist, of Lancashire) William Laurence and Laurence Travers (of 
Tolketh) held half of Ashton on the Ribble in 1308 in right of their wives. — Editor. 

[Notes contimied on opposite 'page. 



On Sir Edmund's death, the manor passed to Sir Robert Lawrence, 
whose descendants I give from the authority adduced : — 

Sir Robert Lawrence,' of Ashton Hall, Escheator of Lancashire 5 Hen. IV.: 
1403 ; Sheriff of Lancashire 7 Hen. V. (1420) and 5 Hen. VL (1427). Proved 
his arras 1419, 1427, 1429; obiit 18th Hen. VL (1440). 

4. William,^ 
at Agincourt 
1415; killed 
at St. Alban's 
1455 s.p. 
says, joined 
Lionel Lord 
Welles in 

Thomas, - 
2nd son. 

dau. of 
of Yea- 


1 . Robert Law-: 

rence of Ash- 
ton Hall, son 
and heir, aged 
40 at his 
father's death 
in 1440; born 
1400; ob. 

:? Margaret, 
dau. of John 
Lawson ^ of 

of Edward 
Longford of 

3. Edmund; 



^ In the division of the honor of Lancaster between the Bruces and Lindsays, the 
Bruces had the Marquis and Lumley fees and the Lindsays the Richmond fee. The 
manor of Ashton is said, however, to have passed through the Lindsays and de Coucis 
to Philippa daughter of Ingelram de Couci (who married Isabella daughter of 
Edward III.), wife of Robert de Vere Earl of Oxford, made Duke of Ireland by 
Richard II. and this Philippa Duchess of Ireland is said to have held Ashton, Scot- 
forth, &c. in 1399. (Vide Whitaker's Richmondshire, vol. ii. p. 475.) Had Edmund a 
sub-fee? and at the fall of Richard II. in 1399 did the Laurences begin to hold de Rege 
of Henry IV. on his accession in the same year ? as Sir Robert Lawrence is apparently 
settled in possession of Ashton before 1404. It is possible that William, who married 
Heydock, 2ndly married Stapylton. — Ed. 

* Sir Nicholas de Stapylton. =j=Sybil de Bella Aqua, dau. of Laderine Brus 

I and granddau. of Helwyse de Lancaster. 

Alicia de Stapylton,=pWiUiam de Law- 

Sir Edmund Lawrence, 
of Ashton Hall, was in 
Ireland in 1361 . 

Juliana.-j-Richard de Windsor, 
ob. 19 FAw. II. 

Richard de Windsor,=f 
ob. 1367. I 



W^illiam, 43 Edw. III. 1370, 
Lieut, of Ireland, ob. 7 Ric. 
II. 1384. 

' According to some pedigrees de Ashton. Perhaps to account for her husband 
holding Ashton Hall. He was summoned by a precept addressed to the Sheriffs of 
Nottingham and Derby commanding them to convene the heirs of Camville holding 
lands in Ireland to attend a council at Westminster to deliberate on the affairs of that 
kingdom. Banks, iv. 211. — Ed. 

' Said by Fosbroke to have married Margaret Holden. 

"^ This W'illiam was in the retinue of Sir Hugh Harrington at Agincourt, and this 
Sir Hugh married Margaret daughter and coheir of Robert Lawrence of Claughton. 

3 Qy. Lawson or Lawrence. 



I I I I f I -rn - 

Edmund. James. Lecilia- 

„,, , ,, Botiler. 


wife of 


rence, Knt. of 
Ashton Hall, 
his father's 
inquisition ; 
ob. 1490. 

dau. of 
Lord Welles 
and widow 
of Lord Hoo 
and Hast- 

killed at 
Bos worth 
1485; left 
four daugh- 

— rn — r~i 
Four daus. 



I ■ 

Sir Thomas Lawrence= 

of Ashton Hall, Knight 

of the Bath 1501 ; ob. 

before 1513. 

John Lawrence " frater et heres " of Sir= Alice. 
Thomas; on his death at Flodden Field the 
heirship of Ashton went to Sir James' sisters ; 
of other property to Lancelot, grandson or 
great-grandson of Thomas of Yealand Red- 
mayne Hall. 

John, died abroad before his father. 

There were two John Lawrences, if not three, contemporaries at the 
time of the battle of Flodden, 1513, when John Lawrence, second son 
of Sir James of Ashton, was killed ; one was this John of Ashton; 
another was in the Yorkshire body, and is mentioned in Hall's 
Chronicles ; 3. John of Eamsay. 

On the death of this John, brother of Sir Thomas and son of Sir 
James, in 1573, the property came to the heirs of Robert Lawrence, 
father of Sir James, and so passed into other families, except a 
portion which went to the heir male of Sir Thomas of Yealand Hall^ 
his second son. 

I give a quotation from the inquisition on the death of John of 
Ashton Hall, which shows this clearly. 

Launcelot Lawrence was in 1513 next male descendant of Sir 
Robert Lawrence, and head of the family. 

Robert Lawrence of Yelland Hall, Lane, married Ann, daughter of 
Thomas Bradley of Bradley, and dying 2 Philip and Mary, left Anne 
Lawrence, married to Walter Sydenham, third son of Sir John 
Sydenham of Brampton, Somersetshire, and brother of Sir John 
Sydenham who married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Amias Paulet. 

(Ducatus Lancast. vol. 2, p. 337.) Thomas Bradley, plaintiff, as 
lessee of Walter Sydenham and Anne his wife, as heir of Robert 
Laurence at Yelland Hall, Yelland Redmain Manor, against George 
Middleton, seized in fee as defendant. 

Thus far have my researches gone. The Ashton Hall line ended 
in female issue, likewise that of the next male heir Lancelot Lawrence; 
so also the Hertingfordbury branch, merging into the Vernon family, 


and the Creech Grange family into that of Bond. What cadet branch 
may now represent the family is doubtful. One has only to look at the 
Confiscation Papers in the Record Office to see how very many 
members of this family suffered during the Civil Wars. Of our oivn 
branch it is stated on an old MS. pedigree that some members of this 
family having had their property confiscated for recusance temp. Chas. 
II. being staunch Royalists, Thomas Lawrence retired into Wales to 
escape molestation and persecution from tlie Parliament. At the 
Restoration application was made by the family for the restoration of 
their patrimony, but the very poverty to which they were reduced ren- 
dered them insignificant, so that they could no longer support King- 
Charles's measures. This caused the King ungratefully to reject their 
suit : some few Royalists only were indemnified, but the greater part 
still remained unbefriended, while some of the King's most bitter foes 
were bribed into silence. Thus many an old and loyal family sank 
into comparative oblivion, proving the truth of that taunt, that the 
Act of Indemnity was an act of indemnity to the King's enemies, but 
of oblivion to many of his most loyal supporters and friends. As re- 
gards the claim of the Lawrences of Gloucestershire, I need only 
refer to Sir James Lawrence's letter, which you republished in the 
Herald and Genealogist^ vol. iv. pp. 529-536. 

Dr. Jackson Howard, in his Miscellanea Genealogica ef Heraldica, 
vol. i. p. 206, gives the j)edigree from the Visitation of Gloucester- 
shire, 1682, and in it is contained as follows : *' William Lawrence of 
Sherdington in com. Glouc. ob. circ. 1638, set. 70 et supra. Heir 
male to Sir Robert L. kt. who lived 1454." Knowing that Dr. 
Howard received a copy of this visitation ^' from one of the family," 
and as be did not go to the fountain-head, I would ask whether those 
words are an addition of some subsequent hand, or do they exist in the 
original visitation? The first part is, strange to say, in Latin, the 
latter "heir male, &c." is in English. I am at present investigating 
the descent of Nicholas Lawrence, through whom we trace our descent; 
this will be at your service another time, when supported properly by 
evidence. — Yours, 

Tong Vicarage. R. Gnvynne Lawrence. 


(1.) John Lawrence, living 14 Edw. I. 1286. He levied a fine of 
the manor of Washington and Sedgewick 1283. Presented to the 
churcli of Washington 19 Edw. II. 1326. 


(2.) Dodswortli's Collections, vol. 87, fol 25. 

Inquisition, a» 22 Ric. II. 1399 - *' Who said upon oath, that John 
son of William Laurence defunctus, a° 42 Edw. III. (1368), feoifavit 
Laurencium de Myerch ( ? Myerscough) cap . . de omnibus terns suis 
in Ribbleton, Ashton, Preston, Laton et Thornton q . . . feoffavit 
Margaretam uxorem dicti Johannis. Idem Johannes obiit die proximo 
ante diem Ascencionis 21 Ric. II. (1898) et Willielmus filius predict! 
Johannes est haeres et setatis 18 annorum." 

(3 ) Gulielmus Laurence Seneschallus domini comitis Henrici 1344. 
Steward of Black burnshire 24 to 27 Edw. III. (1351 to 1354.) 

(4 ) Edmund Laurence summoned to a council at Westminster on 
the affairs of Ireland 1362 (35 Edw. HI); in 1361 accompanied his 
cousin William de Windsor to Ireland, v. Banks' Dormant and Extinct 
Baronage of England. 

(5) "35 Edw. III. Edmundus Laurence tenuit manerinm de 
Ashton ad terminum vitae suae ex dimisione (by demise or grant) 
Nich'i de Stapylton militis avi sui." 

Cf. Whitaker's Richmondshire, ii. 475. Dugdale's Baronage. 
Rymer's Foedera. Burke's Extinct Peerage. Banks' Dormant and 
Extinct Baronage of England. 

(6.) Sir Robert Laurence, sheriff of Lancashire 7 Hen. V. (1420) 
and 5 Hen. VI. (1428). Escheator of Lancashire 5 Hen. IV. (1404). 
Proved his arms 1419, 1427, 1429. Obiit 18 Hen. VL (1440). 

(7.) A William Laurence was in the retinue of Sir . . . de Har- 
rington at the battle of Agincourt, fought on Friday, Oct. 25, 1415. 
Hugh Harrington married Margaret, daughter of Robert Lam'ence of 
Claughton ; Alexander Smyth married her sister. Harleian MSS. 
782, fol. 77. Killed at St. Alban's 1455 s.p. 

(8) Robert Laurence, £etat. 40 at his father's inquisition; ob. 
28 Hen. VL (1450). 

(9.) Petition, John Standish against John Laurence, among docu- 
ments of Hen. VIL (1485—1509). 

(10.) Sir James Laurence, aged 22 at his father's inquisition ; ob. 
May 31, 5 Hen. VIL (1490). 

Inquisitions (Harl. MSS. 2085, f. 443 to 527). From 4 Hen. IV. 
(1403) to 38 Eliz. (1596). 

(11.) Inquisition, 5 Hen. VIL (1490), p. 449, 450. "Jacobus 
Laurens miles, Ashton de Rege, man^ de Kernford, advoc. ecclesi^e de 
Warton, maner. de Bolton in Lonsdale, maner. de Heysham, maner. de 
Overton, maner. de Middleton, Skerton, Stobford, Elsal, Stodeigh, 


Craghouse, Foxton, Lancashire, Carleton, Soreby. Thomas Laurens 
est filius et h£ercs fetalis 40." (? 34). 

As the first husband of Eleanor Welles, Lord Hoo and Hastings, 
died 1455, her son by Sir James Laurence (she being his second wife) 
could not have been forty years old in 1489 or 1490. 

Cf. also Duchy Roll, v. III. Inq° 29; v. VL n. 41; v. VIL n. 36 ; 
V. III. Inq. n. 27 ; III. m. n. 9, for further information as to these 
manors and the family. 

(12.) Sir Thomas Laurence, Knight of the Bath 1501. 

(13.) Johannes Laurence armiger frater et h^eres ; ob. 9 Sept. 
5 Hen. VIII. (1513). 

In Dodsworth's collections, 98, fol. 56, he is said to have died 
5 Hen. VII. 

(14.) John Laurence is said (Harl. MSS. 3526) to have been slain 
(at Flodden) in a great battle against the Scots 9th Sept. 1513. 

Note. — There were two John Laurences at this time, one of Ashton 
Court, killed at Flodden, the other in the Yorkshire body of troops 
mentioned in Hall's Chronicle ; if there had only been one the his- 
torian who mentioned him would hardly have omitted to mention his 
death. — Vide Mr. Stacey Grimaldi's remarks on the discrepancy of the 
various pedigrees. 

(15.) At the death of John Laurence, 1514, Lancelot Laurence of 
Yelland Hall was declared to be eldest male descendant of Sir Robert 
Laurence. "^Bolton, Middleton, et Heisham ad usum cujusdam Lance- 
lott et heredum masculorum Rob'ti L. militis defuncti." 

Dodsworth, v. 149, fol. 65, from a transcript in the custody of 
Richard Westmore, arm. 1628. 

" Juratores dicunt super sacramentum suum quod sup. . . . hujus 
inqnisitionis in evidentiis ostensum fuit quod predictus Johannes 
Laurence obiit nono die Sept. 5 Hen. VIII. et quod Johannes 
Butler de Rawcliffe arm. Margareta Rigmaden vidua nuper uxor 
Nicholai Rigmaden armigeri, Johannes Skillicorne, et Elizahetha uxoj- 
Ricardi Hesketh ac Jilia et heres Cuthherti Clyfton armigeri tunc 
fuerunt consanguinei et heredes ejusdem Johannis Laurens armigeri 
propinquiores, vizt. dictus Johannes Butler ut filius et heres Jacobi 
Butler filii et heredis Elizabethan sororis Jacobi Laurens militis, et 
predicta Margareta Rigmaden ut una sororum dicti Jacobi Laurens, 
et predictus Johannes Skillicorne ut filius et heres Agnetis alterius 
sororum dicti Jacobi Laurens patris predicti Johannis Laurens, et 
Elizahetha Hesketh ut filia et heres dicti Cuthberti Clyfton filii Roberti 


filii Alici^e alterius sororum et lieredum predict! Jacob! Laurens patris 
predict! Joliannis Laurens ; et quod Johannes Butler est astatis 25 
annorum, Margareta Kigmaden £etatis 60, (obiit 12 Aug 8 Hen. VIII. 
[1517] predict!,) et quod Thomas Rigmadenest filius et heres ejus et 
a3t. 24, Johannes Skillicorne ast, 40, Elizabetha Hesketh t«t. 16 ann. 

'' Juratores dicunt super sacramentum quod predictus Johannes 
Laurens non tenuit de domino Rege nee de aliqua persona aliqua 
maneria nee tenementa in comitatu Lancastriae, sed dicunt quod 
quidem Robertus Plessington die ante obitum ejusdem Johannis 
Laurens fuit seisitus in dominio suo ut de feodo inter alia de maneriis 
de Ashtoji, com. Lane, Kerneford, Bolton in Lonsdale, Overton, 
Middleton^ Skerton, Scotford (? Stobford), Stodagh (Stodeigh), 
Elsal, Forton (Foxton), Lans. (Lane), AYarton in Lonsdale, 
Carleton et Sawerbej (Sorebj) in Amondeness et de medietate 
dominii sive manerii Ellal — qui nuper fuit perquisitum de Henrico 
Plessington milite in Ellal in comitatu predicto, ac de quibusdem 
terris in Hutton, Silverdale, Elswick et Stalynum, una cum advoca- 
cione Ecclesige de Warton." 

[Note, in the Creech Grange pedigree Robert, a brother of Sir 
Thomas and John, sons of Sir James, is given as parson of Warton, 
with a fourth brother James, that died young. — Ed.] 

'' Appen: cum una [acra] in Kernsford vocata Salter acre {qu. Psalter 
acre?) : et quod predictus Robertus Plessington, sic seisitus, feoffavit et 
deliberavit Ricardo Asheton, Johanni Hoxwood(? Hawkwood)arm!geris, 
Edmundo Asheton de Langley clerico, et Edmundo Asheton armigero 
maneria de Asheton in Lonsdale et Carnepond in comitatu Lancastriae 
prefato Ricardo Asheton et heredibus et assignatis suis ad usuni pre- 
dict! Johannis Laurence et ejusdem Alicise tunc uxoris su£e nunc uxoris 
Thom^e Bothe armiger! durante vita ipsorum Johannis et Aliciae, et 
post mortem eorundem Johannis et Aliciae in usum predict! Johannis 
Butler, Thomas Rigmaden, Johannis Skillicorne, et Elizabeth^e 
uxoris diet! Ricardi Hesketh et heredum suorum ; et dicunt quod 
predictus Robertus Plessington generosus die et tempore obitus 
Johannis Laurens fuit seisitus in dominio suo ut de feodo ut pre- 
fertur i.nter alia de . . . messuagiis . . . acris terrse, 500 acrispastura?, 
cum pertinentiis in Bolton, Middleton, et Heysham, annul valoris xiii 
et amplius, ad usum predict! Johannis Laurens durante sua vita et 
post ejus decessum ad usum cujusdam Launcelot! et heredum mascu- 
lorum de corpore Robert! Laurens militis defunct! legitime creatis, et 
pro defectu hujusmodi cxitus ad usum predictorum Johannis Butler, 


Tlioma3 Rigmaden, Joliannis Skillicorne, et Elizabethee uxoris dicti 
Ricardi Hesketli, modo uxoris Ricardi (^qu. Gulielmi ?) Molyneux, et 
heredum suoruin." 

(16.) Thomas Laurence (Lane. Visit. 1567. Harl. MS. 6159, fol. 
53, 13.) third son, but probably second son of Sir Robert (the sheriff), 
married Mabel, daughter and heir of John Redmayne of Yealand 
Redmayne Hall. 

(17.) Edmund Laurence (Liquis. 2 Hen. VIII. 1511, p. 461), 
Manor of Yealand Redmayne, Warton, Manor Barton in Lonsdale. 
Johannes filius et heres. 

(18.) Inquis. 4 Hen. VIIL (1513) p. 461. Ed\Yardus Laurence, 
Yelland Redman, Warton in Lonsdale. Johanna filia et heres.. 

(19.) Inquis. 25 Hen. VIIL (1535) p. 481. Lancelot Laurence, 
Yelland Redmain, Warton, Heysham, Bolton, Skerton, Dylake, Midle- 
ton, Hutton, Flockborrow, Silverdale, Rawthworth. Thomas Lau- 
rence filius et heres, set. 13 an. There is a will of Lancelot Lawrence 
at Canterbury, No 92, . . . Hen. VIIL 

(20.) Inquis. 35 Hen. VIIL p. 475. Thomas L. Yeland Redmain, 
Warton, Bolton, Skerton, &c. except Rawthworth. Thomas L. filius 
et heres, £et. 2 an. (Dodsworth says, Thomas L. est frater et heres, 
^t. 20 ann. i.e. to Lancelot L.) 

(21.) Inquis. Phil. et. Mar. Robert Laurence, Yeland Redmayne, 
Warton, &c. &c. Anna filia et her. £et. 10. Cf. Ducatus Lancastrije, 
vol. ii. p. 337, 9 Eliz. 


At the time when no more than one name was given in baptism 
(but subsequently we believe to the Reformation), on occasions when 
it was desired to commemorate maternal descent, and sometimes 
perhaps from other motives, it became a favourite practice to confer 
on the child, whether male or female, the surname of some ancestor, 
relative, or friend, without any other ordinary scriptural or personal 
name. Examples are abundant, and will readily occur to our readers, 
. — such as Lord Guildford Dudley, Lord Chideock Paulet, Sir Carew 
Raleigh, Sir Conyers Clifford, Sir Bassingbourne Gawdy, Sir Clippesby 
Crewe, Sir Symonds Dewes, Sir Heneage Finch, &c., &c. 


It has been remarked that perhaps the most favourite of such names 
was Dudley, and for some years past, as instances have come in our 
way, we have made notes of them, which we intend to bring together 
shortly in an article to be called " Dudley as a baptismal name." 

We are inclined to imagine, though we have at present no absolute 
proof, that Dudley became a favourite name in compliment to the 
great favourite of Queen Elizabeth ; and we have lately met with 
some names which suggest the idea of the like regard directed 
towards her illustrious statesman Walsingham. But, if we are right 
in this idea, we ought also to look for Cecil as a baptismal name, for 
certainly Lord Burghley must have had many devoted admirers 
among his contemporaries, though perhaps his posthumous reputation 
may be considered to have grown in the estimation of posterity pro- 
portionately more than that of his sagacious contemporary. 

Two junior members of families of distinction, bom before the 
death of Sir Francis, were named Walsingham ; but they derived 
the name from their maternal descent, and they were cousins, being 
grandsons of Sir Thomas Walsingham. 

Sir Thomas "Walsingliam,=r=Dorothy, daughter of 
of Scadbury, Kent. | Sir John Guildford. 

Anthony Shirley =pBarbara, 3rd dau,, Sir Thomas Gresley,=p Catharine 

of Preston, married 1575. of Drakelow, co. Walsingham. 

Sussex. Derby. | 

r -^ r ' 

Walsingham Shirley, 5th son. Walsingham Gresley, 5th son. 

Walsingham Shirley was baptised at Preston, July 28, 1589 ; and 
was buried in 1637 in the church of Hawnes, co. Bedford, with this 
epitaph : *' Here lietli the bodie of Walsingham Shirley deceased, 
late minister of this parish, who died the 13th of June, 1637."* 

Walsingham Gresley was attached to the embassy of the Earl of 
Bristol in Spain, and remained with that nobleman until his death. 
He was a correspondent of James Howel.f He, like his cousin, 
was buried in a county distant from that of his birth, for he has 
the following epitaph in the chm-ch of Sherborne in Dorsetshire, 
placed upon his gravestone by his noble and affectionate master: — 

* Stemmata Shirleiana. 4to. 1841, p. 234. Collectanea Topographica et 
Geneal. iii. 87. 

t See Epistolae Ho-elianae, 1737, p. 136 ; Wotton's Baronetage, 1741, i. 124. 
See also a letter of his to Sir Thomas Pelham, dated Madrid, January 22, 1610, 
printed in Cartwright's Rajfe of £r amber, p. 144, and Stemmata Shirleiana, 
p. 215. 


Hie jacet Walsingham Gresley, filius Thomre Greslcy militis cle Drakelow, 

in com. Derby, qui Jo. Comiti Bristol apud exteras nationes domique prosperis 

ac adversis amore ac fidelitate insigni inservivit: in cujus rei memoriam hoc ei 

Monumentum posuit. Obiit 4° Novembris, Anno Dom. 1633°, cetatis suae 48''. 

(Arms of Gresley, with a crescent for difference.) 

It is in neigliboiiring districts of the adjoining counties of Surrey 
and Sussex that several examples of the baptismal name Walsing- 
ham have recently occurred to us. In the parish register of 
Newdegate, co. Surrey, we have found the following entries, the name 
in two cases being given to females : - — 

1580. Walsingham Wheler, daughter of William Wheler, bap. 24 April. 

1586. Walsingam Gardiner, son of John Gardiner, bap. 28 Aug. 

1594. Walsingham Harryden, son of William H. bap. 10 Nov. ; buried 4th 

April, 1607. 
1602. Walsingham Kerrington, dau. of Thomas, bap. 11 April. 
1608. Joan Wheler, bastard dau. of Walsingame Wheler, buried 30 Oct. 

Edward Michell of Stammerham in the parish of Horsham, had a 
son named Walsingham, who was baptised in 1658, and died in 1713. 
(Cartwright's Rape of Bramher, p. 367.) 

Walsingham Saunder is mentioned in the History of Surrey, by 
Manning and Bray, vol. ii. p. 190. He was the second son of Sir 
Thomas Saunder of Charlwood in that county, Remembrancer of the 
Exchequer, 4 Edw. YL, by Alice, daughter of Sir Edmund Walsing- 
ham. Sir Edmund was the father of Sir Thomas before mentioned. 

Had this name occurred at an earlier period, the notion might have 
been advanced that it was connected in some way with the popular 
pilgrimage to Walsingham in Norfolk, — as an acknowledgment per- 
haps of children being granted in pursuance of the vows of pilgrims : 
but it is our belief that baptismal names before the Reformation 
were entirely limited to the well-known range of John, William, 
Thomas, &c., and that the name of Walsingham is evidently derived 
from the family name, and possibly to be attributed to the motive 
first suggested. 



There has lately been printed in that useful collection, Miscellanea 
Genealogica et Heixddica, "■ Genealogical Memoranda relating to the 
Family of Brodrick, extracted from the Records of the College of 
Arms." The work consists of two parts, — "The Brodrick Gene- 
alogy," which is said to have been entered at the College of Arms, by 
Sir Alan Brodrick, about the year 168C ; and a well-authenticated 
pedigree, illustrated with facsimiles of autographs, commencing with 
Sir Thomas Brodrick of Wandsworth, knt., who died in 1641-2, and 
extending to the present time. It is only with regard to the first 
pedigree that I propose to make a few observations. 

This pedigree begins with George de Brodricke, who is said to have 
lived in the time of William IL, and ends with the children of Sir 
Thomas Brodrick before mentioned, the undoubted ancestor of the 
Midleton family. 

At the end of the genealogy are various extracts from deeds and 
writings, illustrated with woodcuts of seals of arms ; and the first ob- 
servation which strikes one is the extraordinary conciseness of these 
authorities, by which, if genuine, a descent of no less than twenty gene- 
rations is proved to the satisfaction of the compilers of the pedigree, 
named Thomas Clarke and William Smith, who declare that they 
have diligently and faithfully copied both deeds and seals from the 
originals, but they do not tell us where these were, and they also 
somewhat vaguely refer to anciejit glass windows and monuments 
as further evidence of the arms and quarterings. The deposition 
professes to be sworn before Robert Aylett, the 14th of April, 1G49. 
Who this person was I have been unable to discover ; and of course the 
identification of " William Smith" and "Thomas Clarke" is a difficult 
problem without any note of locality or profession, except the assertion 
that they were respectively aged about 25 and 37 years in the year 

George de Brodricke, as we have said, stands at the head of the 
pedigree. It may be sufficient, perhaps, to remark of this worthy, that 
the Christian name of George appears to have been unknown in 
England in the eleventh century, that local names at so early a date 
were very uncommon, and that there is no such place as Brodrick in 
England, though, as the family has been supposed to come from Nor- 
mandy, we ought perhaps to look across the channel for the original 
seat of the house. 


The next three generations of the Brodrick genealogy are vouched 
for by a deed of Walter de Brodrick, by which he grants certain lands 
in Allerton to the church of St. Mary, and the monks there serving 
God ; but unfortunately the name of this monastery is omitted, so 
that it is not possible to test the accuracy of the deed by a reference 
to the cartulary of the church or monastery which is said to have been 
benefited. But by a short extract from a deed of John de Brodrick 
it would appear that the monastery in question was that of Saint Mary 
at York ; the names, however, of neither William nor John de Brod- 
rick are to be found among the benefactors of that house preserved 
in Dugdale's Monasticon. 

We next come to a deed of Sir William de Brodrick, knt., dated at 

York in the first year of Edward II., who mentions the name of his 

father. Sir Henry de Brodrick, knt., of Knetonn, in the county of 

York ; but the names of neither of them appear in any lists of knights 

of the Edwardian period with which I am acquainted. To this deed 

is appended a wood-cut of a seal representing a knight on horseback, 

with a shield of his arms, two spear-heads. There is no inscription, 

but it may be observed that both edges of the band which must once 

have contained it, were ornamented with the cable pattern, a very unusual 

if not unknown ornamentation at that early period (1 Edward II.) 

It is possible, however, that the cable may unwittingly have been 

altered from the circular dots so usual at this time, remembering that 

the seals are supposed to have been copied in 1649. The next seal, 

which is appended to a deed of Robert de Brodrick, grandson of Sir 

William, and which deals with lands about Richmond in Yorkshire, 

presents a greater difficulty. The spear- heads are represented as 

^emhrued as at present borne by the noble family of Brodrick Viscounts 

Midleton, or, as Gwillim describes them, guttee de sang. But I 

apprehend no instance can be given of such a bearing in the reign of 

Edward III. The same late-invented bearings are given upon 

other seals supposed to be made in the fifteenth century, and of which 

wood-cuts have been made from the drawings on the pedigree of 

Messrs. Clarke and Smith, which, if g-enuine, would certainly go far 

to prove an ancient lineage of gentry, as the deeds themselves would 

appear to warrant the pedigree which has been deduced fi-om them. 

These documents relate to property in Richmond, Midleton, Huddes- 

well, Nesham, Allerton, and Middleton,in Yorkshire, whereabouts the 

Brodricks appear certainly to have been possessed of some property 

in the time of Elizabeth and James I., which was sold by Allen Brod- 


rick of Gray's Inn, Esq. in the 24th of Charles I. One of the last of 

these deeds is in English, dated the 27th of September, 31st Heniy 

yill. [1539], and is a very extraordinary document. It commences 

as follows : — 

Be it known to all men by these p'sents, that I John Brodrick of Richmond, and 
Dorothy my dear wife, who is the daughter and heire of her ffader, William Igarford, 
sometime of Dublin in the kingdome of Ireland, and also of Jone her mother, who 
was heire of Edward Caperley of the same kingdom, &c. 

Now, Ireland was not created into a kingdom till the 33rd of Henry 
VIII Before that time it was called the Dominion of Ireland. This 
looks as if this deed was made at a subsequent period to the date 
above given. To it is attached a seal with the embrued spear-heads, 
impaling two coats divided per fess, in a manner never practised, I 
think, in the reign of Henry VIII., which I conclude to be the arms 
of Igarford and Caperley, and which are given with the other quar- 
terings of the family ; Igarford bearing Cheeky or and sable, a bend 
ermine, and Caperley Argent, a fess gules between eight ogresses, a 
crescent for difference. No such coats appear in any list of arms to 
which I have had access. It was this John Brodrick who lived in the 
reign of Henry VIII. who was great-grandfather of William Brodrick 
His Majesty's Imbroderer, as he is called in this pedigree, and father 
of Sir Thomas Brodrick. The embroiderer is often mentioned in the 
State Papers in tha reign of James I. The office of King's Embroi- 
derer was, as it appears by a docket dated the 17th of May, 1603, 
granted to him in reversion after John Parre, at the very beginning of 
this reign, and he seems to have been in possession in the following 
year, 1604. There are other notices among the Domestic State 
Papers which show that large sums of money passed through his 
hands for embroidering red coats with roses and crowns for certain 
servants of the household, " the beef-eaters " of those days ; and thus, 
as I think we may probably infer, was laid the foundation of the 
fortune of this respectable family, which afterwards rose to very con- 
siderable eminence in the sister kingdom. 

On the whole I cannot but arrive at the opinion that the earlier 
part of this pedigree rests upon very inadequate foundations, that the 
deeds and seals are of very doubtful authenticity, and that the con- 
clusions to be gathered from them throw much doubt upon " The 
Brodrick Genealogy," and upon the labours of Messrs. Smith and 


E, P. Shirley. 
Lower Eatington Park, May 19, 1873. 


To the Editor of The Herald and Genealogist, 

Sir, — In the genealogies of the Fairfaxes, at p. 153 of your Seventh 
Volume, it is stated in a footnote that the first Viscount Elmley 
married secondly Mary, daughter of Sir Robert Ford, knight, of 
Butley, CO. Suffolk, widow of Sir William Bamburgh of Howsham, co. 
York. The marriage articles exist in the Muniment Room at Lang- 
ton, and run as follows : 

162| Januaiy 1, ) Indenture quadrupartite between Sir Thomas Fairfax of 
2 Charles. ) Gilling, kt. of the first part, Mary Bamburgh of Howsham 
widow, late wife of Sir William Bamburgh late of Howsham, kt. and bart. 
of the second part, Sir Thomas Norcliffe of Nunnington, kt. and now High 
Sheriff, Sir Thomas Savile of Howley, kt., Sir Richard Young of London, kt., 
Sir Richard Darlej of Buttercrambe,kt., Thomas Wharton of Gillingwood, esq., 
and Seth Skelton of Osmundthorpe, co. York, gent, of the third part, and Sir 
Thomas Laton of East Laton, kt., Henry Stapleton of Wighill, esq., Robert 
Stapleton of Wighill, esq. son and heir of the said Henry, and John Ibson of 
York, gent, of the fourth part. In consideration of a marriage shortly to be 
had between the said Sir Thomas Fau-fax and Dame Mary Bamburgh, Sir 
Thomas settles his lands at Walton, Bickerton, Follifoot and Thorpe Arch, in the 
county of the city of York, covenants to levy a fine and secure them for her 
jointure, and gives her power to dispose of £200 by her will. 

Witnesses : R. Brend, Tho. Clarke, Tho. Hebblethwaji;. 

Deed to keep covenants dated same day. 

The will of Sir William Bamburgh is dated 25 January 1622-3, and 
was proved 14 January 1623-4. He died seized of the manors of 
Howsham, Crambe, Foston, Harton, Barton, and Eddlethorpe, and 
about 7820 acres of land in these manors, and in the townships of 
Thornton, Flaxton, Claxton, and Acklam. Courthope and Burke, in 
their works on the Extinct Baronets, both state that the title of 
Baronet became extinct with him, but this is erroneous. He names 
his two sons in his will, and was succeeded by his eldest son Sir 
Thomas, aged 16 years 5 months and 16 days on the 18 July 1623, 
the day of his father's death, who made his will 13 May 1624 (proved 
4 Oct. 1624), and died without issue 3 June 1624, leaving his brother 
Sir John his heir, then aged 11 years 5 months and 5 days. He 
died a minor 12 December 1631, leaving his sister Katherine, widow 
of Sir Thomas Norcliffe, and then wife of Sir John Hotham, Kt. and 
Bart,, his nephew Thomas Wentworth of North Elmsall (son of his 
deceased sister Mary), and his nephew William Robinson, of Newby 



(son of his deceased sister Anne, or Amy) his coheirs. These five 
children, joined by their sisters Elizabeth and Susannah Bamburgh, 
whose wills are dated respectively 5 March 1624-5, and 5 April 1625, 
planted what are still known as the " Lady Ashes," on the Norcliffe 
estate in Howsham. They were all buried in the chancel of their 
parish church of Scrayingham, of which the early register is lost, 
except Mary Wentworth, who died 30 Jan. 1623-4, at South Kirkby, 
and Amy Robinson, buried 15 April, 1624, at St. Crux, York, where 
she is called Anne. Her son William Robinson was dead 15 April, 

It seems probable that Sir Thomas Fairfax lived at Howsham, and 
took part against his step-daughter's second husband, Sir John 
Hotham. The following paper is at Langton : 

11th Charles, 1635. 

Proceedings in the Court of "Wards and Liveries. 
Norcliife v. Sir John Hotham. 

Thomas NorclyfE, esq. son and hevre of Sir Thomas Norclyff and of Dame 
Katherine his wife, who was the sister and co-heir of Sir John Bamburgh, 
bart. deceased, prays that he, being about eighteen years of age, may not be 
married without the consent of his grandmother the Lady Fairfax — that Sir 
John Hotham's answer reflecting on the Rt. Hon. the Lord Viscount Fairfax 
and Dame Mary his wife be expunged, viz. : "that his wife was a woman of as 
much (if not more) judgement, witt, and honesty, to dyrecte her acc'ons then 
anie of her family." 

Kathenne Bamburgh died 22 August 1634, aged 31, having borne 
nine children to her first husband, and four to- her second, who married 
at Etton 7 May 1635, his fifth wife Sarah Anlaby. Yiscount Elmley 
made his will 22 Oct. 1634, and it was proved at York 2 January 
1636-7. For the following abstract of it I have to thank the Rev. 
James Raine, Canon of York : — 

Sir Thomas Fairfax, of the Castle of Gillinge, Knight, Viscounte Fairfax of 
Emely. To be buryed at Walton if conveniently it may, and there to be 
no funerall pompe but onely £10 distributed to the poore of Walton and 
£10 to the poore of Gillinge. I have payd unto my sonne Henry Fairfax 
£1200 in parte of his poreion, 1 give him £1800 more and the lease I 
hold of th^ Lord Bishopp of Duresme of Eavenwood Parke, co. Duresme. 
To my son William Fairfax one anuytie of £120 out of my mannor and lands 
in Acastir Malbis. To my sonne Nicholas Fairfax £50 per annum out of 
the same. I have already settled my mannor in Coniston in Holderness uppon 
my said sonne William. I have payd unto my sonnes John and Jurdaine 
Fairfax £400 each, to be ymployed in ther severall stocks, they being bounde 
apprentizes to marchantes in London. I give each of them £500 more. My 
lease of the grange and ferme of Thorpe in the Willowes and my parsonage of 


Sherif-hutton under the Lord Archbishopp of Yorke to him who shalbe my heire 
and succeed me in the inheritance of my Castle and Mannour of Gilling. To my 
deare and loyinge wife £100, and my best coach and foure of my best coach 
horses. To Dame Mary Laton my daughter £5 to buy her a ring. To my daugh- 
ter StajDleton, and my sonnes Henry, William, Nicholas, John, and Jurdaine, 
and my daughters Pailer, Morley, and Ingram, £o a peice to buy them ringes to 
weare for my sake. To my heire £500 to inhable him the better to fynde his 
office, and sue out his Liverye, and to defende such sutes as he shalbe put unto 
after my death. Sir Thomas Laton, kt., and Robert Stapleton, esq., my sonnes 
in law, and my Cosin John Ibson, supervisors. 

Codicil. Dec. 1636. 

Whereas William Fairfax my grandchild, sonne and heire apparent of Thomas 
Fairfax my eldest sonne, is now an infant of tender yeares, to the end that he may 
be educated a Protestant, I comit the custody of him to Thomas Lord Viscount 
Went worth and Henry Fairfax my second sonne, hartely desireinge his Lord- 
shipp that he with the said Henry Fairfax my sonne will take care of him 
and look to the bringinge of him up a Protestant. I leave the said William 
£1200 to educate him. I desire my executor Hemy Fairfax to bestowe the some 
of £20 in some peece of new plait which I hereby will and require him to give 
unto the said Viscount Wentworth as in remembrance of the honor and respect I 
did ever beare him, beinge confident that his Lordshipp, whom I doe so hartyly 
honour, will, out of his noble and kind affeccion towards me, both wish and seeke 
the preservacion of my house and posterytie. To Nicholas Fairfax my fowerth 
sonne an annuity of £32 granted to be paid by Sir Thomas Metham for £400 I 
have lent him. To my grandchild William my furniture att Gilling, and that 
at Walton, after the death of Dame Mary my wife. 

Codicil 17 Dec. 1636. 

Certaine thinges which I require my sonne Hemy to performe. I give my said 
executor my pyed horse and my gray geldinge. To my sonne Thomas my blacke 
plush sute and cloake, and a blacke velvet sute and cloake, and my read scarlet 
coat with gold lace and buttons, and two paire of new silke stockinges with gar- 
ters and roses. To my sonne Nicholas my two little wrought velvet sutes and 
cloakes, and a Cholmeley sute and cloake, deroy-coullerd, laid with gold buttons 
and loopes. To Mr. Brend my new blacke satten sute and cloake lyiied with 

He died 23 December 1636, est. 62, and was buried in the chancel of 
Scrayingham. On the floor of the chancel is this inscription : " Obiit 
Thomas Vice Comes Fairfax apud Howsham, jam nunc sub hoc 
marmore sepultus. Etia caro mea habitabit secure. Psalm. XTJ. 9." 
With the arms of Fairfax. 

A larger memorial is on the north wall of the chancel : 

Quem preseutem admirati sumus, 
Sacram grati memoriam veneremur 
Vere prsenobilis illustrissimique 
Thom^ Vice-Comitis Faiefax de Emmeley, 


Ille plenus honoram dieramqne 
Vitam ccelitibus similem duxit, 
Morte in eorum numeru translatus, 
^tatis 62. 
Ano Dhi 1636, 23 Decemb. 
Superstitem reliqnit scobole ^ numerosam, 
Thomam Mariam 

Henricum Catharinara 

Gulielmum Margaretam 


Jobannem Janam 

Jordanum Dorotheam. 

Horu Henricus natu secnndus no moerore 

Dicato boc monuniento 
Conspicuum reddidit Posteritati 
Paternum meritum filialemque pietatem. 
Inscripsit Vice-Comitis consanguineus 

He made Thomas Lord Viscount Wentworth and Heniy Fairfax 
his executors, and an inventory is extant (at Langton) of all Jewells, 
plaite, household stufife, oxen, kyne, sheepe, horses, and other goods 
at Gilling Castle, which he bequeathed to William Fairfax his 
grand-child, and likewise of all the Jewells and plate at Walton or 
elsewhere which were, with the consent of the said Lady Viscountesse 
Fairfax, delivered over to the said Thomas Lord Viscount Fairfax, 
father of the said William. 

Mary Viscountess Fairfax is said to have died 23 March 1638-9, 
in an indenture of 18 June 1639 between the King and Thomas 
Wentworth, esq. her grandchild, then a minor, though married. But 
her will was proved 22 March 1638-9, her executors being Thomas 
Norcliffe, esq., and his sister Ann wife of Zacharias Steward. 
She gave legacies of plate to Thomas, Benjamin, Martha, Mary, Eliza- 
beth, and Catherine Norcliffe ; to Anne, wife of Zachary Steward of 
Lofthouse ; to Frances and Jane Hotham ; to Thomas and Mary 
Wentworth, and to Mr. William Robinson. Also to her cousin Mrs. 
Skelton (daughter of Israeli Ford of Hadleigh, co. Suffolk), buried 
11 Dec. 1658 at Thorne, where her husband, Seth Skelton of Osmund- 
thorpe, whom Sir Thomas Bamburgh, bart. calls cousin in his will, was 
buried 2 May 1648. She gave legacies in money to John Norcliffe, 
Edmund Bigot, gent., and Ann his wife ; Sir John Bourchier of Ben- 
ningbrough, kt. ; to Mrs. Kate Leigh, to Sir Thomas Wentworth, 

' Thus in the original. In several words in modern Italian a c has been tbiis 
inserted after the initial 5. 


kt., of Empsall. To Sir Richard Younge of London, knight and 
baronet, and to Dame Martha his wife, sister of Sir William Forde of 
Butleigh, kt. Lady Fairfax left tenn pounds in money and nine dozen 
and tenn diamond buttons. She also gave a legacy to Thomas 
Bamburgh, eldest son of her late husband's brother HumjDhrey. She 
does not name Sir John Savile, kt., whom her husband calls Uncle. 
To Mr. Thomas Norcliffe, her executor, she bequeathed one gilt bason 
and ewer, and two parcell-gilt livery pots, 157 ounces ; six dublers, 
240 ounces ; seven more little dublers, 181 ounces ; five dishes, two 
pie plates, and nine sawcers, 142 J ounces. 

From her inventory (at Langton) it appears she had a house in Blake 
Street, York, with twelve rooms in it, and 1,282 ounces of plate, 
valued at £320 10s., not given by legacy. She gave by will to her 
grandchildren and three cousins 1,850 ounces 3 quarters of plate, 
valued at £462 135. 9c?., i.e. five shillings an ounce. Total of her 
effects £1,286 145. Id. 

Sir John Bourchier had married Ann daughter and heir of William 
Rolfe, of Hadleigh, co. Suffolk. Their daughter Bridget, wife of 
William Bethell, D.D. Rector of Kirby Overblows, co. York, whose 
present representative is Sir William Codrington, Bart, became, 
8th Oct. 1827, by the death of Margaret relict of Giles Earle, heiress 
in blood to the family of Bourchier, more than a century and a half 
after her death, which took place 12 Sept. 1662. It may be well to 
point out here an error in Thoresby, W^hitaker's edition, p. 123. He 
makes the last John Bourchier, who was born 10 Aug. 1710, and 
died at Bath in May 1759, marry Mildred daughter of Robert Lane 
Fox, Esq. ; whereas he married Mildred daughter and coheir of 
Richard Roundell, of Hutton Wansley, Esq., who died his widow 
12 Dec. 1796. His only child, Mildred, born 6 Feb. 1740-1, married 
15 May, 1760, Robert Lane Fox, and died at Bristol 3 December of 
the same year, without issue. 

Of Viscount Elmley's children, the Honble. Lady Katherine Ingram 
of Rowsby, widow of Sir Arthur Ingram, married at Langton 12 
July 1657 William Wickham, esq. of Langton, who was baptized 
8 March 1624-5 at St. Michael-le-Belfrey, York, and was second 
son of Henry Wickham, D.D. Archdeacon of York, by Annabella 
daughter of Sir Henry Cholmley, Knight. Her sister the Honble. 
Lady Dorothy Ingram had one child by her first husband John 
Ingram, brother of the above Sir Arthur Ingram, named in her 
husband's will, proved at Canterbury 24 Oct. 1635, which says " I 


would have my bodie decently buried with torches in the night." ^ 8he 
married 2ndly, at Holy Trinity, Goodramgate, York, 28 March 1G39, 
Sir Thomas Norcliffe of Langton. son of Katherine Bamburgh men- 
tioned above, who was buried 8 January 1669-70, at Langton, where 
his widow was buried 18 June, 1686. On the floor of the chancel is 
the following inscription : 

" Here lies interred the body of the Lady Dorothea Noecliffe, daughter 
of Thomas Lord Viscount Fairfax of Emely in Ireland, and wife to Sir Thomas 
Norcliffe of Langton in com. Ebor. knt. by whom she had one son and seaven 
daughters, vizt. Thomas, Alatheia, Dorothea, Elizabeth, Jane, Catherine^ 
Anthonina, and Frances. She died the 17th day of June, 168G, setatis 66." 

Her will is dated 16 Sept. 1684, and says, 

I give to my only son the little 1 have. " To his eldest son Fairfax Norcliffe, 
begging above all things he may prove a vertaous man and sincere Christian, and 
then the God of all mercy will stablish this family in him tho at present it seems 
lost in my view, all the furniture as it stands at Langton, and the pantry plate, 
that is, a great silver cann and a little one was his grandfather Norcliffe"s, six 
salts, six of the newest spoons, and two silver tumblers, all I have." My dear 
daughter Frances Norcliffe to be sole executor. 

Witness: Watkinson Payler. 

Sir Thomas Norcliffe was executor of the will of his wife's nephew 
William third Viscount of Elmley ; as appears from a bond for 
£2,000, dated 18 Dec. 1654, from Sir John Goodricke of Ribston, 
CO. York, Knight and Barronett, to keep the covenants mentioned in 
the indentures of the same date, made between himself and the Rt. 
Honble. the Lady Elizabeth Viscountess Emeley his wife, late 
widdow and relict of the Rt. Hon. William Fairfax, late Viscount 
Emeley, deceased, of the one part, and Sir Thomas Norcliffe, of Lang- 
ton, Kt. executor of the last will of the said Lord William of the 
other. The indenture is at Langton, as well as the bond, and states 
that : — 

"Whereas Thomas Lord Viscount Emeley, grandfather of the said Lord 
William, did by his last will devise unto the said Lord William his grandchild 
the sum of £1,200, to remayne in the hands of the Lord Viscount Wentworth 
and Henry Fairfax his executors, to bee by them employed for the educac'on 
and bringing upp of his said grandchild in the Protestant religion in the 
custody of them or one of them untill he should attain the age of one and twenty 
yeares or bee married, under this condic'on neverthelesse that if the father or 
mother of the said Lord William the grandchilde should refuse to deliver him 
to bee soe brought upp and educated by the said Lord Viscount Wentworth or 

1 Samuel Duffield, clerk, Vicar of Sherbum in Elmet, in his will of 24 June 
1731, desires to be buried in the evening vrith torches and candles. 


the said Henry Fairfax, then the said bequeast to bee voide, and the said £1,200 
to bee and remaine to the said Henry Fairfax, etc., etc. And whereas he was 
not delivered up, and the said Henry Fairfax took upon him the execution of 
the said will, and si thence made his last will and thereof constituted Frances 
Fairfax his wife executrixe, and shortly after died, and the said Frances tooke 
upon her the execution of the said will of the said Henry. And whereas, after 
the death of the said Lord Thomas the grandfather, the father and mother of 
the said Lord William did not deliver him the said Lord William to the custody 
of the said Lord Viscount Wen tworth or Henry Fairfax, contrary to the direcc'on 
of the said will, etc. And whereas the said Lord William by his last will did 
give to his wife the said Lady Elizabeth all sumes above his debts, legacies, and 
funeralls, and made Sir Thomas NorclifPe and John Troutbecke of city York, 
gent., executors. And said Lady Elizabeth having issue of her body by the said 
Lord William only Katharine, did in Trinity Term 1652, exhibit her Bill in 
Chancery, which Bill the said Frances Fakf ax answered and denied that the said 
£1,200 doth belong to the estate of the said Lord William. And whereas Sir 
Thomas Norcliffe, in consideration of £575 paid by the said Frances, at the 
special request of the said Lady Elizabeth hath signed a Deed of Release which 
bears date the 15th day of December instant, Now said Sir John Goodricke 
and Viscountess Elizabeth his wife promise to hold him Sir Thomas Norcliffe 
harmless for the £1,200 and executinge of the said Release, &c., &c. 

John Goodricke. 
Witnesses : Gilbert James, Hugh Smith, James Hickman. 

Sir John Goodricke died 1670. His first wife was Catherine Nor- 
cliffe (bapt. 31 Aug. 1620, at St. Mary's Castlegate, married 7 Oct. 
1641 at Holy Trinity Micklegate, York,) daughter and coheir of 
Stephen Norcliffe, esq. of that parish, brother of the first Sir Thomas 
Norcliffe. In Dugdale's Visit. Ebor. 1666. ed. Surtees Society, p. 
159, she is wrongly called Elizabeth, which was the name of her 
sister, bapt. 21 Oct. 1612, married 26 Dec. 1632, Sir James Penny- 
man. Bart, of Marske, and was buried at Ormesby, 8th April, 
1678. Their mother Elizabeth, daughter of John Udall, Esq. of 
York, was married 28th May, 1610, at Nunnington, became a widow 
11th January, 1622-3, remarried 4th April, 1624, Sir Richard Scott) 
kt. of Barnshall, who died in Ireland 17 July, 1638, aet. 55, and to 
whom his step-daughter Catherine Norcliffe erected a monument in 
the parish church of Ecclesfield. 

The following is an abstract of the will (at York) of Sir John 
Goodricke's widow, daughter of Alexander Smith, Esq. of Stulton, 
CO. Suffolk : 

1692, June 4. Elizabeth Lady Viscountess Dowager Fairfax of Moulsham 
Hall, parish of Chelmsford, co. Essex. My debts to be paid, and especially £200 
settled on my grandson Benjamin Mildmay, esq. 25 Nov. 1674. My dauo-htei 
Katherine Lady Dowager Fitzwalter executrix, she is to have mourning, and her 


two sons. She is to have all my rents. My son John Goodricke, esq. to have 
mourning, and his wife, and all his children, for which mourning I give him £40. 
To my grandchild Anamariah Goodricke £50. My kinswoman Mrs. Jane Beard 
£10, and to Mr. Charles Beard her son a ring. To my kinswoman Mrs. Anne 
Finch £5. Proved 23 Sept. 1692. 

It appears from family papers at Langton that there had been 
frequent dealings between the families of Norcliffe and Fairfax : — 

1619, April 29. Thomas Fairfax is witness to a deed whereby 
Sir Thomas Norcliffe, Knight, sells the rectory of Wressell, co. York, 
to Thomas Fotherby and Robert Stapylton, for £1,200. 

1619, July 20. Thomas Fairfax is witness to a lease of his water 
corn mill in Langton, from Sir Thomas Norcliffe of Nunnington, Kt. 
to Richard Wranghapi, for ten years, at £13 6s 8d. yearly rent. 

3 Charles, Mich. Tenn, 1627. Thomas Fairfax of Gilling, Kt. 
is plaintiff in a fine affecting Sir Thomas Norcliffe's manor of Hun- 
burton, lands in Hunburton, Churwell, Beeston, Morley, and Batlej, 
and tithes in Gildersome. 

1631, Oct. 25. Dame Katherine Norcliffe, late wife of Sir Thomas 
Norcliffe, late of Numiington, Knight, deceased, enters into covenant 
with Sir Thomas Fairfax of Gilling, Viscount Elmley, and Sir John 
Bamburgh of Howsham, Baronet. To this deed John Fairfax is a 

1641, Dec. 21. William Fairfax of Ugthorpe, co. York, Esq. and 
Nicholas Fairfax of Gilling, Esq. as trustees under the marriage 
settlement of the Lady Dorothea Norcliffe, take the manor of Lang- 
ton, lands, etc. 

1650, Dec. 5. Sir Thomas Norcliffe conveys to the Hon. Nicholas 
Fairfax of Gilling, Esq. and Sir Arthur Ingram of Temple Newsam, 
Kt., in trust, his manors of Langton and Gomersall, and his purparty 
of the manors of Howsham and Hunberton. 

1655-6, March 21. Thomas Ingram, Esq. of Temple Newsam, 
recites that Sir Thomas Norcliffe had given bond for £400 to the 
Rt. Honble. Charles Lord Fairfax, Viscount Elmley. 

1670, July 2. The Rt. Honble. Charles Lord Viscount Fairfax is 
one of the trustees to preserve the contingent remainders of an entail 
made on the marriage of Sir Thomas Norcliffe, Knight (only son of 
the above Sir Thomas and the Lady Dorothea Fairfax), with Frances 
Vavasour, only daughter and heir of Sir William Vavasour, late of 
Copmanthorpe, Knight and Baronet, deceased. This lady's mother. 


Olivia (daughter of Brian Stapylton Esq. of Myton, by Frances 
daughter of Sir Henry Slingsby, born at Lacock Abbey, Wilts, in 
1620, and buried at Chelsea, co. Middlesex, 20 Nov. 1714) was own 
cousin to Robert Stapylton of Wighill, first husband of the Lady 
Katherine Fairfax above named. 

As he died 12 March 1634-5, it was probably her brother Robert 
Stapylton who appears on the monument at Scrayingham. 

The following is an abstract from York of the will of this Charles, 
fifth Viscount Fairfax, whose only child Alathea married William 3rd 
Baron Widdrington. 

1711, June 4. Charles Lord Fairfax Viscount Emla, to my sister-in-law Mrs. 
Apolonia Yates £500, in trust for my grand-daughter Mrs. Elizabeth Langdale. 
and £100 to her own use ; my grand-daughter Mrs. Mary Widdrington £50 in 
plate, 15 broad pieces of gold, and 10 double Lois d'or, and all the halfe broad 
pieces of gold in a purse in my cabinett ; my grandson Peregrine Widdrington 
40 guineas ; to my great-great-grandson Mr. Marmaduke Langdale £100 ; my 
cousin Charles Fairfax of York £10. My grandson Mr. Charles Widdrington and 
my nephew Mr. Charles Fairfax, son of my late brother Mr. Nicholas Fairfax, to 
be executors. To my friend Mr. Francis Tempest £20. 

Proved 17 July 1711. 

For leave to make the following extracts from Yorkshire Parish 
Registers, I have to thank the present Incumbents, or their Prede- 

Beverley^ St. Mary's. 

1707. Sept, 28. Nicholas Fairfax, gent. bur. 


1625. Nov. 28. Mr. John Clemitt and Mrs. Katherine Fairfax, mar. 
1636. Nov. 16. Thomas, son of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 
1641. Dec. 16. Melleard, dau. of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 
1646-7. Jan. 11. Lucretia, dau. of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 
1649. May 31. Nicholas, son of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 
1638-9. Jan 28. Francis, son of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bur. 
1646. April 26. Francis Fairfax, gent., bur. 

Durham, St. Giles's. 

1684. April 8. Robert, son of Robert Fairfax, bapt. 
1687-8. Feb. 28. Nicholas, son of Robert Fairfax, bapt. 
1724. Sept. 28. Alice, dau. of Robert Fairfax, bapt. 

1679. April 13. Dorothy Fairfax, bur. 

1680. May 27. Jane Fairfax, bur. 

1682-3. March 1. Robert Fairfax, junior, bur. 



1683. April 24. Mr. Samuel Hassell, and Madam Catherin 

Fairfax, mar. 
1670. Aug. 23. Melior, dau. of Mr. Isaac Fairfax, bapt. 

1680. Aug. 31. Mr. Thomas Fairfax, ^ bur. 

1681. Sept. 27. Dorothea, dau. of Mr. Isaac Fairfax, bur. 
1682-3. March 15. Mary, wife of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bur. 
1687. Aug. 1. Mr. Isaac Fairfax, bur. 


1681. Nov. 27. Henry, son of Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 
1683. Dec. 9. George, son of Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 
1687. Sept. 4. Isaac, son of Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 
1717. Aug. 2. Simon, son of George Fairfax, bur. 

Gateshead, co. Durham. 

1697-8. Feb. 20. Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bur. 


1730. May 27. Thomas Fairfax, esq., and Elizabeth Simpson, 
gentlewoman, married. 

Hull, St. Mary's. 

1691. Sept. 27. Mr. William Fairfax, and Mrs. Hessell, ^ mar. 
1715-6. March 6. Mrs. Elizabeth Fairfax, bur. 

Malton, ^ St. MichaeVs. 

1680. July 14. Henry, son of Bryan Fairfax, esq. bur. 


1673-4. Feb. 18. Charles Fairfax, ^ gent. bur. 


1672. Sept. 8. George Jackson of Whitby and Lucretia Fairfax, mar. 
1675. June 1. William Smith, clerk, and Anne Fairfax, mar. 


1632. May 28. Thomas Fairfax 5 and Elizabeth Mountaine, mar. 

' P. 391, vol. vi. Herald and Genealogist. 

2 Mar. licence Oct. [Sept. ?] 27, 1691, for William Fau-fax of Hinderskelfe, gent., 
and Frances Hassell. 

3 P. 399, vol, vi. Herald and Genealogist, for Walton read Malton. 

* P. 401, vol. vi. Herald and Genealogist. 

* P. 391, vol. vi. Herald and Genealogist. 


1623. Sept. 24. George Fairfax and Margery Killdale, mar. 
1625-6. Jan. 15. George Fairfax and Ann Haddock, mar. 
1641. July 27. Henry Fairfax and Ellis Carliell, mar. 

1658. Apr. 12. Henry Fairfax of Dunsley, husbandman, and Ann 
Fran kl and, mar. 

1669. Nov. 9. Thomas Fotherby and Mary Fairfax, mar. 

1714. Sept. 14. Peter Graves and Margaret Fairfax, Newholme, mar. 

1631. Oct. 3. Henry, son of Henry Fairfax, bapt 

1637. June 18, William, son of Henry Fairfax, bapt. 

1641. Oct 10. William, son of Henry Fairfax, bapt. 

1648-9. Feb. 2. Charles, son of Thomas F., gent, of Dunsley, born. 

1650. Dec. 21. Thomas, son of Thomas Fairfax, gent born. 

1652. Nov. 24. William, son of Thomas Fairfax, born. 

1654. Nov, 3. Anne, dau. Thomas Fairfax, Esq. of Dunsley, born. 

1659. July 5. Elizabeth, dau. Thomas Fairfax, born. 

1681. Nov. 27. Henry, son of Thomas Fairfax of Dunsley, bapt. 
1683. Dec. 9. George son of Thomas Fairfax of Dunsley, bapt. 
1667. Sept. 4. Isaac, son of Thomas Fairfax of Dunsley, bapt. 

1695. Aug. 10. Guy,i son of Capt. Robert Fairfax, bapt. 

1696. Sept. 8. Charles, son of Mr. W. Fairfax of Euswai-p, bapt. 
1697-8. Jan. 2. Christian, dau. of W. Fairfax of East Row, bapt. 
1698. June 26. Thomas, son of Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 

1698. July 3. Thomas, son of William Fairfax, bapt. 

1699. Nov. 26. Charles, son of Thomas Fairfax jun. Dunsley, bapt. 
1701. April 27. Ann, daughter of Thomas Fairfax, Dunsley, bapt. 
1704. June 4. George, son of Thomas Fairfax, Dunsley, bapt. 
1709. June 26 Dorothy, dau. of Thomas Fairfax of Dunsley, bapt. 
1610-1. Jan 18. Roger Fairfax, bur. 

1624. Apr. 15. Margery Fairfax, bur. 

1627-8. Mar. 6. Margaret Fairfax, bur. 

1638. May 29. Frances, wife of Henry Fairfax, bur. 

1648. Mar. 30. Jane Fairfax of Whitby, bur. 

1648. May 12. Henry Fairfax of Dunsley, bur. 

1654-5. Jan. 13. Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Fairfax, Esq. bur. 

1655. Nov. 17. Sarah, dau. Thomas Fairfax, Esq. bur. 

1677. June 24. Timothy, son of Charles Fairfax, gent. Whitby, bur. 

1680. May 23. Ellice Fairfax of Dunsley, bur. 

1682. Sept. 13. Henry, son of Thomas Fairfax of Dunsley, bur. 

' Should be inserted on p. 616, vol. vi. Herald and Genealogist. 


1695. May 17. Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bur. 

1695. Aug. 11. Guy, son of Capt. Robert Fairfax, bur. 

1696. Man 28. Mary, dau. Thomas Fairfax of Dunsley, bur. 
1704. Sept. 24. Mrs. Mary Fairfax, widow, bur. 

1708. May 11. Isaac Fairfax, bur. 

1708. Sept. 1. Thomas Fairfax of Dunsley, bur.' 

1729. Sept. 20. Ann, dau. of George Fairfax of Dunsley, bur. 

Yoi% All Saints J Pavement. 
1632. March 26. John Farrafax, bur. 

York, All Saints, North Street. ' 

1614-5. Feb. 9. Francis Fairfax, of Acaster Malbis, gent., and 
Elizabeth Wilkinson, widow, of this parish, mar. 

York, St. Crux. 
1641. Sept. 28. Thomas Persane and Jane Fairfax, mar. 
1656-7. Mar. 3. Ann Fairfax, bur. 

Yoi'k, St. Helenas. 

1626-7. Feb. 4. Mr. Henry Fairfax,i Parson of Ashton-under-Line, 

and Mary Cholmley, daughter of my Lady Cholmley of this 

parish, mar. 
1634. May 11. Christopher Smailes and Elizabeth Fairfax, mar. 
1734. March 30. John, son of Thomas Fairfax, Esq. bapt. 

York, Holy Trinity, King's Square. 

1692. April 15. John Moore and Magdalen Fairfax, mar. 
1622. April 24. Elizabeth dau. of William Fayrefax, Baker, bapt. 
1620. May 21. William, son of William Fayrefax, Baker, bur. 
1662. Sept. 23. Mr. John Fairfax, died at Alderman Taylor's, 

York, Holy Trinity, Qoodramgate. 

1587. Nov. 6. Francis Fairfax and Anne Fairfax, mar. 
1611-2. Jan. 12. Jane, dau. of William Fairfax, bapt. 
1636-7. Feb. 23. Mrs. Elizabeth Fairfax, wife of Mr. Thomas 
Fairfax, bur. 

York, Holy Trinity, Micklegate. 

1736. July 12. Matthew Brown and Ellenor Fairfax, widow, of 

Wetherby, married. 
1739. Aug. 14. Thomas, son of Thomas Fairfax, Esq. bapt. 

' P. 339, vol. vi. Herald and Genealogist. 


1744. May 15. William, son of Thomas Fairfax, Esq. bapt. 
1604. Nov. 21. Esabell Fayrefax, bm\ 
1721-2. Feb. 22. Mrs. Ann Fairfax, bm-. 
1738-9. Jan. 1. Mr. Henry Fairfax, bur. 
1740. Sept. 3. Mrs. Ann Fairfax, bur. 

York, St. John's. 
1677. Dec. 28. Old Mr. William Fairfax, bur. 
1694. July 30. Mrs. Mary Fairfax, relict of Mr. W. F. senior, bur. 

Yo7'k, St. Margaret's, 

1631. April 22. William Fayrefax, bur. 

York, St. Martin' Sy Coneystreet. 

1653. Sept. 28. Thomas Fairfax, gent, and Mrs. Anne Conyers, mar. 
1728-9. Mar. 19. William Fairfax of Amotherby, and Isabella 
Newsom of Burroughbridge, mar. by licence. 

1794. June 9. Charles Gregory Fairfax, Esq. of Gilliug Castle, and 
Mary Goodricke, mar. by licence. 

1654-5. Jan. 3. John, son of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 

1658. May 7. Ann, daugh. of Mr. Thomas F., atturney-at-law, bapt. 

1659. Sept. 30. Edward, son of Thomas Fairfax, gent, and attur- 
ney-at-law, bapt. 

1660-1. Feb. 12. Conyers, son of Thomas Fairfax, gent. bapt. 

1795. April 23. Mary Ann, dau. of Charles Gregory Fairfax, Esq. 
of Gilling Castle, by Mary, second sister of Sir Henry Good- 
ricke, bart. bapt (born 16 April). 

1796. June 14. Charles Gregory, son of C. G. Fairfax, Esq. bapt. 

1797. Oct. 6. Henry, son of C. G. Fairfax, Esq. bapt. (born 27 Sept.) 
1802. Oct. 24. Lavinia, dau. of Charles Gregory Fairfax, Esq. 

and Mary Goodricke, bapt. 
1804. Dec. 15. Harriet, dau. of C. G. Fairfax, Esq. bapt. 
1628. July 8. Ursuley, dau. of Sir Ferdinando Fairfax, died in 

this parish, and was buried in the parish church of Bishophill 

the Newer. 
1655-6. March 3. An infant of Thomas Fairfax, gent. bur. 
1656. Dec. 27. Mary, dau. of Thomas Fairfax, gent, buried in 

the church. 
1658. Aug. 16. Ann, dau. of Thomas Fairfax, gent. bur. 
1661. May 23. Mrs. Ann Fairfax, wife of Thomas F., gent. bur. 
1661. June 2. Edward, son of Thomas Fairfax, gent. bur. 


York, St. Martin's, Micklegate. 

1702. Dec. 7. Mary, dan. of Mr. Nicholas Fairfax, born. 
YorJc, St. Mary's, Castlegate. 

1675-6. Feb. 12. Mary, dau. of Mr. Charles Fairfax, bapt. 

1678 April 28. Charles, son of Mr. Charles Fairfax, bapt. 

1680. Nov. 5. William Miles, son of Mr. Charles Fairfax, bapt. 
1604. July 15. Alice, dau. of Richard Fairfax, bur. 

1604. Aug. 1. Ann, dau. of Richard Fairfax, bur. 

1677. May 13. Mary, dau. of Mr. Charles Fairfax, bur. 

1681. April 25. William Miles, son of Mr. Charles Fairfax, bur. 
1707. June 23. Ann, wife of Charles Fairfax, Esq, bur. 
1710-1. Feb. 6. William Fairfax, prisoner, bur. 

Yorh^ St. Mary, Bishophill, Junior. 

1605. Oct. 18. William Fairfaxe of Holgate, bapt. 
1631. Aug. 29. Uxor Fairfax, bur. 

York, St. Mary, Bishophill, Senior. 

1638. May 24. Mr. Henry Arthington and Maria Fairfax, mar. 
1630-1. March 10. William, son of Sir William Fairfax, bapt. 
16o8. Aug. 1. Maria, dau. of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 
1640. April 6. Elizabeth, dau. of Captaine Fairfaxe, bapt. 
1619. July 1. Mrs. Christian Aske, bur. 

1678. Dec. 21. Mrs. Mary Ardington, wife to Mr. Henry Arding- 
ton of Ardington, and sister to Lord Thomas Fairfax of Appleton, 
buried in the great quire. 

1716. Sept. 27. Mrs. Mary Fairfax, bur. 

1735. Oct. 18. The Lady Fairfax, buried in the quire, within the 

altar rails. 
1740. Novx 15. Thomas, son of Mr. Thomas F., buried in the quire. 
1744. Sept. 3. Mr. Thomas Fairfax, buried in the quire. 

On a fly-leaf are the following entries : — 

Ex antiquo Registro sive Kalendario Johan'is Grimshaw ^ Medie- 

tatis hujus Ecclesise Rectoris in Papiro transcript: 1655. 
Anno Dni. 1567. Liprimis Ferdinando filius Thome Fairfax 
Armigeri baptizatus fuit sexto die Aprilis. ^ 

' John Grimshawe, Rector from 1583 to 1601, baptized a son, Philip, 8 April 
1592, buried a daughter, Junia, 23 Dec. 1601. Married 2 Nov. 1600, Isabel 
Alexander. He married, at St. John's, York, 29 Nov. 1583, Katherine Butrye 
of Nether Poppleton. = V. 397, vol. vi. 


1571. Aug. 28. Mrs. Anna F., dan. of Thomas Fairfax, Esq. bapt. 

1608. Ursula Fairfax, nata fuit apud Bishophill, sepulta ibidem 
7 June, 1628, in choro Domini Fairfax. 

1619, July 1. Mrs Christian Ask, younger sister to the first 
Thomas Lord Fairfax, was buryed in the great quier. 

1638. May 24. Mr. Henry Arthington of Arthington, Esq. and 
Mary daughter of Sir Ferdinando afterwards Lord Fairfax, mar. 

1638. Aug. 1 Mary, dau. of Thomas now Lord Fairfax, bapt. 

1640. April 6. Elizabeth, yonger daughter of the said Thomas then 
Captaiue Fairfax, was baj)tized. 

1655-6. March 9. The Lady Dorothy Constable, elder daughter of 
Thomas first Lord Fairfax, and widdow of Sir William Constable 
of Holme, in y^ East Rydinge of y^ county of York, Baronett, 
dyed the nynth day of March 1655-6, and was buryed the 
eleaventh in the middle and upper part of the great quier neare 
y^ place wlier their only child was interred 1608.^ And the said 
Sir William Constable dyed in Westminster the tenth day of 
June next precedinge, and he was buried in the chappell built by 
King Henry y^ Seventh within the said abbey. 

York, St. Michael, Ousehindge end. 

1666. June 4. Thomas, son of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bapt. 

Yorh, St. Michael-le-Belfrey . 

1632. Dec. 18. Henry Fairfax and Elizabeth Fothergill, mar. 

1633. Oct. 30. Henry, son of Henry Fairfax, bapt. 
1656-7. Jan. 20. Arthur, son of William Fairfax, bapt. 

1636. Sept. 12. Henry Fairfax, bur. 

1637. July 8 Thomas, son of Henry Fairfax, bur. 

1672. Nov. 18. Katherine, dau. of William Fairfax of Newton near 

Tadcaster, Esq. bur. 
1676. Dec. 14. Mr. Charles Fairfax, buried at St. Olave's.^ 
1696. May 6. Mary, wife of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bur. 
1710. April 10. Mr. Thomas Fairfax, bur. 

' The Register is entirely deficient from 1604 to 1614 inclusive. 

2 The discrepancy in the dates I account for by supposing that the mortuary fee 
due to the Curate of St. Michael-le-Belfrey, as minister of the parish in which he 
died, was paid on 14 December, notwithstanding that he was buried elsewhere. 
Many terriers affirm the right of the Incumbent to mortuaries, and even to a fee 
from every funeral passing through the parish, I can give an example which 


York, St. Olave's. 
1698-9. Jan. 17. Mr. Richard Headlam of York, minister, and 

Susanna Fairfax of y« same, married by licence. 
1612. Dec. 10. Thomas Fairfax of Bootham, bur. 
1676. Nov. 4. Mr. Charles Fairfaxe of Minster Yard, buried in 

St. Olives in the quire. ^ 

York, St. Saviour'' s. 
1645. April 8. William Smailes and Elizabeth Fairfax, mar. 
1611-2. Feb. 29. Edmund, son of Edward Fairfax, bapt. 
1610. Aug. 24. A child of Mr. Fayrefaxes, bur. 
1610-1. Feb. 4. Charles Fayrefax, bur. 

1612. June 17. Thomas Fayrefax. bur. 

1613. June 3. Elizabeth Fayrefax, bur. 

York, Archbishop's Registry for Marriage Licences. 
1664. April 30. Thomas Fairfax of City York, gent, and Mary 

1686. July 26. William Fairfax, Esq. of Newton Kyme, and Mrs. 
Susanna Coates. 

1690. Sept. 26 Walter Stanhope of Leeds, gent, and Mrs. Ellen 

1691. Oct. 7. William Towry of Kirkby Grindalyth, Esq. and 
Mary Fairfax. 

C. B. N. 

will interest those who possess Mr, Skaife's Burials in York Minster, in the York- 
shire Archaeological Journal, 1870, Part iii. p. 227; from the Register of Holy 
Trinity, Micklegate, York : 

" 1635. Sept. 3. A Ladie that died at Healey Mannerr M'as brought to Yorke 
Minster to be buried, and paide to every parish Minister and clerk 10s." This 
might prove an expensive item in the funeral charges. It is recorded in the same 
Reo-ister respecting Thomas Bolles of Osberton,co.Notts,Esq. [Will dated 15 March, 
1634-5]. " 1635. April 13. Mr. Bowlles of Towthroppe was carried after he was 
dead into Nottingham shire to be buried, and paide for him to the Minister and 
Gierke of every parish where they through went Qs. 8d." I am all the more in- 
clined to belies e that this is the true explanation, because I often find the same 
persons entered in two Registers in the city of York, and not always on the same 
day of the month. Thus the Register of St. Michael-le-Belfrey says: 

" 1631-2. Jan. 17. Mr. Sargeant Newton, buried in the high Quire." 

And from St. Olave's : 

" 1631-2. Jan. 20. " Mr. John Newton died in the Manner, and was buried in 
Belfrays, but paid dues to St. Olive's. Alias Sergeant Newton." 


X. Ker of Blackshiells, CO. Haddington, 


I. Andrew Ker, or Car, graduated in 1607 at the University and 
King's College of Aberdeen, was admitted minister of the parish 
of Glenbucket, co. Aberdeen, 1618, translated to the adjoining- 
parish of Cabrach after Nov. 1633; in 1634 he appeared as a 
witness as to the depredations committed upon the Laird of 
Frendraught by sorners and broken men of the Clan-Gregor and 
others, and was allowed 100 Scots for his expenses by the Lords 
of the Secret Council. He returned to Glenbucket at an ad- 
vanced age, and died soon afterwards in 1662 or 1663. 

II. Alexander Ker, his son, was born 1627, and graduated at 
the University and King's College, Aberdeen, 1647. In June 
1651 the parishioners of Grange, co. Banff, presented a petition 
to the Presbytery of Strathbogie, asking that Mr. Alexander 
Ker might be their minister, but this was thought precipitate 
and irregular, and it was ordained that he should preach at 
Grange the following Sabbath, and a report be made as to the 
feeling of the people. Ker produced " testificats from Alford 
quher his mouthe had bein opened," and from Aberdeen where 
he had studied divinity, which were found sufficient. The Mar- 
quess of Huntly having given a full and hearty consent, and the 
parishioners having again petitioned in his favour, Mr. Ker was 
admitted 8th Jan. 1652, after a delay caused by *' the storme 
being great and the countrie exceedingly troubled with the 
Englishe." He was summoned before the Privy Council in June 
1689 for not reading the Proclamation of the Estates, nor pray- 
ing for William and Mary, and for praying for the restoration 
of James the Second, but he was acquitted on a declaration by 
his parishioners that he had given obedience. In March 1672 
he acquired the lands of Knock of Strathylay, in Banffshire, and 
soon after recorded his arms in the Lyon Register as " Mr. Alex- 
ander Ker of Knock descended of the Familie of Fernihirst." 



He married first Anne Gordon, and her arms are impaled with 
her husband's on the tombstone he erected in memory of her and 
their four children, who died young. These are, three boars' 
heads couped, with no additional charge or mark of cadency. 
The inscription is over the shield as follows : " Hie coquiesciit 
in dofho Ana Gordona uxor pietissia D: Al" Keri symystse 
Grangen: nataeque 4 eodem busto." This is cut in stone of a 
blueish colour, with a narrow raised margin, on which is cut 
" Associatas Agust 16, 1666," which would appear to be the 
date of Mr. Ker's second marriage, to Elizabeth daughter of 
Alexander Burnett of Shethocksley, co. Aberdeen, and Margaret 
Skene liis wife, of the family of Skene of that ilk, who survived 
him till Mav 1728. Mr. Ker died in 1693, and is interred at 
Granofe, where there is an oval mural monument to him, erected 

CD ^ ' 

by his son and widow, of Portsoy marble, set in a carved free- 
stone border, and bearing this inscription^ : — 

Alexander Ker, doctiis non doctor, ecclesiae hujus ab instaurata 
religione pastor secundus, verum officii fideli exercitio nemini secundus, 
vir magni ingenii ac indefessi laboris, donis omnibus foris domique 
mysta? necessariis abunde refertus ; veritatem, pietatem, charitatem 
voce, vita, exemplo docuit, coliiit, promovit. Hie ubi vires exantlavit 
exuvias deposuit anno dom: 1693, ministrii 43, aetatis 66. 

Memento mori. 

III. William Ker, waiter in Edinburgh, son of Mr. Alexander 
Ker, was born in 1669, and died in 1734. He married Isabella 
daughter of Adam Innes of Towiebeg, and Isabella his wife, 
daughter of Alexander Koss, D.D. rector of the University of 

IV. Alexander Ker of Blackshiells, Keith, and Costerton, the 
eldest son, born 1696, was a wine merchant at Bordeaux, and 
after retiring from business lived at Montpelier, where he died 
in 1769. Mr. Ker married Eleanor daughter of James Craig, 
writer to the signet, of Dalnair, co. Stirling, and Costerton, co. 
Edinburgh, and Magdalen his wife daughter of Chaplin of 
CoUiston, and had by her, who died at Bordeaux — 

• I am indebted to the Reverend John Russell, Grange, for a careful sketch and 
description of this rather monument to his predecessor in the parish. 


1. James, born 1st September 1750. 

2. John William, born 12th August 1752, banker in 
Paris, died unmarried. 

3. John Charles, Major in the army, drowned on the 
passage to the West Indies, married and had issue. 

1. Isabella Magdalen, born 26tli December 1755, married 
William Herries, banker, without issue. 

V. James Ker of Blackshiells, was served heir male general 
to his father 1772, December 24; married 3 1st July 1777 Mary 

daughter of Bull, commander of a vessel in the East India 

Company's service, who was murdered by the natives in India, 
and by her, who was maternally descended from the family of 
Xairne of Greenyards, and who died 14th September 1822, had — 

1. Mary, born 15th May 1778, died 3rd January 1790; 
and four sons : 

1. James, born 3rd February 1781. 

2. John, born 7th April 1783, Staff Officer 8th Bengal 
Native Infantry and Quarter- Master of Brigade, killed 
before Bhurtpcre 22nd February 1805. 

3. William Herries, born 10th January 1785, afterwards 
of Blackshiells. 

4. Alexander, born 30th December 1786, died in 
Portugal 2nd April 1809. 

On the death without issue in January 1812 of his cousin- 
german General Sir James Henry Craig, K.B. Governor of 
Canada, Mr. Ker and his cousin-german Alexander Fraser- Tytler 
of Woodhouselee, a Senator of the College of Justice, became 
coheirs of the family of Craig of Dalnair and Costerton. 

Mr. Ker died 9th December 1819. 

VI. James Ker of Blackshiells married in January 1810 
Lilias daughter of John Campbell, Receiver-General of Customs 
for Scotland, brother of Sir Islay Campbell, of Succoth, Bart. 
Lord-President of the Court of Session, and had by her, who 
died in May 1854— 

1. James, born 21st June 1817. 

2. John Archibald, born 19th September 1818. 

R 2 


1. Mary Nairne, married A. Plummer, M.D. and died 
21st April 1871. 

2. ElizabetK Houstoim. 

3. Isabella Madeleine. 

Mr. Ker died in September 1846, having a few years 
previously sold Blackshiells to his brother William. 

VII. James Ker, Captain 19th Eegiment of Foot, fell at the 
battle of Inkerman in November 1854. 

YII. John Archibald Ker, present representative, formerly an 
officer in the Department of Public Works, Ceylon. 

yi. William Herries Ker, Ceylon Civil Service, acquired the 
family estate of Blackshiells from his elder brother, married 
Madeline, daughter of Lieutenant- Colonel William Rickart- 
Hepburn of Rickarton, co. Kincardine, and died 18th December 
1842, having had six daughters: 

1. Mary Anne, born 29 January 1824, died unmarried 
15 September 1851. 

2. Isabella Cecilia Jane. 

3. Elizabeth Madeline Catherine. 

4. Alexina Christina Emma. 

5. Wilhelmina Jemima Louisa, born 11 January 1837, 
died 22 September 1852. 

6. Harriet Hepburn, born 2 October 1839, died 28 
February 1854. 

yil. Misses Isabella Cecilia Jane Ker, Elizabeth Madeline 
Catherine Ker, and Alexina Christina Emma Ker, are now 
joint owners of Blackshiells. 

Arms : Azure, on a chevron argent betAveen two holly leaves 
proper (for Burnett) in chief and an unicorn's head erased of the 
second atUred or in base three mullets gules. 

Crest: An unicorn's head as in the arms. 


The arms of Craig, which the family has a right to quarter, 
are: Erminois, on a fess parted per fess embattled gules and 
azure three crescents argent. 


The Ker coat, as allowed by Sir Charles Erskine, Lyon, is a 
very singular one; the tincture of the field is azure, although 
that was early abandoned for gules by the Fernihirst family, 
who bore a stag's head, not an unicorn's, in base. 

I am almost inclined to think that Fernihirst may have been 
inserted instead of Cessford in the Reo^ister throuo:h a clerical error. 
Not only are the arms nearly those of Cessford. but the cadets of 
Fernihirst, at the period when the first of this family must have 
gone north, are few and known. Andrew Ker must have been 
born about 1587, his father probably about 1550, which is only 
seventy years after the family of Fernihirst was founded. 

The Blackshiells' family have sometimes used the Burnett 
motto : ViRESCiT VULNERE VIRTUS, and a third holly leaf in 
place of the unicorn's head in base. The arms on the monu- 
ment at Grange, as used by Mr. Alexander Ker before registra- 
tion in the books of the Lord Lyon, are three mullets on a 
chevron, with an unicorn's head in base, and no mark of 

In a collection of coloured drawings with MS. descriptions of 
coats of arms by the late Mr. Deuchar, seal-engraver in Edin- 
burgh, the bearings of Ker of Blackshiells occur, with a note 
" altered in 1823," as Vert, on a chevron between three holly 
leaves argent as many mullets gules; crest as before, but with 
the Burnett motto, Virescit vulnere virtus. 

S * * * 

1. Hellesby; 2. Hatton ; 3. Crispyn ; 4. Hellesby (as male ancestor of Acton); 
5. Acton; 6. Frodsham; 7. Cholmondeley ; 8. Blondeville, Palatine Earl; 

9. Kingsley (with the Horn of Delamere Forest on an escocheon of pretence) ; 

10. Sylvester; 11. Malpas; 12. Hellesby. 



AND Notes on two Ancient Rolls of Hellesby, co. Chester. 

By Thomas Helsby, Esq. Barrister-at-Law. 

The rules of the ancient Heralds in the quartering of coat armor 
are sometimes very difficult to understand. From time immemorial 
their custom seems to have been to appropriate quarterings a modern 
Herald would consider inadmissible, and yet it can scarcely be affirmed 
that the rules of our day are not precisely those of the most ancient 
times. Still it would appear as though there existed little scruple in 
the minds of some to disregard all law in the matter, and to fill up 
any odd quarters in a shield with the coats of families in any way, 
even remotely, connected with the family whose quarterings they were 
assembling. I say that it appears so, because, by the rules of all 
time quarterings were exclusively used for the purpose of showing a 
representation by blood of families which have become extinct in some 
particular line, and whose heiresses or coheiresses only have been left to 
carry on the descent ; and the proof of this is, that where a family of 
one or more descents acquired certain quarterings, and then became 
absolutely extinct — that is, in the female as well as male line — and 
the next heir or representative was of some elder or younger line of 
the original stock, such heir would not thereby become entitled to 
those quarterings, however large the estate to which he had succeeded. 

It might be supposed that this was well understood in olden times 
when we find such a firm rule in existence as that a man could not 
emblazon his banner with any other coat than his own proper pater- 
nal coat, except in the case of a coat acquired through some ancestress 
who had brought with her an estate, and whose arms had been regu- 
larly quartered with, and permanently borne and formed part and 
parcel of his own — such, for example, as that of the Savages of Rock- 
Savage, who quartered the coat of Danyers. 

Nevertheless, it is not at all improbable that the Heralds of two 
or three centuries ago occasionally introduced into escocheons ordi- 
nary cpiarterings, either through some feeling of pity that they should 
be left out and lost, or as '' padding" to make up a grand achieve- 
ment, or to fill up some odd corner with the improper view of shewino- 
the descent of the estates with which those quarterings themselves 


originally came, thus possibly following an example that may have 
been set by the Heralds of the earliest times when the sale of coat- 
armor was in vogue. For there can be no doubt whatever, from 
charters still extant, that formerly, when these ensigns were not 
simply for ornament, but for use — and for much greater use than 
they can ever again become — a man could even sell his aimorial 
bearings with or without his lands. In default of heirs such purchases, 
like coats inherited, would descend, as at present, to his heiresses, and 
pass by marriage — at law always accounted a "valuable consideration"^ 
— to the husband for life and to the issue of the heiress. It appears 
to me that before heraldic law became in any way settled, and when 
traffic in coat-armor was allowed, that the descent of armorial bearings 
was governed pretty much by the general law of the land affecting a 
fee simple. For since they could pass by grant and they descended 
like land, or rather like many continental titles, supposing an heiress 
died issueless her coat with all its quarterings must naturally descend 
with her fee-simj)le to her next heirs, however remote and however 
little their blood representation of those whose quarterings descended 
to the deceased heiress. But, to follow up this argument to its legi- 
timate end, supposing the heiress's lands had been reduced into the 
absolute possession of the husband (as at a little later period they 
could be) by fine and recovery, in the absence of a similar reduction 
by grant of the arms, they must certainly go to the wife's heirs 
(whoever they might be), and not necessarily follow the land — the 
husband being only entitled to his life estate in them by " the courtesy 
of England." But, presuming their " reduction into possession " by 
some formal legal instrument during '* coverture," I see no rule 
(always bearing in mind the period of which I am writing,) to prevent 
their continued user as a " purchase " by marriage, to be borne either 
quarterly or on an inescucheon on the husband's and his heir's shields 
among the rest of the family quarterings, — nay, he might adopt them 
in lieu of his own proper coat. All this naturally follows from the 
false practice of purchase, which, however, was of limited extent, and 
obtained for a comparatively short period (as I am unaware of any 
charter 500 years old. conveying a coat of arras to a purchaser,) at a 
time wTien the adoption of coats had not become so general, but was 
confined to the major nobility and the greater Barons of the minor 
nobility — those, for example, who were obliged to take knighthood 

' Because, T suppose, hy the hard necessities of the times, men and women in their 
phildhood were thus bought and sokl. 


upon them or fine for it. Supposing, however, that the practice of 
purchase existed for a much longer period than I think can be shown, 
it could never be considered to have any validity now, although all 
the ancient powers of the Heralds were revived to-morrow. On the 
whole, therefore, if my deductions from the practice of sale and pur- 
chase be sound, the result is that the most ancient Heralds would 
really have been right in admitting quarterings of the character in 
question — that is, not only those where the consideration was pecu- 
niary, but also where it was marital, and the later Heralds only wrong 
in continuing a practice the reason for which had long become extinct. 
But even in this case, however improbable and however vain the 
speculation, the Herald of two or three centuries ago may have had 
the clearest evidence before him in the shape of a formal conveyance 
of the very coats he was quartering, or he followed some painting of 
the time when such quarterings would be perfectly correct, and which 
we now carelessly suppose were used without warrant for the vain 
purpose of making up as many squares in a shield as a backgammon 

I throw out these considerations for what they are worth, with a 
view to the introduction of a milder example of some of the practices 
in question, as shown in the accompanying engravings of two quar- 
tered shields appendant to two ancient pedigree rolls of my own 
(printed in the Miscellanea Genealogica, edited by Dr. Howard, F.S.A. 
and the Reliquary^ edited by Llewellyn Jewitt, Esq. F.S.A.) of which 
I have long thought it worth while to make a note. The pedigree 
edited by Mr. Jewitt is a small and very early roll of about the time 
of Henry YII., and was evidently engrossed for some law-suit or 
intended law-suit of the period. The shield bears the twelve quar- 
terings shown in the first engraving ; whilst that printed in the Miscel- 
lanea is a much larger roll dated 1645, and bears the twenty-five 
quarterings shown in the second engraving. 

The large roll for the most part seems a copy of the smaller, but 
evidenced by numerous abstracts or rather half-copied charters written 
under the several descents. There are, however, many errors in both, 
the principal of which I wish to rectify in these pages before jDointing 
out the several misquarterings of the shields. Fifth in descent in the 
older roll, Beatrix ftitz Alan 8ire de Hellesby married an Egerton, 
whose arms are described as Gules, three pheons sahle instead of 
argent^ but this, I have been reminded, may have arisen from the tar- 
nishing of the silver. Fourth in descent in the more modern roll 


*' Ricardus de Hellesby, frater d'ni Alani fil. Ric. de Hellesby," 54 
Hen. III. also marries an Egerton, a fact not mentioned in the older 
roll. In both rolls, temp. Edw. III. and Hen. IV., " Syr Thomas de 
Hellesby, miles, fil. Syr Ric.^ de Hellesby de Acton, mil." is made to 
many a " Thuchett dom. de Awdlegh," and impales Gules, a fret 
or, a bordure argent. I am inclined to think Aiidley an error for 
Whitley. A charter {penes me) dated at Tarvin 4 Ric. II. ^ shows 
Johan' Tnchett de Whettlegh granting lands in Teruin to Thomas de 
Hellesby miles, no doubt his son-in-law. The Touchetts Lords 
Audley sprang from the Whitley Touchetts about this yery time, 
which may have facilitated the mistake; but there does not appear, 
according to Ormerod, to have been at that time any John Touchett 
(excepting of Buglawton, who was the father of the first Touchett of 
Audley), but only a Robert and a Thomas. The Touchetts of 
Whitley bore Ermine, a chevron gules. 

Returning to Alan, lord of Hellesby and Chorleton. He was not 
lord of Acton in Delamere, but only of a third, which appears to have 
been granted to his son Adam de Hellesby de Acton, and to have 
passed from him by exchange to his elder brother Sir William de 
Hellesby, a Crusader, not nephew as in the pedigrees, for I have 
evidence that there were not two Sir Williams father and son, as 
there stated, but that one of them, the husband of Alice de Fytton, 
must have been a collateral. The five daughters and coheirs of the 
Crusader terminated the elder line, which became represented by 
the Thorntons of Thornton,^ Beestons of Beeston, Griffyns of 
Bartherston, Hattons of Hatton, and TraflTords of Trafford, co. 
Lane, and their descendants. But Adam de Hellesby also acquired 

• I have a charter of this Richard dated 2 Ric. II. wliose fractured seal of white 
wax still bears the coat of which an engraving is placed in p. 256. 

^ This charter bears an unique indorsement. In a fifteenth-century hand is 
written : 

^ X Thomas infra script' coniux filia Johan' 

/ Ric' de Hellesby mil' 
Hauice vxore / ^, m • e 

^ , ^ \ (pat Ihomas intra 

^ / script') fir & heres 

fir Will' dom' ; Aj ici. ai » j> >. 
/ Adam fir Alan d'n's 

de Horthull. , -^t n i. 

\ de Hellesby. 

Thuchett infra script'. 
Wiir cleric'. 
Angelin' vx' Vernon'. 
Ran'fus de hellesby de Acton de quo 
Johan' de quo Rad — de quo Will' qui 
nunc est videlicet an° d'ni m° cccc™" 

^ Dr. Ormerod describes " Acton " as held temp. Ric. II. of the Abbot of Vale 
Royal by Sir Pyers de Thorneton in right of his wife, Lucy de Hellesby, but this 
could only be in respect of the third to which I refer. 


another third of Acton by his wife, the daughter of his remote cousin, 
Ranulph de Acton alias Hellesby, and this appears to have descended 
with lands in Hellesby, Chorleton, Kingsley, Alvanley, and other 
places to his posterity. As to the remaining third of the lordship of 
Acton, it also early became the inheritance of another younger line 
of the family, in existence as late as the fifteenth century ; whilst 
other lands in Acton, Hellesby, and Northwich — including a salt 
mine, acquired by marriage with an heiress of the North wiches — 
went to another younger branch, whose eldest line became extinct 
temp. Hen. V. by the decease of Alan de Acton, who left two daugh- 
ters, one of whom carried these lands, or some of them, to her son 
by her husband Lawrence de Button. Whilst another scion of 
these Actons had a grant of lands temp. Edw. III. in Over Alder- 
ley (the ancient fee of their collateral ancestor Nigel of Halton and 
his descendants the Lacies,) where they became ancestors of the 
Actons of Alderley, who lived there till as late as the end of the 
seventeenth century. 

Several other junior branches of Hellesby also permanently re- 
tained this second surname, of which there was a Nicholas ^ de Acton 
temp. Hen. VI. who by his wife, a daughter of Molyneux of Sephton, 
CO. Lane, and widow of John Hatton of Hatton, was the father of 
Robert Acton of Hatton ; and at different periods there were several 
closer alliances with Hatton and Hellesby .^ 

In Henry the Sixth's time, as appears by charter, Robert de Hel- 
lesby, a younger brother of Ranulph de Hellesby (who died in 1468) 
was given by another charter, of which I have recently seen a copy 
in Randle Holmes's Collections, Harl. MSS., a power of attorney by 
Sir John Savage (ancestor of the Savages, Earls Rivers), to deliver 
seizin of certain lands in Hellesby to a trustee; and Lucy, the sister 
of a former Sir John Savage of Clifton (afterwards Rock- Savage), was 
the wife of John de Hellesby, the father by her of Ranulph, Robert, 
and others. 

Through the before-named Adam de Hellesby of Acton, this 

' I may also make a memorandum of a marriage of Nicholas Frodsham with a 
Rutter (a family also closely connected with the Hellesbys). The name of Nicholas 
was perpetuated in both these families through that match, and about Hen. YII. or 
Vni. time a Nicholas Rutter of the Kingsley stock became progenitor of the Rntters 
of Gloucestershire, and of the Overburys, one of whom, Sir Thomas, died in the 
Tower. I may also add that Margaret, the granddaughter of John de Hatton 

and his wife Molyneux, married Randle Rutter of Weversbrooke, temp. 

Hen. VI. 


younger line of Helsby became the male heirs of the family, and 
which aj^pears practically to have left the old residence at Helsby in 
the days of Elizabeth, and settled in Kingsley, Alvanley, and other 
townshijDS in the same parish. Dr. Onnerod, in his History of 
Cheshire, confines himself to tracing the descent of the principal 
manor from charters that came in his way, and the inquisitions, 
heraldic visitations, and collections are very mengre, simply shewing 
a few descents of the younger lines. The somewhat scattered lands of 
the latter were the subject of frequent settlements (some of which are 
in my possession, and in which the Beestons, Yenables, Traffords, and 
Egertons ajipear from time to time as trustees, some of whom also 
held lands of their own in some of the townships), so that for many 
generations there could be little alienation of the property, but which, 
in the progress of ages, certainly rather declined than increased. But, 
besides the manors referred to in the pedigrees, I gather from all the 
MSS. I have ever read, particularly the Cartulary of the Abbey of 
St. Werburg, that the earlier collateral branches were interested in 
those of Hapsford and Elton (adjoining townships in the parish of 
Thornton), and Bacford, and became the ancestors of families bearing 
the local name, and from the heiress of Elton descended the Frodshams 
of Elton. At the same time the before-mentioned junior branches 
of Helsby and Acton also continued to hold lands in the same places, 
some of the former down to quite modern times, for a strip of parch- 
ment I have, evidently cut from a settlement and dated the beginning 
of last century, mentions among the parties a William Helsby of 
Happsford, gent, who, or whose son, is to marry a Mary Grey of 
Bucks. Of course it is possible that this man, or his father, was only a 
purchaser, but I record it as one of the little lights that crop up out 
of obscurity to show that if no evidence has been discovered since 
Hen. VI. days of the family having anything in Hapsford, one 
bearing the family name, and whom I cannot identify, did hold lands 
there as late as a.d. 1700. 

But to return to the quarterings, more properly the subject of this 
paper, and respecting which I wish also to record some corrections, 
which none into whose hands these rolls may hereafter fall will pro- 
bably trouble themselves to make, if even a single antiquarian journal 
shall then exist, in view of the rapid changes that are renewing 
national juvenility. 

The 10th quarter in the earlier shield contains the coat, according 
to Orraerod, of Sylvester of Stourton — Argent, a tree on a mound 


vert, and in the 9tli and lOtli and 14th and 15th quarters of the later 
shield, a similar coat is given, together with another, Argent, a tree 
eradicated vert, apparently for Alexander le Clerc {vel Stourton of 
Stourton). These first quartered coats seem to have been introduced 
by the heii*ess of one of the Cholmondeleys through the Kingsleys, 
and the others by an heii'ess of a younger Stanley of Hooton. The 
Cholmondeleys, however, were really not entitled to any such quarter- 
ings.i It seems that Le Sylvester, Lord of Stourton, and Hereditary 
Chief Forester of Wirrall, in Cheshire, left an heiress married to 
Alexander le Clerc, or (as described below the shield) Stourton of 
Stourton, by whom she had two daughters only, respectively married 
to Kingsley of Kingsley, Hereditary Chief Forester of Delamere ; and 
Bamville of Stourton, who had issue Sir Philip de Bamville of Stourton, 
knt., who married a Venables of Wincham, and left by her several 
daughters and coheirs, one of whom married a Stanley of Hooton. 
Kingsley, however does not appear to have had any issue by his 
marriage ; but two of his daughters and coheirs by his first wife 
were respectively married to Cholmondeley and Le Roter vel 
Thornton. There was therefore no blood descent from the Stourtons 
on the part of Cholmondeley and Le Roter, but only on that of 
Stanley. I believe, nevertheless, that the lands and honours of 
that family were partitioned, and descended to the several husbands 
of the coheiresses, Kingsley taking certain lands, capable of being 
traced up to the Stourtons, and Bamville as well lands as the chief 
forestership of Wirrall, which still exists in the chief house of Stanley 
— though forest there is none — and in whose possession is the original 
quaint silver-bound horn of office.^ 

I may also take this opportunity of some further remarks on other 

In the second quarter is Hatton of Hatton, who brought in Crispyn 
(a Norman Baron). Crispyn is here described as, Barry of eight 
argent and gules (an error no doubt copied from the earlier roll), 
whereas it should be, Lozengy per fesse argent and gules. 

^ A friend has just sent me a pedigree from Harl MS. 21S7, which says Kingsley 
had issue by Stourton, a coheiress, the wife of Randulphus de Thorneton in le Mores. 
It is not unlikely that what in so many eases appears to have been a breach of the 
rules of the heralds has, in fact, arisen entirely through their quartering from erro- 
neous descents. Qy. however, whether Dr. Ormerod (whom I am vouching) or No. 
2187 is correct. 

2 See the engraving in Ormerod's History of Cheshire. / 



1. Hellesby; 2. Hatton ; 3. Crispyn ; 4. Acton; 5. Frodsham ; 6. Cholmondelej ; 
7. Kingsley ; 8. Kingsley (Official Coat as Hereditary Chief Forester of Dela- 
mere); 9. Sylvester; 10. le Clerc (irZ Stourton) ; 11. Stanley of Hooton ; 
12. Audley; 13. Bamville of Stourton ; 14. Sylvester; 15. le Clerc ; 16. Hoo- 
ton ; 17. Leftwich ; 18. Haughton ; 19. Grosvenour of Holme ; 20. Mobberley ; 
21. Downes; 22. Pulford; 23. Harrington; 24. Flemyng; 25. Cancefeld. 

The fifth quarter is intended for Frodsham of Frodsham ; but quei^e 
whether this does not belong to the flourishing branch at Elton, and 
Argent, on a bend engrailed gules (some have vert) three estoiles (or 
mullets), is not the proper coat for the elder line ? 

In the twelfth quarter Audley is given, I presume, as the elder 
paternal coat of the Stanleys ; but quere whether the Audley coat was 
borne previously to that of the Stanleys, though perha|3S there can be 
no impropriety in its use here to show the Stanley descent ? 

But in the twentieth and twenty-first quarters we come to a more 
important point. The herald here emblazons Mobberley and Downes 


as brought in by Grosvenour. The facts were these : the heiress of 
Downes of Chorley became the second wife of a Mobberley of Mob- 
berley, by whom she had daughters coheiresses to their mother, but 
not to their father, because by another venter he had issue male. The 
herald therefore quartered the coat of the heiress of Downes and the 
coat of Mobberley as well, as though she were also heiress to her 
father. I submit however that, to show the paternal blood, the Mob- 
berley arms should have been borne on a canton on the quartering of 

In the twenty-fourth quartering Flemyng, I think, instead of the 
fret, should bear Argent, three bars azure, in chief three maunches 
gules — the coat of the Barons of Wath, co. York, and of a branch 
settled in Lancashire. 

, Finally, had much care been taken in collecting all the quarterings, 
many more would have been found ; but for the present, till a further 
opportunity presents itself of making a permanent record of all that 
should have been emblazoned, I may content myself with the remark 
that the first half-dozen, which were acquired as early as Hen. III. time, 
should have been, after 1. Helsby, 2. Mobberley,^ Argent, two chev- 
rons gules, on a canton of the last a cross-crosslet fitchee or; 3. Hat- 
ton ; . 4. Wolfaith Fitz-Ivon (in some erroneously Fitzoo?) of Halton 
(as male ancestor of Hatton and brother of Nigel Baron of Halton) ; 
5. Crispyn of Normandy ; and 6. Norman ville of Normanville sur Iton 
in Normandy, Arg. on a fesse between 4 barrulets gules three fleurs 
de lis of the field 

Nigel of Halton came in at the Conquest, and Fitz-Nigel his son 
died A.D. 1133, an equally early period with Normanville for coat- 
armour ; both these coats may therefore have been assigned by the 
Heralds of after ages to these particular individuals for the pur- 
pose of distinguishing the marriages in question in family genealo- 
gies, but if I recollect aright I have seen copies of seals of Fitz-Nigel 
bearing in pale three fusils — a sort of long oval lozenge.^ The field 
was red and its charges gold. 

Wolfaith is assigned the same coat as Nigel, as though it came 
from their father, Ivo, Viscount of Cotentine in Normandy. Two 
Nigels de St. Sauveur, father and son, were successively Viscounts 

' This on the authority of Dr. Ornierod, who in one of his later works on the 
Ardernes, adds after Hellesby, Mobburley, and Normanville, which he discovered in 
a thorough investigation of the subject. But qy : I see no quoted authority for it. 

'-^ This fusil is drawn upright in Edmondson (Plate III. fig. 20) but he is unable to 
name it. 



till A.D. 1092, when the son died. Bo qy: whether Ivon was brother 
and heir of the honors of the last Nigel, who left two daughters as 
coheiresses apparently of his lands only, and these married a Tesson 
and a Pratis, some of whose name settled in Cheshire at the Conquest, 
and singular enough, the Vernons and Rivers also descended from one 
of these Neel de St. Sauveurs, whose first known ancestor Richard de 
St. Sauveur conquered Britany for Rollo. 

The fashion of the helmet on the shield of the older roll, as well as 
the stiff mantling, would appear to point to a form of a century later, 
but there are several samples of helmets to be found of this particular 
shape as having existed in the fifteenth century, whilst the mantling 
may well have been drawn as early as that date by one " in advance of 
his times." But my own opinion is that, as the vellum presents era- 
sures, it once contained copies of charters for legal purposes, which 
were scraped out in Hen. VIII. time, or later, to make way for the 

Seal of Kichard de Helleshv. 2 Rio. TI. 



AND THE Pretensions of his Descendants to a Baronetcy. 

One of tlie prominent figures in Scottish History 1620- 1655, 
was the gentleman whose name heads this article. In Douglas' 
Bai'onage^ pages 268 to 274, is given a lengthy account of his 
descendants in five hranches, each having an article appropriated 
to it. These notices, and others based upon them, abound in 
mistatements, the chief being that a Baronetcy was conferred on 
on Sir William, and are also defective by reason of omissions. 
The allegations as to the Dicks being of Danish extraction, and 
that Dick in this country has the same origin as Van Dyke^ or 
lords of the Dykes in the flat countries of Germany, may be left 
on one side; but the specific statement, given on the authority 
of Maitland^s History of Edinburgh^ that William de Dyck was 
Alderman or first Magistrate of the city A.D. 1296 is untrue. 
]\Iaitland gives the name as William de Dedyk, but he is mis- 
taken. In 1296 " William de Dederike,"' burgess and alderman 
of Edinburgh, swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick-on-Tweed. 

I have no where met with the name of Dick till late in the 
fifteenth century, and can trace none of them as landowners 
further back than the middle of the sixteenth century. The 
pedigree in the Baronage commences with: 

I. James Dick, a merchant-burgess of Arbroath 1539, con- 
temporary of Sir Alexander Dick, Archdeacon of Glasgow, who 
had a charter of some lands in Peeblesshire 1548. He was rector 
of Manor in that county, and the first man of the name who 
made any figure, but there is nothing to connect him with the 
Braid family or with James. 

II. Alexander Dick, stated without proof or reference to be the 
son of the Arbroath burgess, w^as, we are told, a man of pro- 
perty in Orkney and provost of the cathedral church there. 
There certainly was such a person; on the yth December 1561, 
Mr. Alexander Dick, Provost of Orkney, and two chaplains there, 
found caution to underly the law on 15th April following for 
convocation and gathering of our Sovereign Lady's lieges to the 



number of four score persons in September last, and searching 
for Henry Sinclair of Strone and Mr. William Mudy with intent 
to slauD-hter them. Georore Crawfurd of Leifnorris in Ayrshire 
was surety for this turbulent ecclesiastic, which goes some way at 
least to show that he belonged to that shire rather than to Ar- 
broath ; I find the name in Ayrshire before this date, and there 
were Dicks of Barbieston near Leifnorris a little later, and after- 
wards Dicks of Glasnock in the same parish. 

III. Mr. John Dick. This John was the father of Sir William, 
but no proof is offered that he was son of the Provost. It is cer- 
tainly said that he succeeded him in lands in Orkney, but I take 
the liberty of believing that this is arranged with the object of 
giving the family a continuous position as landowners in these 
islands, which they did not hold till later; in the rentals of 1595 
and 1614 the name of Dick is not to be found. 

The first connexion of this family with that quarter was in 
1628, when Sir William had a tack of the crown lands there. 
The truth probably is, that John belonged to a respectable family 
of Edinburgh burgesses and lawyers. 

In 1516 William Dik was a notary public there; in 1535 one 
of the same name was treasurer of the city; in 1539-40 John 
Dikke, owner of a tenement at the West Port; in 1583 Gilbert 
Dik, burgess of Edinburgh, writes to Sir Francis Walsingham, 
thankinof him for the courtesies and relief o-ranted to him in 
England. This Gilbert Dick or Dik was dead in 1593, having 
had four sons, of whom the eldest, Gilbert, inherited from his 
father and his brothers William and Andrew lands and tenements 
in Edinburgh, Leith, and Broughton. 

The fourth brother married the heiress of David Coupar, a 
burgess of Coupar, and had a son, Walter Dick, writer to the 
signet, who was a minor under the guardianship of his" uncle 
Gilbert in 1598. To the same family belonged apparently 
Mr. Alexander Dick, son of Alexander Dick, writer in Edin- 
burgh and proprietor of lands in Brougliton 1638-1643. This 
Alexander acted as law as-ent of Sir William Dick. 


John Dick, called (I cannot tell why) Mr. John, was a mer- 
chant-burgess of Edinburgh, and "married Margaret Stewart, 
descended of the ancient family of Rosythe.^' 


This statement might have been made more definite, as 
Margaret was daughter by Margaret Bellenden his wife, of the 
family of Bellenden of Broughton, of William Stewart, writer in 
Edinburgh, and sister of Sir Lewis Stewart, advocate, of Kirk- 
hill and Strathbrock, Linlithgow. They had a daughter, Katha- 
rine, omitted in the Baronage, who married Henry Morrison, mer- 
chant and bailie of Edinburgh, and had issue. The ^lorrisons 
were like the Dicks a family of wealthy merchant-burgesses of 
Edinburgh, and rose a little earlier. 

Henry's sister Elizabeth was wife of Sir William Dick; Mr. 
John Dick, fiar of Braid, married the widow of his cousin-german 
Sir John Morrison of Dairsie, Fife; and Sir Andrew Dick of 
Craig house married the heiress of Henry Morrison, a rich mer- 
chant in Edinburgh, also a near relative. Alexander Morrison 
of Prestongrange in East Lothian, a senator of the College of 
Justice 1626-1631, was brother of Sir William Dick's wife. 
These Morrisons are repeatedly designed of Saughtonhall in the 
Baronage, but I cannot find that they ever held that property; 
after being possessed in whole or part by the families of Bellen- 
den, Lautie, Somerville, and Mudie, it was purchased in 1660 by 
the ancestor of the present Sir J. G. Baird, Baronet. 

IV. Sir William Dick of Braid, near Edinburgh, was a mer- 
chant and banker, provost of Edinburgh 1638-1639, and repre- 
sented the city in Parliament. 

The references to him in the acts of Parliament, memoirs, and 
histories of the period are numerous, but in no instance is he 
styled a Baronet. He was knighted between 10th August and 
17th November 1641, was a member of the Committee of Estates 
1644 to 1651. It would occupy too much space to go into the 
details of Sir William's career; he farmed the Excise and Customs 
duties of the kingdom, also the import duty on wine, and was 
tacksman of the crown lands composing the Earldom of Orkney. 
A contemporary writer says that the government could not have 
been carried on at all, but for the enormous sums advanced 
by Sir William. As early as 1643 there is mention that his 
credit was hazarded by the non-payment of money assigned to 
him in part-payment of his loans, and repeated acts wei'e passed 
in his favour under which he seems to have got but little; one 

s 2 


of them has the salvo that the sum specified is to be paid as 
speedily as public pressing necessities permit. 

For one loan of 200,000 merks, twelve of the peers of Scotland 
became security to Sir William, and besides the conduct of the 
government of the day to him, which much resembled that of 
some of the American Eepublics in our own time, a specially 
iniquitous transaction was carried through for their benefit. In 
1647, at a time when his resources were exhausted, an act of 
parliament was passed to relieve those noble lords of their lia- 
bility, on the ground that the money had not been borrowed for 
their own use but for the public service. This ruined the once 
wealthy banker, as he still remained bound for the sums he had 
borrowed on his own security to save the national credit. He 
became bankrupt, and made over what remained of his property 
to his creditors, who long held it, and carried on suits to recover 
the sums that the twelve peers had guaranteed; they, or their 
heirs, were however finally liberated from the obligations of their 
bond by an act of parliament 1681. As late as 1695 an act 
was passed to enable Sir James Stuart, late Lord Advocate, to 
acquire from the creditors of Sir William Dick a garden and 
orchard near Sir James' house in Edinburgh, which are described 
as having lain waste for many years, the inclosurcs being de- 
stroyed and most of the trees broken down. 

Sir William died in London in his 76th year, a prisoner for 
debt, in 1655. In August 1642, while still in opulent circum- 
stances, he had fortunately made some provision for his sons, five 
in number; by making over to them considerable estates in land, 
or sums of money. A 

V. Mr. John Dick, fiar of Braid, the eldest son, was an ad- 
vocate and sheriff-depute of Orkney 1628. In 1630 he had a 
grant of a seat in the cathedral church of St. Magnus, Kirkwall. 
His wife, Nicolas, widow of Sir John Morrison of Dairsie, 
daughter of Sir George Bruce of Carnock, younger brother of 
the first Lord Kinloss, is not named in the Baronage. He died 
in 1642, before the ruin of his father, leaving at least three sons, of 
whom only William is mentioned in the Baronage, — 1. William; 
2. John (Mr.), had, January 3rd, 1672, a ratification of his right 
to a seat in St. Magnus church; 3. Andrew. 



YL Mr. William Dick, styled of Braid, had a grant of an 
impost on tobacco after the Restoration, but it was withdrawn 
after a time; it is not the case, as stated in the Baronage, that he 
had a pension of £132. In 1669 Parliament granted him pro- 
tection against arrest for the debts for which he was liable as 
representative of his grandfather; this was renewed in 1672; and 
again in 1681 upon his petition, in which he mentions that not 
only had he inherited nothing from his grandfather, but that he 
had sacrificed £8,000 sterling, which had come to him from 
other relations^ towards the payment of Sir William's creditors 
and had little or no means of subsistence for himself and his 
family, who were reduced to a mean condition. In no place did 
he ever style himself or was styled by others Sir William, and it 
is very certain that if a baronetcy had been conferred on his 
grandfather, Mr. William Dick would have assumed the title 
after the Restoration. The connexion, which had long been a 
nominal one, of the Dicks with the estate of Braid had ceased in 
1676, when a crown charter of the barony was granted to John 
Broun of Gorgiemilne, ancestor of the present Archibald Broun 
of Johnstounburn, advocate. William Dick seems to have 
thought himself injured by the actions of his uncle as executor of 
Sir William, for there is a printed petition by him without date, 
The Suffering Case of William Dick, Esq., Grandson and Heir 
of Sir William Dick, ivitli others of his Family, by the intolerable 
oppression of Sir Andrew Dick, an unnaturall branch thereof; 
humbly tendered (for redresse) to the Honourable Members of the 
Parliament of England. 

VII. William Dick was left an orphan at an early age. In 
1695 Parliament recommend to his ]\Iajesty the case of Elizabeth 
Duncan relict of Mr. William Dick designed of Braid, she being 
a poor widow hardly able to educate her son, this William, then 
a boy of sixteen. In 1707 he was an ensign in the Footguards, 
and there is another recommendation, in which it is admitted 
that at the Restoration the just claims of Sir William Dick's 
family and creditors on the Parliament of England amounted to 
36,803/. 5s. 9fZ. sterling, and on the Estates of Scotland to 
900,000 merks, together probably equal to 400,000/. at the 
present value of money. 


William Dick rose to tlie rank of captain, was at the battle of 
Almanza, and afterwards settled in the state of New York, where 
he is said to have acquired some landed property and to have 
" assumed the title of Baronet as heir male of his great- 
grandfather Sir William." This is not the case. He left an 
only child Agnes, who in 1747 was served heir general of " her 
father William Dick, captain in the Independent Army of the 
State of New York." 

On Captain Dick's death the representation of the family 
passed to his cousin Dick of Frackafield; but, that family being 
altogether ignored in the Baronage, it will be more convenient 
to delay a statement of their descent till after the junior branches 
have been accounted for. 


V. Sir Andrew Dick of Craighouse, near Edinburgh, second 
son of Sir William, had lands in Orkney, and was sheriff after 
the death of his brother John. The statements about this Sir 
Andrew and his descendants are rather incorrect; it was to him 
that the pension of 132Z. was granted by Charles II. He was 
executor of his father Sir William, and had in 1681 a parlia- 
mentary protection against arrest by the creditors. His own 
fortune was lost by a large loan to the Earl of Morton on the 
security of a wadset over the lands of the Earldom of Orkney, 
but in 1695 after Sir Andrew's death the Earl's right to these 
lands was reduced, and neither interest nor principal paid. Sir 
Andrew in his petition to Parliament speaks of utter ruin, po- 
verty, and imprisonment. Besides the sons mentioned he had 

yi. Andrew, an advocate, who in 1683 married the Honour- 
able Clara Ruthven, daughter and heir of James Baillie second 
Lord Forrester by Lady Jean Euthven his second wife daughter 
and cohsir of Patrick Earl of Forth and Brentford, but had no 

yi. Lewis, who was eventually heir of his father, is said to 
have been a captain in the army and afterwards Sir Lewis ( ?) . 
In 1698 he is designed Mr. Lewis Dick in his service to his 
brother Andrew, and I find no trace of knighthood. 


VII. Nicolas, only child of Captain George Dick, married 
William Hall, portioner of the Pleasance, Edinburgh. 

Sir Andrew Dick of Prestonfield, Baronet, married (VIII.) 
Janet Dick, heir-general of her great-grandfather Sir Andrew of 
Craighouse, and had only two daughters, of whom the last sur- 
vivor Miss Ann Dick received payment of the pension of 132/. 
up to the time of her death in 1845 at a very advanced age. 


V. William Dick of Grange, third son of Sir William of 
Braid, was a merchant in Edinburgh. The preface to the Liher 
Conventus S. Catherine Senensis contains notices of his property 
and of his wife's family. She is said by Sir Robert Douglas to 
be " descended of the ancient family of the Macmaths of that 

There never was such a family. The lady was one of two 
daughters and coheirs of Edward Macmath, a merchant-burgess 
of Edinburgh, and widow of Thomas Bannatyne, also a merchant- 

Three daughters of William Dick are given, but there was 
another named Elizabeth, who died unmarried. The peerage 
and the Records of the Family of Leslie make the Christian name 
of the eldest, who married James Leslie of Lumquhat, Janet, not 

VI. William Dick of Grange married twice into the noble 
fiimily of Leslie, his first wife being grand-daughter of Andrew 
Earl of Rothes, his second, grand-daughter of Patrick Lord 
Lindores, and both by the death of their brothers eventually 

Anne and Janet, children of the first, inherited the estates of 
Newton, Birkhill, &c. in Fifeshire, from their uncle John Leslie, 
and sold Newton in 1698 to the Countess of Rothes. Janet 
possessed Birkhill: her first husband Mungo Carnegie was a son 
of Sir Alexander Carnegie, of Pitarrow, Baronet. She married 
secondly Alexander Alison, W.S. and left her property to her 
stepson John Alison of Birkhill 

Catherine, only daughter of William Dick's second marriage, 


was in 1704 served heir of entail and provision general of her 
■uncle Colonel Sir James Leslie, married J. Christie of Newhall, 
and had issue. 

VII. William Dick of Grange died in 1757 leaving one child, 

VIII. Isabel Dick of Grange, who executed an entail of the 
estate immediately after her father's death, and died the following 
year. She married Sir Andrew Lauder of Fountainhall, Baronet, 
and was succeeded under the entail by her third son, who as- 
sumed the surname of Dick, but on inheriting the title and estate 
of his father's family became Sir Andrew Dick-Lauder. Grange 
remains in the possession of his great-grandson Sir Thomas 
North Dick-Lauder, Baronet. 

Heugh and Prestonfield. 

V. Mr. Alexander Dick of Heugh, fourth son of Sir William 
of Braid, is erroneously said to have been succeeded by his eldest 
son Sir James of Prestonfield. He was dead in 1663, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son Mr. William Dick, who was living in 
1687, when he was served heir general of his mother Helen, 
daughter of Sir James Rochead of Innerleith, Baronet. Heugh 
is in East Lothian, and formed part of the great estate of North 
Berwick, acquired in 1633 from Sir John Home by Sir William 
Dick at the price of 143,000 merks, and erected into a barony by 
crown charter in his favour 1634. 

VI. James the younger son was a wealthy merchant in Edin- 
burgh, acquired Prestonfield, Corstorphine, and other estates, of 
which he executed three several entails in 1699, 1710, and 1720. 
He was Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and was created a Baronet 
in 1677. Having no sons, he had a renewed patent in 1707, 
with remainder to his heirs of entail. Lady Dick was not a 
daughter of Paterson of Dunmure, but of a younger son of that 

VII. Janet Dick their only child, married Sir William Cun- 
ninghame of Caprington, co. Ayr, Baronet, and their second 
surviving son became — 

VIII. Sir William Dick, Baronet, of Prestonfield, in terms of 
the entail, and of the second patent of baronetcy. On his death. 

CONSUL (sill) JOHN DICK. 265 

without issue, in 1746, the title and estates passed to his younger 
brother Alexander Cuningharae of Clermiston, afterwards Sir 
Alexander Dick, Baronet, whose descendants are William Cath- 
cart Smith-Cunlnghame of Caprington, heir of line of Sir James 
Dick 1st Baronet, and Sir Kobert Keith Alexander Dick-Cunyng- 
ham of Prestonfield, Baronet, who recently sold the Corstorphine 
estate, heir male of Janet Dick, and heir of entail of Sir James 

Consul (Sie) John Dick. 

V. Louis, the youngest son of Sir William Dick of Braid, was 
great-grandfather of — 

YIII. John Dick, H. M. Consul at Leghorn. On the 14th 
March 1768, this person was served heir male before a jury at 
Edinburgh of Sir William Dick, and thereafter was generally 
styled a Baronet. This is one of the most singular assumptions 
that has ever taken place. No patent of baronetcy is recorded, 
or is in the possession of the family. Sir William Dick certainly 
was a man in public life in every sense of the word ; a wealthy 
banker, a large landowner, a Member of Parliament and of the 
Committee of Estates, his name is everywhere to be met witli, and 
occurs not less than ninety times in the acts of the Parliament of 
Scotland^ but never with the style of Baronet, nor is that style 
given to or assumed by his descendants for a hundred and 
thirteen years. The only authority given for the title is 
«' Cliamherlains State of Britain ;'' this work, the proper title of 
which is '^ The Present State of England,'" up to 1707, and after 
that " The Present State of Great Britain,'' was a publication 
commenced in 1667 by Edward Chamberlayne, and carried on 
by himself and his son John, not annually, but sometimes .at 
longer intervals, till 1755, containing lists of titles, and offices, 
and other matter. The editors no doubt fell unintentionally into 
the error, but their error confers no rights upon the persons 
whom it designates incorrectly. 

There was printed in London in 1656 The lamentable estate 
and distressed case of the deceased S"" William Dick in Scotland 
and his numerous famili/, and creditors for the Commonwealth. 


No style of Baronet here. This work, which is in folio, with 
illustrations, is now very rare and valuable, and has been sold at 
sums varying from 201. to 30Z. It is illustrated by three rather 
well-executed engravings. The first represents Sir William on 
horseback at the head of a company of foot-soldiers in 1640, ap- 
parently engaged on the siege of a fortified place; the second 
shews him a prisoner for debt seated in chains with several 
members of his family surrounding him, the women and children 
in tears; the third gives a view of his dead body lying in a coffin 
but unburied. The petition of his family states that it so re- 
mained for upwards of six months, and that his children and 
grandchildren fifty in number had only been saved from starvation 
by the goodness of the Lord Protector in granting them some 
small help. There is always some difficulty in proving a negative, 
so I shall quote three formal documents in which Sir William 
Dick is designed Knight after the date of the alleged patent of 

1. A letter dated at St. Andrew's 12 Dec. 1645 from the Par- 
liament of Scotland signed by the Earl of Crauford-Lindsay the 
President and addressed " To our assured Friend Sir William 
Dick of Braid, Knight," in which his services to his country are 
acknowledged, and a promise is made that all possible means shall 
be used to obtain money, and give him satisfaction. 

2. An assignation 21 April 1646 by Captain Louis Dick, in 
which he designs himself '' law full sonne to S^' Will: Dicke of 
Bread, Knight." 

3. A Petition presented to the Parliament of England in 1656 
by the family and creditors " of the late deceased Sir William 
Dick in Scotland, Knight." 

(Sir) John Dick was much blamed for the share he took in the 
scheme by which Count OrlofF entrapped by a pretended mar- 
riage and carried off from Leghorn in 1771 a beautiful adventu- 
ress who styled herself Princess Tarakanoff, and claimed to be a 
child of the Empress Elizabeth of Russia and Alexis Count 
Razumouski, to whom H. I. M. was privately married. The 
consul died without issue in 1805; another is added to the many 
errors in circulation as to the Dick family by Playfair in his 
British Family A^itiquity and by Anderson in the Scottish Nation 


styling him a Knight of the Bath, an honour never conferred on 
Mr. Dick. 

Having cleared off all the younger members of Sir AYilliam 
Dick's family, I now return to the ancestor of the present repre- 

VI. Captain Andrew Dick was appointed by commission 
dated 30th July 1669 Steward Principal and Chamberlain of 
Orkney and Shetland ; he is in this document called son of the 
late ]\Ir. John Dick fiar of Braid. He sat in Parliament for the 
shire in 1678; married Francisca Nairne, and was alive in 1700, 
when as grandson of Sir William of Braid he petitioned Parlia- 
ment for a protection. In 1672 his elder brother William made 
over to him the seat in the Cathedral of St. Magnus acquired by 
their father. 

VII. William Dick of Frackafield near Lerwick in Shetland 
was baptised at Kirkwall 1679, November 5th, his father being 
still steward of Orkney. His son 

VIII. Eobert Dick of Frackafield became head of the family, 
and presented a petition to the King in council praying for pay- 
ment of the debts due to his ancestor Sir William. He married 
Jane Dickson, and left a son 

IX. Charles Dick, of Frackafield, who succeeded to the estate, 
which was of no great value, heavily encumbered, and in 1770 
his father's creditors instituted proceedings against him and 
obtained a decree of ranking and sale 19th July, in terms of 
which Frackafield was sold in 1774. During the lifetime of 
Consul Dick Mr. Charles Dick and his father seem to have taken 
no steps to establish their position, although they were aware 
that the Consul was a " usurper," and he is so styled in corre- 
spondence on the subject of the family rights. 

After (Sir) John's death without issue, however, J\Ir. Charles 
Dick in 1805 submitted a memorial to counsel with the view of 
being served heir male to Sir William, and one of his queries is 
as to the necessity of reducing the service carried through in 
1768 by Mr. John Dick. After the sale of the property Charles 
Dick lived in London. He married Martha Monto:omerie 11 
Oct. 1760, and had William born 8 Dec. 1765; and Page Keble 
born 29 Sept. 1769. 


X. Major William Dick, late of the Hon. East India Com- 
pany's Service, was served heir male of his ancestor Sir William 
of Braid 15 Jan. 1821, and thereafter styled himself a Baronet- 
The evidence in support of his descent is satisfactory. It 
included the inventory of titles of Frackafield dated 21 July, 
1774, and signed by Thomas Miller, Lord Justice Clerk of 
Scotland, whicli proves the pedigree from Captain Andrew Dick 
to Charles last of Frackafield inclusive. Major Dick died 17 
Dec. 1840, and was succeeded by his brother 

X. (Sir) Page Keble Dick of Port Hall, near Brigliton, who 
married Nancy daughter of Kichard Partridge of Birmingham, 
and died in 1851 leaving an only son 

XL (Sir) Charles William Hockaday Dick, born in 1802, who 
according to Walford's County Families is sixth Baronet, the 
title having been created in 1638. Douglas's Baronage gives 
no date of creation. Debrett's Bai^onetage 1873 gives 1642 as 
the year of creation, and makes Sir Charles tenth holder of the 
title. According to Dod's Peerage and Baronetage for the current 
year he is the fourth Baronet in enjoyment of the honour, but 
eighth in order of succession. Lodge agrees with Debrett as to 
the date of creation. Burke's P^era^e does not admit notices of this 

A short time ago a paragraph in the "Morning Advertiser" 
on A Pauper Baronet stated that Sir Charles Dick is "in 
such poverty that he has long supported himself by acting as 
custodian to the Brighton Museum, and now in extreme old age 
is entirely destitute, — unable to do more than keep the sticks and 
umbrellas of visitors at the door of the gallery.'-' 

This having been copied into the '^ Edinburgh Courant '^ of 
2nd March, attracted the attention of the Prestonfield family, 
and on the 12th that paper contained a letter from the law 
agents of Sir Robert Dick Cunyngham, which does not throw 
much light on any part of the subject. They believe in the 
existence of a baronetcy, are ignorant of the service in 182 1, and 
give a wrong date for that of the Consul. 

There were published at Brighton in 1864 two pamphlets: 
Particulars of the Claims of Sir Charles W. H. Dich^ Baronet^ 
on Her Majestyh Government for 52,41 8 Z. 125. 4c^. and 132/. 

(sir) CHARLES DICK. 269 

per Annum and the Restoration of 16,000 Acres of Land (the 
land, I presume, is to be looked for in Nova Scotia); Personal 
Particulars of the Claims of Sir Charles W. H. Dick, Baronet^ 
on Her Majesty's Government for 8 3, 98 8 Z. 125. 4c?. 

(Sirj Charles Dick does not seem to possess the financial skill 
of another " claimant " whose name has recently been constantly 
before the public, but surely Government could not be blamed if 
some provision were made, even at this date^ for the descendant 
of one who was ruined by his trust in the good faith of the 
authorities of his time. g * * * 


Human Longevity, its Facts and its Fictions, including an Inquiry into some of the 
more remarkable instances, and suggestions for testing reputed cases : illustrated 
by examples. By William J. Thoms, F.S.A. Deputy Librarian, House of Lords. 
London: John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1872. 12mo. pp. xii. 320. 

Few creeds or superstitions have attained a greater share of credu- 
lity than that of which the volume before us is the subject : -syhether 
this has arisen from the hopeful clinging to life which is part of our 
instinctive being, — from the admiration and respect, or at least com- 
passion, that venerable Old Age claims and wins, — or simply from 
that love of the marvellous that has so often lent a blind but willing 
faith to other miraculous and preternatural stories. Yet the fancy 
is opposed to every rational conclusion of the naturalist and physical 
philosopher, not merely in the advanced science of a Buffon or our 
own Owen, but even if we go back to the observations of centuries 
long past, when the royal psalmist David declared that the ordinary 
age of mankind was three-score years and ten, and when the writer 
of the Book of Ecclesiasticus remarked that " The number of a man's 
days are at most one hundred years." (xviii. 9.) 

Some men are so strong that they reach four-score years ; and 
more perhaps now than in former ages, from the increased comforts 
of advanced civilisation and the improvements of medical science. 
Even that period may be extended, in a calm and undiseased condition, 
to ninety, or a hundred ; but, if any reach one hundred and five, it is 
indeed one in the thousand, or one in a thousand times that number. 

Yet such, as we have said, has been the credulity, first of gossips, 

270 HUMAN longevity: 

then of newsmongers, and lastly of chroniclers and historians, that 
scarcely a year has elapsed since all these propagators of information 
have been at work, and in communication, in which several instances 
have not been placed upon record of deaths approaching or exceeding 
120 years. 

Finding that Naturalists and Physiologists, even of the highest 
qualifications, have been too ready to accept the stories thus presented 
to them, and thereon to build theories which such stories if well- 
founded might reasonably justify, Mr. Thoms detemiined to undertake 
the investigation of this subject in the true spirit of historical inquiry, 
requiring such proof as lawyers and historians are accustomed to 
require. In this task he has now proceeded for several years, and 
after various occasional essays in Notes and Queries, in The Times, and 
other periodical publications, he produces the book before us, con- 
taining the result of his researches up to the present stage of the 

The three most extraordinary cases that have attained currency and 
belief among the " Annals of Longevity " in our own country are 
those of — 

Died 1604, The Countess of Desmond . 140 years. 
„ 1635, Thomas Parr . . 152 „ 

„ 1670, Henry Jenkins . . 169 „ 

Each of these has been adopted, and sanctioned it may be said, 
though improperly, by monumental evidence : the Countess, by a 
portrait now at Muckross Abbey, claiming (in its inscription) to have 
been painted in 1614 (really nine years after her death), Parr by his 
epitaph in Westminster Abbey, and Jenkins by a posthumous monu- 
ment erected in 1743. 

Mr. Thoms devotes successive chapters of his book to the examina- 
tion of these three cases. 

The Countess of Desmond was first made famous from a passage in 
Sir Walter Ptaleigh's History of the World (1614) : 

I myself knew the Old Countess of Desmoad of Inchiquin, in Munster, who lived 
in the year 15S9, and many years since, who was married in Edward IV.'s time, and 
held her jointure from all the Earles of Desmond since then : and that this is true 
all the noblemen and gentlemen of Munster can witnesse. 

And again in the Itinerary of Fynes Moryson (1617) : 
In our time the Irish Countesse of Desmond lived to the age of about 140 yeeres, 
being able to go on foote foure or five miles to the market towne, and using weekly so 
to do in her last yeeres ; and not many yeeres before she died she had all her teeth 


Upon these two passages all subsequent acconnts of the Old 
Countess, from Lord Bacon and Archbishop Usher down to the days 
of Pinnock's Catechisms and Penny Cyclopedias, have been founded, 
with various imaginary embellishments : of which the most ornamental 
are derived from the Historic Doubts of Horace Walpole and the 
poetry of Thomas Moore. 

Such popular writers sail down the stream of " the romance of 
history " in a way too imposing to be withstood by the patient in- 
vestigator of truth. The facts, however, which have been ascertained 
regarding the old Countess of Desmond are simply these : — She was 
Katharine, daughter of Sir John FitzGerald, of the Decies branch of 
the Fitz Geralds, by Ellen, daughter of the White Knight. Her 
husband was Sir Thomas of Desmond, who became Earl of Desmond 
in 1529 : her husband's former wife. Gyles or Shela, was living in 
1505,^ and most probably for some years longer. Therefore the mar- 
riage of the Old Countess did not take place until long after the 
death of King Edward IV. ; nor perhaps her birth either — her dancing 
with Pichard Duke of Gloucester being nothing but an imaginative 

^ Mr. Thorns has quoted (p. 96) a paper on the Old Countess of Desmond, com- 
municated by Mr. John Gough Nichols to the 51st volume of The Dullin Review, 
Feb. 1862 (an abstract of which, also by Mr. Nichols, will be found in Notes and 
Queries, III. i. 301), and (p. 100) he remarks, that " Mr. Nichols shows most clearly 
(p. 69) that in 1528, the ticentieth of Henry VIII., forty-five years after the death of 
Edward IV., she was not married." Unfortunately, Mr. Thorns has overlooked a 
correction of this statement, made by the Marquess of Kildare in Notes and Queries^ 
III. i. 377, viz. that the record upon which Mr. Nichols relied, relative to " Gyles 
ny Cormyk, wyfe to Sir Thomas of Desmond,'" the Earl's former wife, belongs to 
20 Hen. VII. (1505) instead of 20 Hen. VIII. (The passage was afterwards pub- 
lished in fac-simile in the Kilhertmj Archceological Journal.) Mr. Nichols acknow- 
ledged this correction (ibid. p. 377), but remarked, that, though the Earl was fifty- 
one in 1505, his second countess was probably very much younger, particularly as 
she became a mother. If she was five-and-twenty at her husband's death in 1537, 
which is very possible, she w^ould be 92 at her death in 1604, instead of 1-iO. Her 
husband was, perhaps, nearly fifty years her senior. 

The late Richard Sainthill, of Cork, who had previously written on The Old 
Countess of Desmond, and pursued his inquiries with more zeal, perseverance, and 
liberality than with the best judgment, would not relinquish his early adherence to 
her longevity, and, even after all the investigation that has been above described, 
endeavoured to maintain his view in a book, entitled *' The Old Countess of Des- 
mond : An Inquiry (concluded), When was she married?" (8vo. 1863.) We have 
again read this over ; but have gathered no additional information. She could not 
have been married until her predecessor was dead or divorced : and when either 
event happened is not known. But she was married at an age sufficiently early to 
give birth to a daughter of her own name, afterwards the wife of Philip Barry Oge. 

272 HUMAN longevity: 

embellishment given to the story by Horace Walpole. So far Sir 
Walter Ealeigh was wrong; but, as her husband died in 1537, she 
might well be called The Old Countess when Sir Walter Raleigh 
saw her in 1589, having then been a widow for fifty-two years, during 
which time three subsequent Earls of Desmond had lived and died.^ 
Her death took place in 1604: but not^ upon any good evidence, by 
" falling from a cherry-tree ! " as was sung by Tom Moore. She had 
then actually passed a widowhood of sixty-seven years : but what may 
have been her age on her bridal day will perhaps never be more nearly 
ascertained than by the particulars now collected. 

Of the " Old, Old, very Old man Thomas Parr," there is a poetical 
life by Taylor the Water-Poet, of which Mr. Thorns gives a reprint in 
his appendix. Its incidents, however, must be regarded as purely 
poetical : and the little that is actually known of Thomas Parr is 
comprised in the following passage, which introduces the rej^ort made 
upon an autopsy of the aged man's corpse by the great William 
Harvey : 

Thomas Parr, a poor countryman, born near Winnington, in the county of Salop, 
died on the 14th of November, in the year of grace 1635, after having lived one 
hundred and fifty-two years and nine months, and survived nine princes. This poor 
man having been visited by the illustrious Earl of Arundel, when he chanced to have 

It should, however, in justice to the researches of Mr. Saintliill, be mentioned, 
that the addition made to the Countess of Desmond's history in Sir W. Temple's 
Essay on Health and Long Life, that the ruin of the House of Desmond leduced her 
to poverty, and obliged her to take a journey to London to solicit relief at court " at 
a time she was above a hundred and forty," is satisfactorily explained and accounted 
for by several documents which INIr. Sainthill procured from the State Paper Office, 
and printed at length ; as they prove that anecdote really belongs to a subsequent 
Countess of Desmond, Elenor, widow of the rebel Earl ; which unfortunate lady 
came to supplicate Queen Elizabeth in the year 1587, and obtained a pension of 
200/. Mr. Thorns in his introductory remarks on the Old Countess (p. 95) seems to 
have intended to introduce some mention of this important discovery by his allusion 
to Les Souvenirs de la Marquise de Crequi, 1710 — 1800, the compiler of which formed 
" his supposed Centenarian memoir- writer " by starting with the birth of one Mar- 
quise and ending with the death of another ; but, from some accident, Mr. Thoms 
has omitted any notice of Elenor Countess of Desmond. 

' James, the thirteenth Earl, died 1537 (not 1535, as in Lodge's Peerage of Ire- 
land, edit. Archdall, i. 71); James, the 14th, in 1558 ; and Gerald, the 15th, in 
1583. having been attainted in 1582. It will be seen that the Peerage incorrectly 
makes another Earl^ John (ob. 1536), in consequence of the error in date above 


business in those parts (his lordship being moved to tlie visit by the fame of a thing 
so incredible), was brought by him from the country to London ; an 1, having been 
most kindly treated by the Earl, both on the journey and during a residence in his 
own house, was presented as a remarkable sight to his Majesty the King. 

Dr. Harvey attributed the death of this prodigy, so soon, as it may 
be said, after its discovery, to the change made in the old man's habits 
of life, and it is obvious that this view was correct : — 

The cause of death seemed fairly referrible to a sudden change in the non-naturals ; 
the chief mischief being connected with the change of air, which through the whole 
course of life had been inhaled of perfect purity, — light, cool and mobile, whereby the 
prtecordia and lungs were more freely ventilated and cooled ; but in this great advan- 
tage, in this grand cherisher of life, this City is especially destitute ; a City whose 
grand characteristic is an immense concourse of men and animals, and where ditches 
abound, and filth and offal lie scattered about, to say nothing of the smoke engen- 
dered by the general use of sulphureous coal as fuel, whereby the air is at all times 
rendered heavy, but more so in the autumn than at any other season. [^Such vxis 
London in 1635, just one generation before the Great Plague of 1665.] Such an at- 
mosphere could not have beeii found otherwise than insalubrious to one coming from 
the open, sunny, and healthy region of Salop ; it must have been especially so to one 
already aged and infirm. 

And then for one hitherto used to live on food unvaried in kind, and very simple 
in its nature, to be set at a table loaded with a variety of viands, and tempted not 
only to eat more than wont, but to partake of strong drink, it must needs fall out that 
the functions of all the natural organs would become deranged. 

8o " the old, old, very old man " was quickly killed with kindness, 
and most honourably buried in the south transept of Westminster 
Abbey, where his gravestone (recently recut by order of the present 
Dean,) records him as having been born in a° 1483, and to have 
lived to the age of " 152 yeares." As it happens, the register of the 
Abbey contains no record of his interment : neither does the register 
of Alberbury, the parish of his birth, mention any of his family. Mr, 
Thoms has made every possible inquiry in Shropshire for authentic 
facts as to Parr, but has discovered none. There are repeated state - 
ments of his posterity having also, in various instances, attained very 
extraordinary ages ; but they must be all false if Mr. Thoms is correct 
in adopting the conclusion (p. 92) that " Parr left no children." 
Such, indeed, is the testimony of the account of him written whilst he 
was still " on exhibition " at Arundel House in the Strand, to the 
effect that all his issue had died in infancy: 

He hath had two children by his first wife, a son and a daughter. The boy's name 
was John, and lived but ten weeks ; the girl was named Joan, and she lived but 
three weeks. (Introduction to the poetical life of The Old, Old^ Very Old Man, by 
John Taylor, 1635.) 


274 HUMAN longevity: 

The reputed age of Henry Jenkins far exceeded that attributed to 
Thomas Parr, or indeed to any other Englishman. When examined 
at a trial at Catterick on the 15th April, 1667, he was described as 
" Henry Jenkins of Ellerton upon Swaile, in the county of York, 
labourer, aged one hundreth fifty and seaven, or thereabouts;" and to 
a lady named Ann Savile, who wrote down what he told her/ he 
" said to the best of his remembrance he was about 162 or 163." 

The current traditions about Henry Jenkins are collected in a 
pamphlet, entitled '' Evidences of the great age of Henry Jenkins, 
with notices respecting longevity and long-lived persons. Richmond : 
printed by John Bell, Finkle Street. 1859. 8vo. pp. 32." His 
deposition when he declared himself to be about 157 in 1666-7 was 
published in Part II. of The Yorkshire Archceological and Topogra- 
phical Journal, 1869, in " A Notice of Henry Jenkins, the Yorkshire 
Centenarian : by the Rev. James Raine, M.A. Canon of York." 

The marvels of Jenkins's story, — that he had carried arrows to 
Northallerton at the time of the battle of Flodden, that he had been 
butler to Lord Conyers before the Reformation, and remembered the 
Abbot of Fountains often drinking with his lord heartily, &c. &c. 
rest, as Mr. Thoms remarks, entirely upon his own relation to Miss 
Savile. They are paralleled again and again by more recent im- 
postures ; yet, when the Royal Society had placed its Imprimatur upon 
them, at the suggestion of Dr. Robinson, " a distinguished naturalist 
and court physician " (Bell's Evidences, &c. p. 14), it is not wonderful 
that the good people of Yorkshire, " proud (remarks Mr. Thoms,) as 
they justly are of everything connected with their county," deter- 
mined, some seventy years after the death of Henry Jenkins, to make 
boast of him as a compatriot. By public subscription an obelisk was 
erected at his grave, in the churchyard of Bolton on Swale, and a 
black marble tablet was placed in the church, which bears a grandi- 
loquent inscription written by Dr. Thomas Chapman, Master of Mag- 
dalen College, Cambridge.2 Jenkins " had this justice done his memory 
1743," quoth Dr. Chapman ; but we should say that strict justice 

» A narrative originally communicated to the Royal Society by Dr. Tancred Robin- 
son in 1696, and printed in The Philosophical Transactions, vol. xix. ; reprinted in 
Mr. Thoms's Appendix, p. 288. Mr. Thoms (p. 68) says, " It is believed, on 
reasonable grounds, to have been written about 1662 or 1663 ;" but as all the particu- 
lars are so shifting in date, and so illusory, we should place it more probably between 
1667, the date named in the text, and the death of Jenkins, Dec. 6, 1670. 

2 Joseph Taylor's Annals of Health and Long Life, 1818, p. 69. Mr. Thoms 
(p. 79) prints the epitaph, but without giving the name of its author. 


has not been awarded him until just one hundred and thirty years 
later. It is not to be passed unnoticed that the contemporary vicar 
of Catterick, the very Charles Anthony in whose favour Jenkins 
appeared as a witness in 1667, and whom Canon Eaine characterises 
as a '' strict, exact man, and evidently a very careful parish priest," 
left no authority in his register for the monstrous fable that afterwards 
passed the coinage of the Master of Magdalen : he simply recorded 
Jenkins and his wife in the following entries : 

1667-8, Jan. 27. Margaret, wife of Henry Jenkins, of Ellerton, buried. 
1670, Dec. 9. Henry Jenkins, a very aged and poore man, of Ellerton, buried. 

Mr. Thoms has thoroughly unmasked two recent impostors ; the 
one, Thomas Geeran, who died in the Infirmary of the Brighton 
Union Oct. 28, 1871 ; and the other, Lieut. Frederick Lahrbush, 
who died, we believe, in 1872, if he be not still living. 

Thomas Geeran claimed to be 106 ; and had long traded on the 
benevolence of credulous people at Brighton, where his life and photo- 
graph were published. With great pains and perseverance Mr. 
Thoms has ascertained that this old scoundrel was really identical 
with Michael Gearyn, a native of the county Kerry, who enlisted in 
the 71st Foot March 3, 1813, then stating his age to be twenty-five. 
He deserted on the 10th of the following month, so that all the tales 
of his services from 1799 to 1819 were barefaced lies; and his age 
at his death, so far from being 105 or 106, was only about 83. (pp. 

The career of Frederick Lahrbush is still more disgraceful, be- 
cause passed by a man of a higher grade in society, and one able to 
reap greater advantages from his false pretensions. He imposed upon 
the citizens of New York, who commemorated his supposed 104th 
birthday on the 9th March 1870, by a public breakfast; his 105th in 
1871, and again his 106th in 1872. His story was bolstered out by 
statements that he had entered the British Army on the I7tli Oct. 
1789, and served with the 60th Rifles for 29 years, when, after seeing 
much active service, and having been present on many memorable 
occasions, he sold out a Captain's commission in 1818. He said his 
birth had taken place in London on the 9th of March 1766. The 
facts proved to be, — that he was a born German ; that his name first 
appeared as an Ensign in the 60th Regiment in 1810 ; his Lieu- 
tenant's commission was dated Oct. 29 in that year; he never had a 
Captain's commission to sell, but, after only nine years' service, was 
cashiered as "Lieutenant De Lahrbusch, 60 F," (^Army List, 1819.) 

T 2 

276 HUMAN longevity: 

To those of our Transatlantic friends who have copies of the Histori- 
cal Magazine and American Notes and Queries for April 1867, we re- 
commend that thej make note of these facts opposite the article which is 
there inserted from the pen of General James Watts de Peyster, of Xew 
York, who was Lahrbnsh's leading dupe, and was induced to weave 
the German's lies into the narrative which is there published. (This 
investigation occupies Mr. Thoms's pp 207 — 224.) 

Another "old soldier" was "the Rev." George Fletcher of Poplar, 
reported in the weekly return of the Registrar- General to have died 
in Feb. 1855, at the age of 108 (see his portrait in The Illustrated 
London News for March 10 of that year). He was latterly a 
Methodist preacher : but had served in the 23rd Foot from Nov. 
1785 to March 1792, when he deserted, and in the ord Foot Guards 
from 1793 to 1803, when he was discharged. This man, among his 
imaginary achievements, had fought at Bunker's Hill, a battle ten 
years before his first enlistment, and when he was actually only eleven 
years old. At his discharge (his desertion having been condoned 
under the effect of a Royal Proclamation of Feb. 1803) he had the 
craft to represent his first term of service as fourteen instead of seven 
years, and to advance his age from thirty-seven to forty-nine. Those 
twelve years he retained to the end of his days, and thus an old man 
of 92 was converted into a Centenarian of 104 ! 

Another case which has been very anxiously if not thoroughly 
investigated is that of Robert Bowmax, of Irthington in Cumberland, 
who at his death in 1823 was regarded by the vicar of that parish as 
" aged 118 years," — who has a tombstone in the churchyard inscribed 

Robert Bowness, Yeoman, of Tollington, died 18th June, 1823, at the patriarchal 
age of 119 years. 

and to whose memory a stained glass window has been inserted in 
Irthington church by his youngest son. Bowman's story was first 
published in the Carlisle Patriot in 1817, six years before his death. 
Its truth was accepted by Dr. Barnes, " long the principal physician 
in Carlisle," who published an account of him in 1821, and again 
after his death in 182-1. The Rev. C. G. Vernon Harcourt, Canon 
of Carlisle, was indignant at Mr. Thoms's incredulity in this case, and 
brought forward a cloud of witnesses of the highest respectability and 
rank, who, like himself, had readily credited Dr. Barnes. Mr. Sidney 
Gilpin, a surgeon of Carlisle, at Mr. Thoms's suggestion, inquired 
into the case with much perseverance, and at last, to Mr. Thoms's 
surprise, expressed his belief in the man's asserted age. But Mr. 


Thorns, who has been taught greater critical caution by his many- 
experiences, remarks that, '^ so far from confirming or establishing 
the identity of the Eobert Bowman baptized at Hay ton in the year 
1705 with the Robert Bowman who died at Irthington in 1823, the 
evidence adduced by Mr. Gilpin seems to have a directly opposite 
tendency." Had they been one person, the same register would have 
contained the baptism also of his brother ^ Thomas, who died in 1810, 
and was supposed to have been then either 99 or 101. Further, the 
fact (recorded on the tombstone) that Robert Bowman's eldest son 
died in 1844, aged 84, having therefore been born in 1760, makes it 
improbable that the father had entered the world so long before as 

Several other modern instances of asserted Longevity are treated 
by Mr. Tlioms more summarily but not less successfully. We can 
only briefly recapitulate them : 

Date of Death : 

1860. Mary Downton, of Allington, Devon not 106, but 100. 

1862. John Pratt, of Oxford"^ „ 106. 

1863. Mary Billinge,3 of Liverpool „ 112, „ 91. 

1868. Richard Purser, of Cheltenham ...- ... certainly not 112, 

1869. Maudit (or Matthew) Baden, of Wilcot, Wilts not 106^. 

„ (then living). Jonathan Rf eves, of Bath ... 

1870. Mary Hicks, of Isleworth, Middlesex 
,, George Smith, of Ashtead, Surrey 

1871. George Brewer, of Portsea 
,, Edward Court, of Torpoint 

„ John Dawe (called Day), of Quethiock, Cornwall, not 108 to 116, 
„ Robert Howlison, of West Linton, co. Peebles ... ... 103, not proven. 

1872. William Bennett, of Inchicore, Ireland... ... ... not 105, but 95. 

,, Joshua Miller, of Morpeth ... ... ... ... „ 111, ,, 90 

Chapter ix. contains four cases of Centenarianism — and no more, 
which are admitted, after his customary inquiries, by our scrupulous 

' This is a good and useful test, — to identify not only the christian names of parents, . 
but the actual families of their children. It was sagaciously suggested by Mr. Newton, 
of Liverpool, in the case of'Mary Billinge : " The proper plan, it appears to me, to prove 
or disprove the correctness of these dates would be to ascertain whether entries corre- 
sponding to the names of her sister and brother appear also in the register at the cor- 
responding dates ; and with the names oithe same parents.'''' (p. 110.) 

2 A Life of Pratt, "now in his 106th year," was published by Mr. Tyerman, a 
medical practitioner at Oxford. 

'^ The tombstone of this wonderful old woman in Toxteth Park Cemetery still re- 
cords that she was 112 years and 6 months. Her case occupies Mr. Thorns, pp. 
34-38, 105-113. 

104, , 

, 80 

104, , 


105, , 


106, , 


no, , 

, 95 

116, „ 



Author. It will be interesting to state, in a summary way, some of the 
leading particulars which Mr. Thorns has collected respecting them. 

Mrs. Jane Williams, of Bridehead in Dorsetshire, who died in the 
year 1841, was the youngest daughter of Francis Chassereau, esq. of 
Marylebone, who came to this country at the age of 14, from Niort 
in France, on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. She was bom 
in Long Acre on the 13th Nov. 1739, and baptized the next day in 
the church of St. Martin's in the Fields. On the 27th Oct. 1764 she 
was married to Robert Williams, esq. the banker, for many years 
M.P. for Dorchester : he died in 1814, at the age of seventy-nine. In 
1820 she was couched for cataract in both eyes by Alexander the 
celebrated oculist, and perfectly restored to her sight. Several speci- 
mens of her subsequent handwriting are preserved. In her 90th year 
she, as a sponsor, held a great-grandchild at the font ; and when in 
her 93rd she returned thanks, even standing, to her grandson's 
tenantry when he attained his majority. Still later, she presided at 
the breakfast-table, and performed many domestic duties. She died 
at Bridehead Oct. 8, 1841, being then within a month of 102, and 
having retained her memory to the last. The inscription to her 
memory, which was written by her son-in-law the Rev. John William 
Cunningham, — himself for fifty years the well-known Vicar of Harrow, 
—is printed in the new edition of Hutchins's History of Dorsetshirej 
but we are sorry to find in an abridged form. 

Mr. William Plank, for 56 years an inhabitant of Harrow, in 
Middlesex, was the son of James and Hannah Plank of Wandsworth ; 
where he was born on the 7th Nov. 1767, and baptized ten days after. 
For a year he was a schoolfellow of the late Lord Lyndhurst, at the 
school of Mr. W. Franks, in Clapham. He was bound apprentice to 
an elder brother, a calico-printer, at Salters' Hall, March 22, 1782 ; 
admitted to the livery of that Company in 1789 ; was for many years 
the " Father " of the Salters' Company, and probably also the 
'^Father" of the City of London. He died at Harrow Nov. 19, 
1867, having survived his century eighteen days. 

Mr. Jacob William Luning is, after all, the oldest veritable cen • 
tenarian that Mr. Thoms is able to present to us : and even he is only 
a naturalised, not a native-born, Englishman. He was born at Hamel- 
vorden, in Hanover, May 19, 1767, the son of the resident clergyman, 
Meinhard Conrad Luning. Through his mother Magdalena Dorothea 
(nee) Pratje, he is said to have descended from Christina si§ter to 


Martin Luther. He married at SiDakling in Lincolnshire, xVngust 4, 
1796, Eleanor daughter of Captain Sands, and by her he had fifteen 
children. From 1790 to 1858 he was engaged in subordinate mer- 
cantile duties in the city of London, and in 1859 he was elected a 
member of Morden College, Blacldieath ; where he died June 23, 1870, 
aged 103 years, 1 month, and 4 days : 

— and then came out a piece of evidence of the most conclusive kind, namely, that at 
the age of 36 he had insured his life in the Equitable. No man ever makes himself 
older than he is when effecting an insurance, and few live seventy-seven years after 
it The bonuses had raised his original policy of 200/. to 1,292/. ^O*. 

Mrs. Catherine Duncombe Shafto, of Whitworth Park, Durham, 
was born Feb. 10, 1771, and ba^Dtized on the following day at St. 
Andrew's Auckland, being the third daughter of Sir John Eden, of 
Windleston, Bart, by his second wife Dorothy, only daughter of Peter 
Johnson, esq. of York. She was married, in 1802, to Robert Eden 
Duncombe Shafto, esq who was M.P. for the city of Durham in 
1804-9, and died in 1848, aged 72 She had five sons and one 
daughter, her eldest son being Robert Dmicombe Shafto, esq. formerly 
M.P. for the Northern Division of the county. She died at Whit- 
worth Park, March 19, 1872, aged 101 years, 1 month, and 9 days: 
having always enjoyed perfect health and unimpaired intellectual 

It will be observed that these examples are from the higher walks 
of society, and it strikes us that, after all, there may be more real, 
though less imaginary, longevity in that position. As he has 
dissected without mercy the old soldiers and vagabonds, may we not 
invite Mr. Thoms to investigate with similar historical care the 
instances on record of persons of superior rank ? He has noticed 
scarcely any of the last century : except that incidentally (p. 49) a 
remarkable rectification occurs as to Charles Macklin, the well- 
known comedian : to whom there is a tablet in the church of St. 
Paul, Covent Garden, recording his death at the age of 107 years ! 
In 1859 his coffin-plate came to light, to contradict the monument, 
for it was inscribed " Mr. Charles Macklix, Comedian, died 11 July, 
1797, aged 97 years." This is a correction for Peter Cunningham's 
HandhooTc of London, and several manuals of biography. 

It was once said, by Sir R. Baker in his Chronicle, and by his 
copyists, that Sir William Powlet, the first Marquess of Win- 
chester, and Lord Treasurer, had lived for more than 106 years and 
three quarters ; but his age is more correctly stated at 97 by Camden, 
and by Fuller in his Worthies. 


Henry Hastings, of Woodlands in Dorsetshire, the eccentric scion 
of the Huntingdon family in the seventeenth century, has had his life 
prolonged to 110;^ but his epitaph at Horton in Dorsetshire shows 
that he died in 1650, aged 99.2 

Dr. William Mead, a physician, died at Ware, Oct. 28, 1652, it 
is said,"* " at the astonishing age of one hundred and forty-eight years 
and nine months."' How is this story to be met ? and what is to be 
said of Hamond Lestrange, esq. ob. 1756, set. 107; Mrs. Lowther, 
ob. 1757, ^t. 106 ; George Kirton, esq. ob. 1764, ast. 125; and the 
Hon. Mrs. Watldns,^ ob. 1790, set. 110? Or again of the Cardinal 
de Salis, Archbishop of Seville, ob. 1785, set. 110 : whose history, 
from his exalted rank, must surely be well known. There is also an 
Hiberno-SjDanish General, Don Carlos Felix O'Neile, said to have 
died in 1791, at the age of 110, and of whom a biief biography is 
given in Easton's Health and Longevity/, 1823, p. 118. 

To descend again to the lower rank of society, has Mr. Thoms ever 
inquired into the case of Phcebe Hessel ? It is one of great 
notoriety, from its being commemorated on a tombstone in Brighton 
churchyard, which asserts that she was born at Stepney in 1713, 
served for many years as a foot-soldier, was wounded at the battle of 
Fontenoy in 1745, and, having lived long at Brighton, where she 
was relieved in her latter days by the bounty of King George IV. 
died on the 12th December, 1821, aged 108. There must be scores 
of books which retail this story; and, so far as appears, it is as yet 

These and other claimants for the glory of Longevity will no doubt 
start up, be supported by earnest advocates, and continue to give Mr. 
Thoms considerable trouble if he chooses to combat with them. At 
present he is immoveable from these " canons which may safely be 
laid down in cases of alleged Longevity ; namely, that when the 
sujDposed Centenarian is believed to be a hundred, or a year or two 
over, some error may not unreasonably be suspected; but when the 
age is extended beyond, say 106, error so certainly exists, that no 
trustworthy evidence can be produced in support of it." (p. 193.) 

' Taylor's Annals of Health and Long Life, 1818, p. 126. 

^ Nichols's Hist, of Leicestershire, vol. iii. p. 393 ; and Hutchins's Dorsetshire. 

3 Taylor's Annals of Health and Long Life, 1818, p. 64. 

* " The Hon. Mrs. Watkins of Glamorganshire." Of this lady wonderful anecdotes 
are related Ijoth in Taylor, p. 104, and Easton, p. 108: but we have not traced the 
claim she had to her titular distinction. 


The NoEFOLK Antiquarian Miscellany. Part I. (1873.) Edited by 
Walter Eye. (Issued to Subscribers only. Seven Shillings and Sixpence. 
One Hundred Copies only printed.) Norwich : Samuel Miller and Co. 
1873. 8vo. pp. 284. — This is a new undertaking, the conditions of which 
are explained upon its wrapper, of which we have now given a copy. Its 
contents consist i)artly of public records, partly of other historical docu- 
ments, and partly of genealogies. We will describe them in their sequence, 
and thereby we shall furnish an adequate idea of the very important mate- 
rials for the History of Norfolk and its families which are thus gathered 
together, and which only require the very complete indexes, which we 
hear are intended for Part II., to render them exceedingly useful to future 
writers on the antiquities of that County. 

1. A reprint of the Norfolk returns of the Liher Niger Scaccarii, 1166-7.^ 
This record was formed in 12 or 13 Henry 11. from the returns made by 
the King's tenants in chief, when they were required to contribute to the 
Aid then collected for the Marriage of the King's eldest Daughter. (See 
Thomas's Handbook to the Public Record Office, 1853, p. 168.) 

2. It is therefore an appropriate prelude to extracts from a record of the 
like character made for the Aid collected in 20 Edw. HI. on the occasion 
of Knighting the King's eldest son. These are arranged according to the 
thirty-two hundreds of Norfolk, and occupy pages 13-106. These extracts 
have been transcribed from The Book of Aids in the Public Record Office 
at the expense of John R. Daniel Tyssen, esq.' 

3. The Account of the Bursar of Hempton Priory for the year 1500-1, 
communicated by Mr. John L'Estrange. (Pp. 107-140.) 

4. Early Life in the Manor of Burnham, by Walter Rye. (Pp. 141—152.), 
Its materials are derived from court rolls. The following postscript 

1 There is considerable confusion in the literary Ustorij of this record, as stated in 
the introductory observations. It is remarked that " the Liher Niger Scaccarii has 
only been printed once, more than a hundred years ago : " and it is added in a note, 
" By Hearne. London, 1771." But it was in 1728 that the Liber Niger Scaccarii 
was first edited by Tom Hearne. who died in 1735. It was reprinted in 1771, 
" Londini, typis et impensis W. et J. Richardson:" with a supplement of Antient 
Charters and other Miscellaneous Pieces relating to the History and Antiquities of 
Great Britain, taken from original manuscripts and previously inedited. These 
occupy 108 pages, and are very "miscellaneous," quite after the fashion of Tom 
Hearne himself. The collector and editor was Sir Joseph Ayloffe, who had also 
superintended in the vear before a reprint of Hearne's edition of Leland's Collectanea, 
adding thereto a similar appendix. Sir Joseph also revised through the press the 
reprint of Hearne's Curious Discourses, 1771. 

=* Among Sir Joseph Ayloffe's additamenta to the 1771 edition of the Liher Niger 
Scaccarii are some documents relating to an Aid of this kind made so late as the year 
1609, on the Knighting of Henry Prince of Wales. They consist of the Instructions 
issued by the Privy Council to the Commissioners appointed to levy the Aid, and two 
documents respecting its collection in two of the Hundreds of Huntingdonshire. 


regarding the surnames of the inhabitants may be thought deserving of a 
wider circulation ; — 

A word or two as to the nomenclature of the villagers must close this short sketch 
of their history. Their names were, during the fourteenth [fifteenth?] century, 
obviously [in the process of] making from day to day, and many a family must have 
owed its patronymic to a hajjpy nickname flung at its progenitor by some local wit, 
and unanimously adopted by his neighbours. Like a chapter of The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress reads a roll which tells us of men called Goodheart, Hardy, Sincere, Turncoat, 
Dullman, Dearbought, Gathergood, Toogood, Goodcock, Piemaker, Freshbread,' 
Whitebread, Hardbeans, Makehaste, Drawsword, Wagpoll, Greenhood, Smoothhead, 
Newcomein, Truelove, Makemaiden, and Rake. Yet all these, and more of the same 
sort, were common names among the tenants of this manor. 

A very few were Norman,— Le Cursun, le Neve, Cressy, le Fevere, Bygot, and 
Maunvyle being all I can find ; while the majority of the remainder were Danish, as 
Haldeyn, Sweyn, Helkere, Alger, Thurkes, Thurloe,i Niker, Loker, Jennesson, 
Thomesson, &c. Hilda was long a common Christian name. (P. 156.) 

5. The Guilds of Lynne Regis. A valuable collection of documents 
relating to foundations of that class, which have recently received consider- 
able attention from various writers. IMr. Eye has ascertained that no less 
than seventy-five guilds existed at difierent times at Lynne, besides others 
in its suburbs, and doubtless more that are now wholly for^rotten 
(Pp. 153—183.) ° 

6. Traces of ISTorsk and Danish settlements in Norfolk : by Walter Rve 
(Pp. 184—194.) ^ ' 

7. The Strangers at Lynn in 1572; with notes by Stanley Edwards 
(Pp. 195-198.) 

8. JVIusters at Lynn in 1573 ; with notes by Stanley Edwards 
(Pp. 199—203.) 

9. An architectural description of Cromer Church,^ extracted from the 
notes and sketches made by the Rev. Thomas Kerrich in the years 1817, 
1821, and 1827, with notes and illustrations by Francis Rye. (Pp. 204-214.) 

1 Mr. Rye, we suppose, classes Thurloe as a Danish name from its being composed 
of the syllables Thur-low, the tumulus of Thur, Thor, or Thyr. He must be well 
aware— though he does not mention the fact to his readers-that it is the local 
name of two contiguous parishes, Great and Little Thurlow, in the county of Sufi-olk 
from whence the family will have been originally derived. The family of Thirlowe 
or Thurlowe were for many generations at Burnham, and Mr. Rye appends a 
series of extracts, extending from U Hen. VL to 15 Charles XL, relating to them 
as interestmg from their being - the ancestors of the Lord Chancellor " They will 
certainly improve the early genealogy of Thurlow in future Peerages, and they seem 
to show that the actual residence of the family, which Burke in his current Peerage 
repeatedly names as " Burnham Ulp," was really Burnham Thorpe 

^ See in our vol. vii. p. 70 our notice of Mr. AYalter Rye's Account of the Churches 
of Shipden and Cromer, 1870. Svo. 


10. Collections for a history of the Familt of Cubitt, of Norfolk; com- 
municated (in part?) by George Cubitt, Esq. M.P. (Pp. 215—266.) 

This article is introduced by the following observations, from the pen, as 
we presume, of the Editor : — 

It would perhapa be more correct to call the Cubitts a clan than a family, both 
from their being settled almost exclusively in East Norfolk, from their constant and 
and most perplexing intermarriages, and from their universal belief that all the 
Cubitts come of one race, and are akin to one another as well as united in friendship. 

Mr. Rye does not attempt to trace the origin of the name,' but we have 
little hesitation in pointing to Cowbit, a parish near Crowland in Lincoln- 
shire. He proceeds to say that " Comparatively numerous as they now are, 
the name occurs but very rarely in early Norfolk records." Before the 
fifteenth 2 century he has found it only in three instances : Robert Cobit — 
very like Cowbit — occurs in a plea roll 34 Hen. III.; Henry Cubyt in 56 
Hen. III.; and in 1381 a Cubit was one of the companions of John the 
Litester, and was killed by Bishop Spencer near Ickingham. In p. 237 he 
introduces another— John Kybyt, querent to a fine for Honing, 2 Ric. II. 
The name is again spelt Kybyt and Kubight at North Walsham in the 
reign of Henry VIII. (p. 243). 

The great increase of the name may fairly be attributed to the soundness of the 
stock, which is nearly always prolific — a Cubitt with a small family being quite the 
exception to the rule. That the stock is a good one, besides being fruitful, is suffi- 
ciently evidenced by the facts that, besides the doubtful honour of the ringleader in 
rebellion just referred to, the name has supplied several mayors of Yarmouth, who 
founded a numerous and wealthy family, and in the present generation a Mayor of 
London, and two M.P.'s, a very celebrated Engineer, and a well-known Agriculturist. 

The gentleman last alluded to is William Cubitt of Bacton Ahhey^ a farm 
in which his ancestors have been resident from the year 1703. Mr. Rye's 
account of this branch (p. 216) would bear amplification. 

George Cubitt, esq. of Catfield, the twentieth and youngest child of Ben- 
jamin Cubitt gentleman, of the same place (ob. 1762), became a Deputy 
Lieutenant of Norfolk, and died May 17, 1835. He had almost as nume- 
rous a family as his father, and his eighteen children with their alliances 

^ Lower is, as usual, when he has recourse to conjecture for his etymologies, not very 
happy as to Cubitt : — " I cannot explain this somewhat common and well-known sur- 
name, unless it be a diminutive or corruption of a personal name, which seems to be 
supported by the existence of the patronymical CuBisox. Jamieson has ' Cube, Cubic, 
probably the abbreviation of Cuthbert.' If this conjecture be correct, Cubitt and 
Cuthbert are most likely identical." Patronymica Britannica, p. 78. But Cuth- 
bert is decidedly of the North Country, Cubitt as we see of the Eastern counties of 
England. The abbreviation of Cuthbert really familiar in the North is Cuddy; while 
Cubison is perhaps a patronymic from Cobb, for the various interpretations of which 
see Lower. 

■2 Misprinted *' fourteenth." 


are all described (pp. 222—226). It seems that tlie gentleman who died in 
1762 acquired or assumed arms, but the person who copied them from the 
family monuments at Catfield gives but an imperfect blason in p. 224 : viz. 
A bent bow in pale with an arrow in fesse. No crest is mentioned, but we 
find in Washbourne's Book of Family Crests (edit. 1838) for Cubit and 
Cubitt of Norfolk, An arm in armour, enibowed, throwing an arrow. The 
arm alludes to the name, as do the two arms in the crest of Cubitt of Denbies 
(described hereafter), for English heralds have been accustomed to blason 
a human- arm (Lat. cubitus^ couped at the elbow as a cubit-arm. 

The Cubitts of Catfield, and those of Honing^ are among the families now 
set forth in Burke's Landed Gentry. 

The "very celebrated Engineer" will be generally recognised. His 
family had resided at Dilham at least from the reign of Henry VIII. when 
Clement Cubight occurs there in a subsidy roll 1546 (p. 227). Sir William 
Cubitt was the son of Joseph Cubitt, a miller at Bacton, (but of the 
Dilham family,) by Hannah Lubbock. He spent his early life with 
Messrs. Ransome the eminent agricultural implement makers at Ipswich ; 
and distinguished himself particularly as a millwright, which led to his 
well-known invention of the treadmill for criminal punishment. His 
most important engineering works were the navigation through Lake 
Lothing to Norwich, and the South Eastern Railway. In 1851 he 
superintended the construction of the Great Exhibition building in Hyde 
Park, and received the honour of Knighthood on that account. He was 
elected F.R.S.; died Oct. 13, 1861, aged 76;' and was buried at South 
Repps in Norfolk. Sir William Cubitt was twice married : first to Abigail 
Sparkhall of Taverham, daughter of Bower Sparkhall and Hannah Cubitt 
of Neatishead ; secondly to Jane Tiley, sister to Mr. William Tiley, 
brewer, of Reading. By his first wife he had issue one son, Joseph, and 
two daughters, Hannah- Sparkhall, married to the Rev. Richard Hamond 
Gwyn, Rector of South Repps in Norfolk, and died in the present year, 
leaving three sons and three daughters ; and Anne, married to the Rev. 
Corbould Warren, and died Oct. 20, 1864, leaving two sons and five 

Joseph Cubitt succeeded his father as Engineer of the South-Eastern 
Railway, and was F.R.S. He died Dec. 7, 1872, having married Ellen 
Moore, niece to Lady Cubitt ; by whom he has left issue one son, William, 
and two daughters, Grace, married to Captain Gordon, and Alice-Kate, 
married in 1865 to Sir Arthur William Mackworth, (6th) Bart, of Glenusk, 
CO. Monmouth, and has issue two sons and two daughters. 

Lady Cubitt (Sir William's second wife) died Feb. 10, 1863, having had 
issue only two children who died in their infancy. ' 

' There is a biographical memoir of Sir William Cubitt in the Gentleman 's Maga- 
zine for Nov. 1861, p. 577. 

* We have supplied the greater part of these particulars, in addition and correction 
to those stated by Mr. Rye. 


It is the Frettenham branch of the Cubitts which has produced (as IMr. 
Rye remarks,) a Lord Mayor of London and two Members of Parliament. 
It is conjectured that Mr. Thomas Cubitt who settled at Mayton hall, 
Frettenham, before 1677, may have been the youngest son of William 
Cubitt of Gimmingham, where there were some of the name at the close of 
the reign of Elizabeth. Jonathan Cubitt, formerly of Buxton in Norfolk, 
the great-grandson of Thomas above-named, removed to London, and died 
about 1806. He was the father of Thomas, William, and Lewis. The last- 
named was an architect of some celebrity. 

William Cubitt, born at Buxton, in 1791, was in early life for a short 
time in the navy, but subsequently joined in business with his younger 
brother Thomas in Gray's Inn Road. He was elected one of the Sheriffs 
of London and Middlesex 1847, Alderman of Langbourne Ward 1851, and 
he filled the office of Lord Mayor for two years, the latter that of the Great 
Exhibition. He was also President of St. Bartholomew's Hospital and 
Prime Warden of the Fishmongers' Company; and M.P. for Andover 1847 
— 1861. He died at Penton Lodge, near that town, Oct. 28, 1863, aged 72. 
He married in 1814 Elizabeth second daughter of Mr. William Scarlett: 
and she died in 1854, having had issue one son, Thomas, a scholar of Trinity 
college, Cambridge, who died unmarried in 1841, and five daughters. The 
latter are not named in the genealogy before us ; but we remember that 
one of them, Laura, is the widow of Sir Joseph Francis Olliffe, M.D. 
Physician to the British Embassy at Paris; Maria is the wife of Sir 
William Henry Humphery, Bart, late M.P. for Andover, second son of the 
late Alderman John Humphery, M.P. ; and Emma is the wife of John 
Humphery, esq. the elder brother of the Baronet. 

Thomas Cubitt, the eldest brother, was born at Buxton near Norwich, 
Feb. 25, 1788. After a voyage to India, he settled in London, and esta- 
blished the large and well-known workshops for carpentry in Gray's Inn 
Road. One of his first important buildings (commenced in 1815) was the 
London Institution in Moorfields. He afterwards became a builder on his 
own account at Islington, Barnsbury, and Highbury ; and, as tinie went on, 
a manufacturer of first-rate houses, on the most extensive scale, on the 
estates of the Duke of Bedford on the north side of London, the Marquess 
of W^estminster in Belgravia, and other large districts at Clapham Park in 
Surrey and Kemp-town near Brighton, as well as the humbler buildings, 
of Cubitt's-town in the Isle of Dogs. Finally, after having been employed 
at Buckingham Palace, he was not only the builder, but the designer and 
architect, of Her Majesty's marine palace at Osborne in the Isle of Wight. 
Having now reared, as the well-deserved reward of works so unprecedented 
and ad"v antageous to the community, a very large personal fortune, he pur- 
chased from Mr. Denison, formerly MP. for Surrey, the estate of Denbies 
near Dorking, and entirely rebuilt the mansion which there stands on a 
remarkable eminence, in a style much resembling that which he had pur- 


sued at Osborne. His great workshops near the Thames at Pimlico are 
now occupied as Government stores. 

Mr. Cubitt died at Denbies, Dec. 20, 1856, in his 68th year ; and a long 
memoir of him, compiled by his old friend the late John Britton, F.S.A. 
was published in the Gentleman's Magazine for the following February. 

Mr. Cubitt left three sons, 1. George Cubitt, esq. of Denbies, one of the 
present Members for West Surrey, who married in 1853 Laura daughter 
of the Rev. James Joyce, formerly Vicar of Dorking, and sister to the late 
Rev. William Henry Joyce, also Vicar of Dorking, by whom he has issue; 
2. William Cubitt, esq. of Fallapit House, co. Devon ; and 3. The Rev. 
Charles Cubitt, Vicar of Great Bourton near Banbury. Of his daughters, 
Mary is the wife of the Rev. Charles Parker, Vicar of Bodiam, Sussex, 
formerly Vicar of Ranmere near Dorking ; and Sophia was married in 
1853 to Edgar Alfred Bowring, esq. M.P. and C.B., fourth son of the late 
Sir John Bowring, F.R.S. and M.P. but died in 1857. Mr. Bowring was 
re-married in 1858 to Ellen, daughter of Lewis Cubitt, esq. of London and 

Mr. Cubitt of Denbies bears the same arms as his late uncle the Lord 

Ermine, a lion's head erased azure. Crest, a dexter and a sinister hand issuing 
from clouds combating with scymeters proper. 

11. The last article of this Miscellany is entitled Notes on the Early Pe- 
digree of Walpole of Houghton^ but it includes various detached notices of 
other persons of the name, and it appears to us by no means clear that all 
the persons so assembled together were of one race, or even from one 
locality. The compiler does not advert to the circumstance that, besides 
two contiguous parishes near Lynn in Norfolk, — Walpole St. Andrew's and 
Walpole St. Peter's, — there is also one of the same name in the county of 
Suffolk. So, those Walpoles who occur at London, where there was an 
eminent family of goldsmiths so named in the reigns of the Edwards, or in 
other parts of the country, may have come from any of the three parishes. 
One of the manors of the Norfolk Walpole was held before the Conquest 
by the Church of Ely, and the story is as old as Camden that it was given 
by its Saxon owner when he made a younger son, Alwin, a monk there.' 
The ancestors of the Earls of Orford were of Walpole St. Peter's, " as appears 
(writes Arthur Collins in his Peerage of 1741,) by antient charters in the 
custody of the Noble and Right Honourable Sir Robert Walpole, who, out 
of his great regard to literature, and to the memory of his ancestors, fa- 
voured me with the perusal of them." From those charters Collins formed 
the genealogy of the family, which has retained its place in all subsequent 
books of the class ; but the writer before us observes that, " Their posses- 

* There is no charter in Kemble's Codex Diplomaticu* JSvi Saxonici to support 
this statement. 


sions never seem to have been very large. In the reign of Henry I. they 
consisted only of a knight's fee and a quarter, which may be roughly esti- 
mated at six hundred acres, and I do not see that they increased for several 
centuries," It was a Sir Henry de Walpole that died early in the four- 
teenth century who appears to have acquired the manor of Houghton, 
situated about twenty miles from Walpole (on the other side of Lynn) ; 
which subsequently became the well-known mansion of his great descendant.* 
His son of the same name was a leading man of the county, frequently 
knight of the shire for Norfolk, and in 17 Edw. XL 1324, occurs among 
those certified into Chancery to bear ancient arms from their ancestors. 
(Cotton MS. Claud. C. ii.) We do not find those arms in any of the old 
armorial rolls ; but their similarity is pointed out by the writer before us 
to the arms of Baynard, which occur in the Roll temp. Edward II. under 
Norfolk as " Sire Robert Baynard de sable a une fesse et ij cheverons de 
or," and the same in the roll temp. Edward III. (edit. Nicolas, p. 27) though 
Mr. Rye (or his contributor) gives different tinctures, viz. the field argent 
and the charges azure. He says that, according to Blomefield, the family 
of Cornherd certainly took their arms, Azure^ a fess between two chevrons 
or, "in imitation of their superior lords the Bainards." A charter of 
Henry Walpole (attached to a deed 1407) was confirmed (according to 
Collins, 1741, iv. 317) by "a fair seal" of arms, "a fess with three cross- 
crosslets, between two chevrons." This has been blasoned in later times as 
" Or, on a fess between two chevrons sable three cross-crosslets of the 
first." It is remarked by our genealogist (p. 267), that the Walpoles "may 
have been offshoots or subtenants of the noble family of the Bainards, who 
were once the fifth largest landowners in Norfolk, where they held fifty- 
two lordships, including the manor of Tilney, which is adjacent to Wal- 
pole." It is certainly a case where feudal alliance may be presumed from 
the coat-armour, if not descent. 

These Walpole evidences are (" Part I.") to be succeeded by a second 
portion in a future Part of the Norfolk Miscellany : and as we learn from 
another quarter that the pedigree of Walpole, with illustrative documents, 
will be one of the next occurring in the Norfolk Visitation now in the 
course of publication by the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society, 
there seems a good probability that the genealogy of this truly historical 
family will soon be moulded into a trustworthy shape. 

The Heraldry of Smith in Scotland, with Genealogical Annotations: being 
a Supplement to Grazebrook's Herahb^y of Smith. London : John Russell 
Smith, 36, Soho Square. 1873. Small 4to. pp. 32. — The very exact and 
well-arranged work to which these pages are intended as a Supplement 
was noticed by us at p. 377 of our Sixth volume : and this Supplement is 

' It passed with the heiress of the third Earl of Orford to the family of the Marquis 
of Choliaondeley. The Houghton Gallery of Pictures was sold to the Czar of Russia. 


quite of the like excellent character, and indeed formed on the same plan. 
The author (a stranger to Mr. Grazebrook,) states in his preface that these 
collections are the fruit of twenty years' research, and his signature is 
F. M. S. — the initials as we are informed of the late Captain Francis Mon- 
tagu Smith, of the Royal Artillery, who is recently deceased. This is a 
melancholy illustration of the maxim Vita brevis, Ars longa: but it is well 
that, after forming his collections for twenty years, Captain Smith should 
have no longer deferred a provision for their permanent preservation. 

We are also at no loss to guess who is the gentleman at the Lyon 
Office who has afforded his valuable aid, and who so thoroughly deserves 
the acknowledgment that his "extensive knowledge of heraldry is equalled 
by the kindness and readiness he manifests to assist all who are interested 
in such matters." A list of fifteen MSS. which have been made to contri- 
bute their information on the subject is prefixed. 

We observe that Mr. Grazebrook (in his Preface, p. vii.) asks, "Does 
not Sir Bernard Burke tell us that all the Smiths in Scotland are descended 
from Neil Croomb, third son of Murdoch, of the clan Chattan, who flaurishod 
in the rei<^n of William the Lion, six hundred years ago?" Now, we do 
not find that Capt. F. M. Smith makes any allusion to Neil Croomb, and 
so we suppose that Neil is a legendary hero that does not deserve to be 
recognised by sober genealogists. 

The present list contains, in all, thirty-four coats, arranged in three 
divisions. The First Part contains those which are registered in the Books 
of the Lyon Court, and which can therefore alone be legally borne in 
Scotland, — twenty-one in number; the Second, four coats borne by ascer- 
tained families or individuals, but not so registered ; and the Third, nine 
coats attrihuted to the surname by various writers. 

We should be performing our duty as reviewers very inadequately were 
we to notice only within our present space Mr. Grazebrook's more recent 
work on the Heraldry of Worcestershire^ which has now reached us in two 
quiirto volumes of considerable size, and forming together upwards of 800 
pages. It is really more than the mere " Heraldry of Worcestershire ;" 
it is rather the Genealogy of the county past and present, in a condensed 
form. We shall look forward to speak of its merits more effectually in 
our next Part. 

Admiral Sir John Cox. (p. 61.) Another daughter of this officer 
appears in the pedigree of Rhodes : in which it is stated that George Riiodes 
of Sotherton, LL.B of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 1G78, married "Hannah, 
daughter of Sir John Cox, Knight, Admiral, shot at sea 1672." They were 
the parents of George Rhodes of York, apothecary, who by Sarah daughter 
of John Peckitt, Alderman of York, was father of Miss Sarah Rhodes, who 
died in February 1813, aged 85 all but one month. — C. B. N. 


The KNOLLES or KNOLLYS FAMILY of Rotherfield Greys, 
— her Parentage, Family Connections, and subsequent Mar- 

By Thomas Wharton Jones, F.E.S., F.E.C.S., &c. 

In the article in the last volume of Jlie Herald and Genealogist^ 
on the descent of Sir Francis Knolles's father, Robert Knolles, 
Gentleman Usher of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII., 
one question of inquiry was, what relationship, if any, existed 
between Sir Robert Knolles, the famous commander in the 
French wars of Edward the Black Prince, and Sir Thomas 
Knolles who was Lord Mayor of London in 1399 and again in 
1410. When the article was written, I had not been successful 
in finding the wills of Sir Robert Knolles and Sir Thomas 
Knolles. I have now had the opportunity of seeing those docu- 
ments in the library of Lambeth Palace, and for reference to 
them I am indebted to the obliging courtesy of Mr. Charles 

Sir Robert Knolles left two wills (Archbishop Arundel's Re- 
gisters, vol i. IF. 245-9) the one in Latin, dated October 21, 
1399, and the other in French, dated May 20, 1404. Both were 
proved at Lambeth in February 1407.^ Sir Robert leaves his 
property chiefly for religious and charitable uses, and provides 
for prayers for his own soul, the soul of his very dear wife Con- 
stance, and all Christian souls. He does not refer to any children. 

In the will of 1404 Sir Thomas Knolles is named first in the 
list of executors ; and though he is not referred to as a relation,^- 
there is nothing said to indicate that no relationship existed. 

* Probate was granted to John Drew, Parson of Harpley in Norfolk, and Sir 
Robert's clerk or chaplain. 

■^ Sir Hugh Brow who is said to have been a nephew of Sir Robert Knolles and 
his Lieutenant in the French wars, is named by Sir Robert one of the supervisors of 
his will of 1399, but without reference to any relationship. As another supervisor of 
his will. Sir Robert Knolles names John Lord Cobham, who was Sir Robert's co- 
adjutor in the building of Rochester bridge, who was popularly called the "good 


Sir Thomas Knolles's will with codicil (Archbishop Chichele*s 
Eegisters, vol. i, ff. 450-452), dated May 20, 1435, was proved 
at Lambeth July 11, 1435. From this date of his death and 
from the date of his first mayoralty, an approximate inference may 
be drawn as to the age of Sir Thomas KnoUes. Supposing him 
to have been fifty years old in 1399, he might have been, as pre- 
viously suggested, the nephew of Sir Robert Knolles who at that 
date was 84 years of age. It is said that Sir Robert Knolles was 
the son of a Richard Knolles and his wife, the sister of Sir Hugh 
Calveley, a comrade of Sir' Robert in the French wars ; but as 
Sir Hugh Calveley and Sir Robert Knolles appear to have been 
nearly of the same age, it is as likely, in the midst of so much 
uncertainty, that Richard Knolles was Sir Robert Knolles' 
brother, and was the father by his wife Eva, the sister of Sir 
Hugh Calveley, of Sir Thomas Knolles the Lord Mayor. 

Sir Thomas Knolles appoints his son Thomas the principal 
executor of his will. Besides Thomas, the only other son men- 
tioned is William, who, it has been seen, was a merchant in 
Bristol, and died in 1442 without issue. Sir Thomas also men- 
tions Robert and Richard the sons of his son Thomas. Robert, 
the elder son, we have seen succeeded to North Mymms estate on 
the death of his father in 1445, but, leaving no issue male, his 
daughter the wife of Henry Frowick came into the property. 

"What became of Richard, the second son, I have not ascer- 
tained by any documentary evidence ; but there is every pro- 
bability that, as already suggested, he had for his wife Margaret 
D'Oyley and that they were the grand-parents of Robert Knolles, 
the Gentleman Usher of the Privy Chamber to Henry YIIL 

Before proceeding further with the history of Robert Knolles 
himself and making acquaintance with his descendants, we stop 
to notice the family connections of his wife and her subsequent 

Mrs. Lettice Knolles w^as the second dauo-hter of Sir Thomas 
Pennyston of Hawridge and Marshall, Buckinghamshire, and 
his wife Alice, wdio w^as a daughter of Richard Bulstrode of 

Lord Cobhara," and who was afterwards barbarously burnt in St. Giles's Fields, for 
maintaining the doctrines of Wicklifte. Sir Robert Knolles also mentions Sir William 
Gascoyne the Chief Justice of the King. 


Hedgerley, esquire, in the same county. Sir Thomas Pennyston, 
again, was the son of Sir Richard Pennyston and his wife Mar- 
garet, daughter and sole heir of Sir Philip Harris and his wife 
Mary, daughter and sole heir of Sir John Marshall. 

Mrs. Lettice Knolles was left a widow in 1521, and married, 
secondly, Sir Robert Lee of Burstone, co. Bucks, Knight of the 
Body to King Henry VIII. and Sheriff of Bucks in 1521. This 
was also Sir Robert Lee's second marriao;e. 

Sir Robert Lee was a son of Sir Richard Lee of Quarendon, co. 
Bucks, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William Saunders, 
Esq. of CO. Oxford. 

By this second marriage, Dame Lettice Lee, pi'eviously Mrs. 
Lettice Knolles, and nee Pennyston, had issue. 

Sir Robert Lee's will is dated Oct. 8, 1537, and was proved 
soon after (P.C.C., Dingley, fo. 27). In it he directs his burial 
to take place in Ailesbury Church, and after making liberal 
provision for his soul's health, in the orthodox fashion of the 
time, he mentions the Lady Lettice his then wife, Anthony Lee 
his eldest son, and Francis Lee his second son, who were issue 
of his first marriage. The other childi'en he mentions were by 
his wife the Lady Lettice, viz., his son Bennett Lee, and his 
daughters Jane, Margaret, and Elizabeth. Sir Robert also 
mentions his brothers Bennett and Roger Lee. 

The Lad}^ Lettice took for a third husband Sir Thomas 
Tresham of Rushton, co. Northampton; but of this marriage, 
which was his second, there was no issue. 

" Sir Thomas Tresham was zealous (says Fuller in his 
Worthies) in proclaiming and promoting Queen Mary to the 
Crown, for which she was always very grateful," but he is mis- 
taken in saying that Sir Thomas left no issue. Tliis error, 
which has been elsewhere repeated, may have arisen from Sir 
Thomas' first marriage being overlooked ; or, perhaps it was 
owing to the impression that a Lord Prior of the Order of 
St. John of Jerusalem could not have been a married man at 
all. It will be seen immediately that Sir Thomas Tresham was 
made Lord Prior only when he had become a widower for the 
second time. 

Dame Lettice Tresham died before Sir Thomas. In her will, 

u 2 


dated June 28, 1557, and proved June 11, 1558 (P.C.C., Noodes, 
fo. 28), she directs her burial to take place in the church of 
Eothwell; leaves £20 to her ^^ bedfellow Mr. Tresham," and 
makes bequests to her children bj Sir Robert Lee, whom she 
enumerates as Margaret Lane, Bennett Lee, and Elizabeth 
Fachell. Her daughter Jane, it is to be presumed, was then 

She does not mention any of her family by her first husband, 
Robert Knolles. Her sons. Sir Francis and Henry KnoUes, 
were at the time Protestant refugees, residing at Frankfort or 

As supervisor of her will Dame Lettice Tresham appointed 
her '^ son. Sir Henry Lee," but this must have been Sir Henry, 
her step-grandson, the son of Anthony Lee, the eldest son of 
Sir Robert by his first marriage. 

The first wife of Sir Thomas Tresham (the Lady Lettice's 
third husband) was Mary, the youngest daughter and co-heir of 
Lord Parr of Horton, uncle of Queen Catherine Parr. By her 
he had, besides a daughter, Isabell, two sons, John and William, 
both of whom Sir Thomas refers to in his will as deceased, but 
as having left issue. 

The children of his elder son John, whom he mentions, were 
two sons, Thomas and William, and two daughters, Mary and 


The children of his younger son William, again, Sir Tliomas 
enumerates as a son, Thomas, and tv/o daughters, Mary and 

The will of Sir Thomas Tresham, now a widower, is dated 
Nov. 28, 1557, and was proved May 4, 1559. (P.C.C., Cheyney, 
fo. 19.) In the introduction to it, he recites that King Philip 
and Queen Mary, having re-established the religious order of 
the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in England, had, on the 
recommendp.tion of Cardinal Pole, and out of their accustomed 
goodness, constituted him Lord Prior, but that preparatory to 
accepting the appointment he made his will, in order that he 
might have the free disposal of his property, which, according 
to the ecclesiastical law then in force, he would not have had 
after his entrance into a religious order. 


Amongst the particular friends whom Sir Tliomas Tresliam 
names as executors of his will was Thomas Mulsho, esq. This 
gentleman had been the father of William Mulsho of Gotehurst 
or Gayhurst, co. Bucks, whose only daughter and sole heir. 
Mary, married Sir Everard Digby, and was mother of Sir 
Kenelm Digby. It was this Sir Everard Digby who was 
executed for participation in the Gunpowder plot. 

To Sir Thomas Tresham, as Lord Prior, Queen Mary re- 
granted, inter alia, the manor and advowson of Radnage in the 
Hundred of Desborough, co. Bucks, which had previously 
belonged to the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, but which, on 
the dissolution of Religious Houses by Henry VIII. in 1540, 
became vested in the Crown. The last presentation to the 
rectory of Radnage by a Prior of St. John, was made by Sir 
Thomas Tresham on the 3rd Jan. 1558 to William Grate (or 
Gate?). On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, the manor of 
Radnage reverted to the Crown. 

Isabell, the daughter of Sir Thomas Tresham, the Lord Prior, 
by his first wife, married Thomas Catesby, the son of Anthony 
Catesby of Whiston, Northamptonshire. Her will is dated 
June 24, 1580, and was proved February 16, 1580-1 (P. C. C, 
Darcy, fo. 7). Having directed her burial to be in Whiston 
church by the side of her husband, she mentions children and 
grandchildren, and appoints her son Thomas Catesby executor. 

John Tresham, to whom Sir Thomas, the Lord Prior, refers 
in his will as his elder son and heir deceased, married Ellinor, 
daughter of Anthony Catesby of Whiston, sister of his sister's 
husband, and had the four children— two sons and two daughters 
— mentioned above. 

The elder son Thomas was knighted by Queen Elizabeth at 
Kenilworth in 1575, but '' being zealous in the Romish per- 
suasion," to use the words of Fuller, he afterwards brought 
down upon himself fines and imprisonments for recusancy. He 
died in September 1605. This Sir Thomas Tresham (grandson 
of the Lord Prior) married Muriel, daughter of Sir Robert 
Throckmorton, and had issue both sons and daughters. His 
eldest son Sir Francis showed his disaffection to Queen Eliza- 
beth by joining in the Earl of Essex's rising, and his disaffection 


to King James by entering into the Gunpowder plot. Like 
Sir Everard Digby and Ambrose Rokewood, he was, from 
devotion to the Koman Catholic cause and hatred of the reformed 
faith, persuaded by his cousin Robert Catesby to contribute a 
large sum of money to help on the nefarious design of blowing 
up King, Lords and Commons. It was Francis Tresham, how- 
ever, as is supposed, from whom the warning to his brother-in- 
law Lord Monteagle^ emanated either directly, or through Anne 
Vaux or through Mrs. Abington ^ of Hindlip, a sister of Lord 
Monteagle, w^hich led to the discovery of the plot. 

By the intercession of Lord Monteagle, Sir Francis Tresham 
was not executed, though he was detained a prisoner in the 
Tower, wdiere he died soon after. Mr. Thomas Abington of 
Hindlip, in whose house the Jesuit father, Henry Garnet, was 
found concealed, was also, by the intercession of Lord Mont- 
eagle, not rigorously proceeded against. 

In consideration of his having been the instrument of dis- 
covering the plot. Lord Monteagle's intercession was thus effec- 
tual in saving his two brothers-in-law — his own wife's brother 
and his own sister's husband — from the extreme penalty to which 
they were sentenced. 

Francis Tresham's grandmother (his father Sir Thomas' 
mother), it is above mentioned, was a daughter of Anthony 
Catesby of Whiston ; but Robert Catesby, the conti'iver of the 
Gunpowder plot, belonged to a different line of the family, 
viz., that of Catesby of Catesby. He was the son of Sir William 
Catesby and his wife, one of the daughters of Sir Robert Throck- 
morton, and consequently cousin, on his mother's side, of Francis 
Tresham, wdiose mother, we have seen, was another daughter of 
Sir Robert Throckmorton. 

Sir WiUiam Catesby, the father of Robert just mentioned, 
had suffered fine and imprisonment for recusancy under Eliza- 
beth, like his brother-in-law Sir Thomas Tresham. 

* Lord Stom-ton, another brother-in-law of Francis Tresham, did not attend 
Parliament on the 5th of Norember. On account of his having thus absented 
himself, Lord Stourton was suspected of complicity in the plot and heavily fined. 
He may have receiA'cd a warning similar to that sent to Lord Monteagle and 
quietly acted on it. 

^ Or Habingdon. 


William, the second son of John Tresham (the elder son of 
the Lord Prior), was of the band of Grentlemen Pensioners to 
Queen Elizabeth. 

Of the daughters of his elder son John deceased, whom 
Sir Thomas Tresham, the Lord Prior of St. John of Jerusalem, 
mentions in his will, the younger, Isabell, married George 
Walton of Stoughton, and the elder, Mary, became the second 
wife of William, third Lord Yaux of Harrow^den. Lord Vaux 
was, in 1581, prosecuted in the High Commission Court, along 
with Sir Thomas Tresham, Sir William Catesby, and other re- 
cusants, being suspected of complicity in the Jesuit plots of that 

The will of this Mary, widow of William, third Lord Vaux of 
Harrowden, w^as proved in 1597-8. (P. C. C, Lewjm, fo. 61.) 
In it she appoints her brother. Sir Thomas Tresham, and her 
nephew, Francis Tresham, executors, and mentions her children 
then living, and her grandchildren the issue of her eldest son 
George deceased. Her eldest grandson was Edward, foui'tli 
Lord Vaux— he who married Elizabeth, the widow of William 
Lord Knolles, Yiscount Wallingford and Earl of Banbury. 

William, third Lord Vaux, by his first marriage with Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John Beaumont, Esq., of Grace Dieu, co. 
Leicester, had a son Henry, wdio, having renounced his inherit- 
ance, became a monk, and died in his father's lifetime, and 
three daughters. Of the latter, the youngest, Anne, with her 
sister, Mrs. Brooksby, played a conspicuous part in the Popish 
intrigues of the time, especially by mixing herself up in a 
singular manner w^ith the movements of Henry Garnet, the 
Jesuit father, wdio w^as executed for participation or alleged 
participation in the Gunpow^ler plot. 

William, the younger son of the Lord Prior, who, as w^ell as 
his elder brother John, died in their father's lifetime, left (as 
above mentioned) a son, Thomas, and two daughters, Mary and 
Lettice. His w^ife was Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of Sir 
Robert Lee by his second marriage. 

It has been above seen that Dame Lettice Tresham, in her 
w^ill, enumerates her children by Sir Robert Lee as Margaret 
Lane, Bennett Lee, and Elizabeth Eachell. 


Margaret's husband, according to the entry of the Lee family 
in the Heralds' Visitation of Buckinghamshire, was Thomas 
Lane, of the county of Gloucester.^ 

The name of Elizabeth's husband was properly Vachell. He 
was Walter Vachell, of Colley near Reading, Berks, Esq. This 
was Elizabeth Lee's second husband, her first having been, as 
above stated, the WilHam Tresham to whom Sir Thomas, the 
Lord Prior, refers in his will as his second son, deceased. 

Elizabeth Vachell, previously Tresham and nee Lee, was of 
course half-sister of Sir Francis Knolles ; but in some writings 
she is erroneously mentioned as a Knolles or full sister of 
Sir Francis. 

Bennett Lee, whom Dame Lettice Tresham mentions in her 
will as one of her children, was her ladyship's only son by vSir 
Robert Lee ; but Sir Robert Lee by his previous marriage had 
two sons, of whom the elder w^as Anthony, whose son Henry 
appears to have been the '' Sir Henry Lee" w^hom the Lady 
Lettice nominates overseer of her wall. 

Bennett Lee of Bagginton, son of Sir Robert and his second 
wife Lettice, married Margaret, daughter of Robert Pakington 
of London, mercer, and his wife Katherine daughter and co-heir 
of Lord Chief Justice Sir John Baldwyn and his wife, daughter 
of William Dormer of Wycombe, Bucks, esq. 

A son of Bennett Lee and his wife Margaret was Captain 
Thomas Lee who, havino; eno-ao-ed in the insurrection of his 
relative the Earl of Essex, w^as tried for treason, and being 
convicted was executed February 16, 1601-2. Bennett Lee 
being half-brother of Sir Francis Knolles, this Captain Thomas 
Lee his son w^as cousin of the Earl of Essex's mother Lettice,^ 
daughter of Sir Francis Knolles. 

^ The manor house of Mattesdon, aud appurtenances that belonged to the 
Priory of Llanthony, were granted in 1542 by Henry VIII. to the mayor and 
burgesses of Gloucester, and were by them sold, Avith the King's licence, to 
Thomas Lane, Esq., a few months after. An estate at Hampen was held of the 
Archbishop of York by Thomas Lane, who died in 15-15, leaving it to his son 
Thomas, then eighteen years of age. Livery of the manor of HomesdoA^-n and 
Nether Homesdown was granted to Thomas Lane in 1549-50. (Eudder's Histoiy 
of Gloucestershire. Cirencester, 1779. Folio.) 

"^ Countess of Leicester, previously Countess of Essex, and latterly the wife 
of Sir Christopher Blount, uncle of the Lord Mount joy. 


Besides Captain Thomas Lee, his cousin on his mother's side, 
Henry Wriothesley Earl of Southampton, his cousin on his 
father's side, and Sir Christopher Blount, his stepfather, the 
Earl of Essex numbered among his associates ^ Robert Catesby, 
Francis Tresham, and some others who were afterwards con- 
cerned in tlie Grunpowder plot. 

For their participation with Essex, Catesby and Tresham 
had to pay large fines. No doubt they entered into the stupid 
enterprise in the hope of turning it to the advantage of their 
own cause. 

To return to the history of Robert Knolles and his family. 

The notices of Robert Knolles, the Gentleman Usher, and first 
husband of Lettice Penny ston, which I have been able to collect, 
are in the form of various grants made to him by king Henry 
VIII. and are as follows :'^— 

1509, 15 Nov. For Robert Knolles: Annuity of £20 dm-ing 

1511, 10 Feb. For Robert Knolles, Gentleman Usher of the 
Chamber : Grant in fee of the manor of Upclatford, called Rock's 
manor, and of all lands in Upclatford, Hants, in the King's hands by- 
attainder of Sir Richard Empson. 

1514, July 9. For Robert Knollys, Gentleman Usher of the 
Chamber, and Letitia his wife : Grant in survivorship of the manor 
of Retherfeild Grey, Oxon, with advowsons, &c,, at the annual rent 
of one red rose at Midsummer. 

1515. Grant of x^nnuity of £24. 

• When the trial of the Earl of Essex was concluded and the Lords were 
rising, the Earl, addressing the Lord De la Warr and the Lord Morley, said, " I 
beseech your Lordships to pardon me for your two sons who are in trouble for 
my sake, and whom I love as myself. I protest upon my soul they knew not of 
anything that was or should have been done, but came to me in the morning and 
I desired them to stay, and they knew not wherefore." 

The son of Lord De la Warr was Essex's cousin, his mother the Lady De la 
Warr being one of the daughters of Sir Francis Knollys and sister of Essex's 
mother. The son of Lord Morley again was the Lord Monteagle, through whose 
instrumentality the Gunpowder plot, we have seen, was discovered. 

^ Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the reign of Henry VIII. 
Preserved in the Public Record Office, the British Museum, and elsewhere in 


15 IG. Grant of Annuity of 20 marks out of the little customs of 

1516. Knollis, Gentleman Uslier, "going afore to Corflfe Castle 
to see the same repaired against the King's coming — 12 days, 40 

1518, Jan. 25. For Robert Knolles, Gentleman Usher of the 
Chamber, and Letitia his wife : Grant in survivorship of the manor 
of Retherfeild Grey, Oxon., also the reversion of a messuage, an 
" Orreum" (barn of corn), lands, and several fisheries in the Thames, 
in Retherfeild Grey, parcel of the said manor formerly granted to 
John Russell ; also £3 Os. Sd. of rent reserved upon the demise of 
the said messuage, &c., at an annual rent of one red rose ; also grant 
of the issue and arrearages of the said manor from July 9th, 6 Hen. 
VIII., on surrender of patent 9th July, 6 Hen. YIII. 

Before the date of the original grant by Henry VIII. of 
Retherfeild Grej in 1514, that manor had been in the occupa- 
tion of Robert Knolles, as appears from an Inquisition taken at 
Henley-on-Thames, on the 2nd March 1514, 5 Hen. VIII.^ It 
is therein stated that Robert Knolles of Retherfeild Grey, afore- 
said, Esq., occupied the manor of Retherfeild Grey from the 
festival of St. Michael, in the 19th year of Henry VII. (1503) 
until the date of the Inquisition, and received all the profits ; 
but by what title or right the jurors on their oatli are altogether 

Before Robert KnoUes, the manor of Retherfeild Grey was 
in the occupation of Thomas Hales of Henley, gent., from the 
Festival of St. Michael in the 17th of Henry VII. until the 
Festival of St. Michael in the 19 th year of the same reign (1503). 
Before Thomas Hales, again, Thomas Kemys, of Henley, lield 
tlie manor. 

By virtue of the grant in survivorship, by letters patent 
dated Jan. 25, 1517-8, Mrs. Lettice Knolles, on the death of her 
husband in 1521, came into sole possession of the manor and 
advowson of Rotherfeild Greys, &c. That she continued to hold 
them during her life appears from the mention of Rotherfeild 
Greys in the will of her second husband Sir Robert Lee, in 

' See Historical Notices of Swyncombc and Ewelme, co. Oxford. By the 
Hon. and Kev. Heuiy Alfred Napier. Oxford, 1858, -Ito. 


which, among other bequests, he gives her, in addition to the 
1000 sheep at pasture on the lands of Rotherfeild Greys, 400 
sheep more ; and from tJie fact that her third husband Sir 
Thomas Tresham, in her right, presented a clerk ^ to the rectory 
of Rotherfeild Greys in 1557, shortly before her death. 

On the death of Dame Lettice Tresham the manor and advow- 
son of Rotherfield Greys would have reverted to the Crown by 
expiry of the patent under which she held them, had it not been 
that in 1538, Henry VIIL, by letters patent, dated Oct. 4, 
granted to Francis Knolles, Esq., the eldest son of Robert 
Knolles, Gentleman Usher, and the said Lettice his wife, the 
reversion of the property as tenant for life, '^ immediately 
after the death of his mother. A grant of the manor and advow- 
son of Rotherfield Greys as tenant in fee tail was afterwards 
made to Francis Knolles and his heirs male, by an Act of Par- 
liament passed in 1540-1. Under this Act, which was con- 
firmed by a further Act in 1545-6, Francis Knolles' wife, 
Katherine, daughter of AVilliam Gary esq., was named joint 
tenant for life with her husband. ^ 

In his will dated Nov. 13, 1520, and proved P. CO., June 10, 
1521 (Manwarynge, fo. 11), Robert Knolles orders that, im- 
mediately after his death, Lettice his wife is to have possession 
of Rotherfield Greys, " according to the King's letters patent 
to him and her." 

He refers to lands and tenements he possessed in the City of 
London, and in the town of Henley-on-Thames in the county of 
Berks ; and directs his executors to lay out 1,200 marks of 
ready money lying by him in the purchase of additional lands 
and tenements. 

The issues of all this property, and all his goods and chattels, 
he gives to his wife Lettice, to the intent that she shall keep the 

• See " The Banbury Peerage in the House of Lords." Folio. London, 

=* A grant of the reversion had been previously made to another person (one 
of the Englefield family), but that grant was annulled on account of some 
irregularity. See " The Banbury Peerage in the House of Lords."' Folio. 
London, 1810. 

2 The Banburv Peerage in the House of Lords. Folio. London, 1810. 


children — Francis, Henry, Mary and Jane — who were all under 
age, and see them kindly and honestly brought up as well in 
learnino; as in manners. 

On the death or re-marriage of his wife, all the lands and 
tenements in the City of London he bequeathed to his son 
Francis, or failing him and his heirs to his son Henry, or 
failing him and his heirs successively to his daughters Mary 
and Jane and their heirs. 

Again, on the death or re-marriage of his wife, all the pur- 
chased lands and tenements and the property in the town of 
Henley-on-Thames, he bequeathed to his son Henry, or failing 
him and his heirs successively to his daughters Jane and Mary. 

To his daughters he gave portions in money to be paid them 
on the day of their marriage, or when they attained the age of 

Failing wife and children, Robert Knolles directed that the 
money intended for the dowries of his daughters, and also the 
accumulated proceeds of the property to be purchased, should be 
bestowed in deeds of alms and charity for the health of his 

Robert Knolles recommends his soul to God, the Blessed 
Virgin Mary his most glorious Mother, and to all the holy com- 
pany of Heaven. He limits his funeral expenses to ten pounds, 
and makes a bequest to the high altar of the parish church 
where he may happen to be buried. That he died in London 
or within seven miles of it, and was buried, according to his 
directions, in the parish churchyard of St. Helen, within 
Bishopsgate, beside his mother, would appear from the mention 
by Stowe of a monument to him in the clim-ch. And from the 
inscription on the monument it would appear that in considera- 
tion of his bequest of a suit of copes of white damask bordered 
with cloth of gold of the value of £20 and of £20 in money, the 
Prioress and Convent of St. Helen's had bound themsekes, as 
he required, to hold in the parish church yearly a solemn dirge 
and mass of requiem by the priests and clerks there for his soul, 
his father's soul, his mother's soul, all his friends' souls, and all 
Christian souls. 


The Executors of his will appointed by Robert Knolles were : 
— John Roper, gent, Chief Prenotary of the King's Bench; 
William Bulstred, esq., and John Hastjnges, gent. 

This John Roper of Wellhall and St. Dunstan's in Kent, 
High Sheriff of that shire in the 12th of Henry VIII., Protho- 
notary of the King's Bench, and Attorney- General in the same 
reign, was ancestor of the Lords Teynham. 

William Bulstred or Bulstrode had been one of the testator's 
wife's mother's family, or probably her father's half-brother ; 
her father's mother, Margaret nee Harris, having married 
secondly Sir Robert Bulstrode, by whom she had a son Sir 
William Bulstrode, who was Vice - Chamberlain to King 
Henry YIII. 

A William Bulstrode was in Commission of the Peace for 
Bucks 1509—14 ; and on the Sheriff Roll, 1513—14. 

John Hastynges, of Elford, county Oxon, was the husband of 
Lettice Knolles' elder sister Jane. 

All the three husbands of Lettice Penny ston, it will have 
been remarked, were devout adherents of the Roman Catholic 
Chm'ch. Luther had but just commenced to make himself 
heard when Robert Knolles died. By the time Sir Robert Lee 
died, Henry YIII. had broken vv^th Rome, though he still 
adhered to the old faith and was as ready to persecute Reformers 
as the Pope himself. With the accession of Edward YI. the 
Reformation had free scope in England; and, among others. Sir 
Francis Knolles (knighted by the Lord Protector, Somerset,) 
and his brother Henry were, as we shall see in a subsequent 
paper, forward in their endeavours to maintain the Protestant 
doctrines. But on the death of Edward, they both had to fly 
the land to escape the persecution of Mary. 

While her sons by her first husband Robert Knolles were 
thus refugees from their country for conscience sake, Dame 
Lettice Tresham's third husband was one of Queen Mary's 
staunchest and most honoured adherents. A devoted son of 
the Roman Catholic Church, he was, as we have seen, on his 
becoming a widower, constituted Lord Prior of the Knights of 
St. John durino- the short-lived re-establishment of the Order 


in Englandj by her Majesty's authority. The accession of 
Elizabeth to the throne brought back the Knolleses to their 
country, but by that time their mother Dame Lettice Tresham 
was dead. 

Sir Francis Knolles, we shall see, had through his wife the 
Lady Katherine (daughter of William Gary and his wife Mary 
the sister of Queen Anne Boleyne) a near relationship to Queen 
Elizabeth ; and, being entirely trusted by her, he was in a posi- 
tion as a faithful friend and wise counsellor to exert a guiding 
and restraining influence for good on her Majesty — the more 
strong in that it was quiet and unobtrusive. 


Memorials of the Stracbans, Baronets of Thornton, Kincardineshire ; and of the 
family of Wise of Hillbank, formerly Wyse of Lunan, in the Count}' of 
Forfar. By the Rev. Charles Rogers, LL.D. Eellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, andf of the Royal Historical Society. London : 
Privately printed. [Dedication dated ^larch, 1873.] Small 4to. pp. 50, 
with two folding pedigrees and two plates of arms printed in colours. 

The Strachans are a good old race, about whom a great amount of 
misconception and misstatement has already been printed : ^ and we 
are sorry to find that Dr. Rogers has only added to the confusion and 

His book is commenced with the startling assertion that " the dis- 
trict of Strachan (Vale of Waters), in the north-west of Kincardine- 
shire, formed the only county palatine in North Britain," giving as 
his authority that a certain ''Walterus Comes Palatinus de Strachan" 

' "We may admit that we had written the substance of this article without 
referring to that on the family of Strachan in Playfair's Baronetage of Scot- 
land, 1811, pp. clxvi. — clxxviii. {British Family Antiquity). On so doing we 
find that the principal errors upon which we have animadverted — the County 
Palatine of Strachan, Walderus for Waldevus, Agneta Quagie, and all, are 
really Playfair's, and not Dr. Rogers's : but we cannot bring ourselves to offer on 
this account any apology to Dr. Rogers, who has simply appropriated the details 
of Playfair's article without acknowledgment, and has neglected to consult the 
cartularies published by the Bannatyne Club, the Crown Charters of Scotland, 
and all the other sources of information that have become accessible since Play- 
fair wrote. 


is mentioned by Nisbet in his System of Heraldry, vol. ii. part iv. 46. 
It is true that Nisbet gives such a name/ but a very little amount of 
research would have enabled Dr. Rogers to perceive that the person 
so named could be none other than Walter Earl of Stratherne. 

Dr. Rogers next cites a charter " assigned to a date anterior to the 
year 1165," by which Walderus — this should evidently be Waldevus, 
or Waltheof, of Strathecan — granted the land of Blackeroch to the 
monks of St. Andrew's, adding that in the same instrument " Ranul- 
pus is mentioned as the successor of Walderus, his relationship being 
unstated." Now, these details are as utterly incorrect as the pre- 
ceding: the charter was expressly granted by Waldevus de Strath ei- 
han, with the consent of Ranulfus, his son and heir apparent; and, 
instead of being anterior to 1165, from the names of some of the wit- 
nesses and from the place in the cartulary where it occurs, its date is 
probably about 1215. {Eegist. Priorat. Sancti Andrew, Bannatyne 
Club, vol. 73.) 

Dr. Rogers also cites a charter of Dunfermline abbey, whereby John 
de Strachechyn, son and heir of the late Sir John de Strathechyn, in 
the year 1278, resigned his lands of Beth Waldef into the possession 
of King Alexander II., and the King conveyed them to the abbey of 
Dunfermline: this Dr. Rogers derives we find (though he does not 
say so) from the Registruni de Dunfermelyn (Bannatyne Club, vol. 78); 
but he has overlooked an earlier charter in the same repository which 
is witnessed by Sir Waldeve de Strachechin, circ. 1220. The lands 
of Beth or Beath, near Dunfermline, seem, from a very early period, 
to have been parcelled out among various holders, who added their 
names to that of Beath to distinguish their portions, and this Waldeve 
may have been the first of the family who held the lands Beth Waldef 
afterwards granted to the monks. In the 16th century we find 
Dewar's Beath, Mastertoun's Beath, &c. 

The heiress of this first line of Strachan is stated by Dr. Rogers to 
have been married to Sir Alexander Fraser, thane of Cowie, who had 
for another wife the sister of King Robert Bruce. We are unable, 
however, to trace any authority for such a marriage. 

But at an earlier date, about the middle of the twelfth century, (as 
Dr. Rogers next alleges,) one Sir James Stratheyhan had obtained the 

^ Nisbet's words are, " We find few or none called Earls Palatines mentioned 
in our records but Waltcrus Comes Palatlnns de Strachan; and Sir George 
Mackenzie gives this reason why they were so few, Because the Lords of the 
Regality had the same power." 


lands and barony of Thornton, in Kincardineshire, by espousing an 
heiress named Agneta Quagie. Where can the Doctor have dreamed 
of this extraordinary name ? There was certainly no family of Quagie 
ever at Thornton: which in the 13th and 14th centuries was held by 
a family which bore the local name. It has been heretofore stated, 
but without proof, that the heiress of Thornton married Strachan. 
However, Alexander Strachan possessed Thornton in 1429: of any 
earlier date there is no evidence. 

There are various charters in the reigns of David II. and Robert II. 
of lands in the counties of Aberdeen, Forfar, and Kincardine to 
Strachan, but none of Thornton. The earliest crown charter to any of 
the family is by David II. in the 36th year of reign (1365) of the 
lands of Lower Morphie, co. Kincardine, to Alexander de Strathy- 

We must decline, from want of present space, to examine further 
into a genealogy so inauspiciously commenced. We therefore pass 
over the intervening lairds of Thornton, until we arrive at Sir Alex- 
ander Strachan, who was one of the first three Baronets of Nova 
Scotia,^ created on the 28th May, 1625 ; and married Lady Sarah 
Douglas, daughter of William ninth Earl of Angus. He died before 
1643; - and his son of the same name, who married for his second 
wife Margaret dowager Countess Marischal, daughter of James 
sixth Lord Ogilvie, died in exile at Bruges about the year 1650. As 
that was his fate, surely he was a Royalist ; and yet Dr. Rpgers states 
(p. 20) that his estates were confiscated, because, "along with his 
relative Colonel Archibald Strachan," he had "joined the Parlia- 
mentary forces." 

Colonel Archibald Strachan has been repeatedly confused with 
Colonel Strachan, afterwards Sir Alexander the second Baronet. 
Archibald is believed to have been a person of comparatively humble 
origin about Musselburgh, co. Edinburgh. His sister Isabel married 
in 1634 Thomas Smyth portioner of Inveresk, and their descendant 

' Playfair (in 1811) designates Strachan as "Premier Baronet" of Scotland, 
or Nova Scotia, adding however this note : " The title of Gordonstovm having for 
some years lain dormant, the Strachan patent has been considered as the oldest; 
the Gordonstown patent has however been claimed by Gordon of Letterf urie, and 
which, when fully established, will be entitled to the precedency." Gordon of 
Lettcrfurie assumed the title in 1806 (after a service), and is now generally termed 
the Premier Baronet. 

2 Dr. Rogers says " about 164:6," but in 1613 his brother John is designated 
" tutor of Thornton." 


the late Captain Francis Montagn Smith, R.A., an honest and intelli- 
gent genealogist, (who died during the present year,) was unable to 
trace the colonel back to any family of landowners. 

Sir Alexander the second Baronet died without issue; but the title 
was assumed by his cousin and heir male, Sir James Strachan, who is 
styled of Thornton in 1661, and died before 1690. 

His son Sir James, the fourth Baronet, was a graduate of Aberdeen 
and minister of Keith, in Banffshire, but was deprived in 1689, because 
he would not recognise King William. He died at Inverness in 1715, 
aged seventy-five ; and either before or shortly after his death the 
connection of the family with Thornton ceased, that estate being 
acquired by the family of Fullerton. 

Of Sir James's two sons, William and Francis, who both are said 
to have inherited the baronetcy, but little is known. The former is 
named as -' Sir William " in the parish register of Mary kirk, where 
William, his natural son, was baptised. But no other dates occiu* 
regarding either brother. Francis, the younger, lived in Paris, and is 
supposed, whilst there, to have taken orders in the Church of Home. 

After his death, without issue, another branch, descended, like the 
preceding, from an uncle of the first Baronet, became the eldest line. 
James Strachan, of Inchtuthill, appears as the largest heritor in the 
parish of Caputh, co. Perth, in the cess-roll of 1649. He was father 
of Sir James Strachan, who was knighted on the 8th May, 1685 j of 
Patrick ; and of David, Bishop of Brechin. 

Patrick, who died at Greenwich, but at what date is not stated, 
married a daughter of Captain Gregory, R.N. and was father of Sir 
John Strachan, who was Post-Captain R.N. and commanded H. M. 
ship Oxford, of 70 guns, in 1771. He became the seventh Baronet on 
the death of his cousin Francis, at some date not ascertained, but died 
without issue in 1777. 

His younger brother Patrick was also an ofiicer in the Royal Navy, 
but died before him in 1776, leaving issue (by Caroline, daughter of 
Captain John Pitman, R.N.) another naval ofiicer, of some historic 
fame, Sir Richard John Strachan, who attained the full rank of 
Admiral in 1821. He had succeeded to the baronetcy at the age of 
seventeen, on the death of his uncle, and was nominated K.C.B. in 
1806, after capturing four French ships which had escaped from the 
battle of Trafalgar. His concern in the Walcheren expedition, when 
he " waited for the Earl of Chatham," was less triumphant ; but Dr. 
Rogers, after the wont of biographers, throws all the blame upon " the 



inactivity and incapacity of the military commander." Sir Richard 
died in London in 1828, and was the last acknowledged Baronet. 
The title, however, has not passed entirely without claim. 

About twelve years after the death of Admiral Su* Richard Strachan, Mr. John 
Strachan, of Cliffden, Teignmouth, Devonshire, preferred a claim to the repre- 
sentation of the house of Thornton, and passed through a form of service before 
the bailies of the Canongate. In his claim or brief, Mr. Strachan sought to 
instruct his descent from Roger Strachan of Glichno, brother of John Strachan 
of Thornton, great-grandfather of the first Baronet. Roger Strachan was set 
forth as father of Dr. Robert Strachan, physician in Montrose, whose son John 
was minister of Strachan. George, a son of the minister, was represented as a 
merchant in Montrose, and father of James Strachan, Lieutenant R.N. father of 
the claimant. This statement of pedigree, unsupported by evidence, and in entire 
variance with chronological requirements, being accepted by a friendly jury, and 
certified by the Canongate bailies, formed the basis of a retour in Chancery, bear- 
ing date 8th November, 1841. Mr. Strachan of Cliffden, styled Sir John Strachan, 
Bart.* died 9th June, 184:4, leaving two sons. John, the elder, died 20th January, 
1854, s.p. James Graham, the younger son, died unmarried. 

The son and heir assumed the title,^ as his father's successor, 
though Dr. Rogers does not say so; but, as both sons died without 
issue, there was an end to the claim, which never would have asserted 
itself but for the absurd facilities afforded by the law then existing in 

There was still a junior branch, descended from David Strachan, 
Bishop of Brechin [1662-1671], which is traced by Dr. Rogers. 
But James Strachan, Lieut. R.N., great-grandson of the Bishop, died 
unmarried long before his cousin Sir Richard John Strachan. 

He had a sister Margaret, who was married, about 1727, to Alex- 
ander Wysse of Lunan, co. Forfar, grandson of Alexander Wysse, of 
Mains of Thornton, co. Kincardine. This is the family which forms 
the second subject of Dr. Rogers's book. A great-grandson of Alexander 
Wysse and Margaret Strachan is Thomas Alexander Wise, M.D. of 
Hillbank, co. Forfar, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of 
Edinburgh, who is styled by our genealogist "head of the Scottish 
House of Wise, and through his great-grandmother heir-of-line of the 
House of Strachan of Thornton." Dr. Wise was " for many years 
physician in the service of the Honourable East India Company, and 
held staff appointments at various important stations. He was some 
time secretary to the Committee of Public Instruction, Bengal, and 

' " June 9, at his seat, Cliffden, Teignmouth, aged 93, Sir John Strachan, 
Bart, of Thornton." — Gentleman's Magazine, 1844, xxii. 106. 

2 He also died at Cliffden, Teignmouth ; and his death is recorded as " Sir John 
Strachan, Bart." in the Gentleman's Magazine, N.S. xli. 421. 



Principal of the Hooghly and Dacca Colleges. He is author of various 
professional and educational works:" particularly of a History of Medicine 
among the Asiatics, His personal merits are urged as supporting his 
ancestral claims to a revival of the title of Baronet possessed by the 
Strachans ; and Dr. Rogers, in his Preface, sets forth some but cer- 
tainly not parallel cases, in which there has been a new creation " in 
favour of the heir-of-line." Seeing that Dr. Wise is not descended 
from the first or any of the Baronets, nor has inherited from them any 
estate, such a claim is too remote to have entered into any one's ima- 
gination in regard to hereditary honours in England; but the facts 
already stated, — that Admiral Sir Richard John Strachan, also not 
descended from the first Baronet, was allowed this dignity, and that 
it was assumed — motu projyrio we may say, by "Sir John Strachan" 
and his son, show how differently such matters are regulated in Scot- 
land, where titles do not so often become actually extinct because there 
are no existing heirs, as dormant or in abeyance from the difficulty of 
ascertaining loho the right heir may be. This very consideration, that 
an heir-male of Strachan may possibly even yet come forward, weakens 
the argument which Dr. Rogers has so elaborately advocated ; whilst it 
is further impaired by the circumstance that such a claim as that he 
advances might have been anticipated in behalf of the descendants of 
the Admiral, Sir Richard, for we understand that he had daughters, 
though not sons. 


In a communication under the title of " Notes upon the Capture of 
the Great Carrack," made several years ago to the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and printed in the Arch^ologia, vol. xxxiii., reference is 
made to some letters from Sir Francis Drake to the Lord Treasurer 
Burghley, relating to the prize Portuguese carrack taken by the 
English in the year 1592. Many of these letters (the originals of 
which are preserved in the Lansdowne MS. 70) bear the impress of 
of Sir Francis' Seal, the engraving on which has 
a bearing on a dispute which Prince, in his 
Worthies of Devon, ^i2Li^^ to have arisen between 
the Great Navigator and Sir Bernard Drake, the 
then representative of the family of that surname 
which was seated at Ashe in Musbury in the 
county of Devon, touching the assumption by the 
former of the armorial bearings of the latter. 
The story related by Prince is as follows : — 

X 2 



That there fell out a contest between Sir Bernard and the immortal Sir Francis 
Drake; chiefly occasioned by Sir Francis his assuming Sir Bernard's coat of arms, 
not being able to make out his descent from his family; a matter in those days, when 
y* Court of Honor was in more honor, not so easily digested. The Feud hereupon 
encreased to that degree that Sir Bernard, being a person of a high spirit, gave Sir 
Francis a Box on the Ear ; and that within the verge of the Court. For which 
oflfence he incurr'd her Majesty's displeasure ; and most probably it proved the occa- 
sion of the Queen's bestowing upon Sir Francis Drake a new coat of everlasting 
honor to himself and posterity for ever ; which hath relation to that glorious action 
of his, the circumnavigating the world : which is thus emblazon' d by Guillim, 
" Diamond, a fess wavy betiveen two pole-stars artich and antarticJc, Pearly And 
what is more, his crest is, a ship on a globe under Ruff held by a Cable rope and a 
hand out of the clouds ; in the rigging whereof is hung up by the heels a Wivern 
gules. Sir Bernard's Arms ; but in no great honor we may think to that Knight, 
though so design'd to Sir Francis. Unto all which. Sir Bernard boldly reply'd, 
That though her Majesty could give him a nobler, yet she could not give an 
antienter coat than his. 

Prince gives as his authority for the above story Sir Bernard's 
great-grandson, " Sir John Drake of Trill, Knt. and Baronet, my 
honored Godfather." 

Mr. Barrow quotes it in his Life of Sir Francis Drake, but styles it 
" as absurd as it is improbable," and adds " that it appears to be 
unsupported by any evidence." 

The old Devonshire chronicler's tale, though doubtless somewhat 
embellished, is not altogether so fabulous as Mr. Barrow imagined. 

The assumption by Sir Francis of the family 
coat of the Drakes of Ashe is proved by the 
seal before referred to, which bears a shield 
quarterly : In the 1st and 4th quarters the 
arms of Drake of Ashe, viz., Argent, a wyvern 
gules ; ^ and in the 2nd and 3rd, the coat 
which was granted to Sir Francis in 1581, 
viz., Sable, a fess wavy between two stars 

The foundation for the statement of Prince 

as to the grant to Sir Francis of a crest 

having the arms of Drake of Ashe suspended (not however " by the 

heels") in the rigging, would appear to be the fact that, although in 

Cooke's grant [Harl. MS. 1172, and MS. Coll. Arm. Misc. Grants, 

^ Though now termed a wyvern, there can be no question that the device 
was originally a dragon, Lat. draco, echoing to the name. Dragons were anciently 
drawn "volant" or winged, as in the badge and supporters of Warren; and were 
thus identical with wyverns. The Welch or Tudor dragon, however, was without 
wings : and thus has arisen the distinction between a Dragon and a Wyvern in the 
blazonry of modern heraldry. (Edit. H. & G.) 



vol. ii, p. 181,] no reference is made to the " wyvern," its insertion 
in tlie rigging was at one time intended, as in the College of Arms 
there is a document [R. 21, p. 31] apparently a docket of the grant, 
as follows : — 

1581. A confirmacion to Sir Frauncis Drake Knigbte, being thus blazed, Sables a 
fess wavy betwene tow starres argent. The Healme adorned with a globe terrestriall, 
vpon the height whereof a shippe vnder sayle trayled about the same with golden 
haulsers by the direction of a hand apperinge ovt of the eloudes, all in proper couler, 
A Dragon volant sheweth itself regarding the said direction, with these wordes : — 
" Auxilio Divinoy 

Fortunately for the right understanding of the blazon a sketch by 
Vincent (MS. Coll. Arm., 184, p. 54) is preserved in the College; the 
drawing represents a " wyvern," or " dragon volant," ^ and it also 
shows an " estoile or" on the head of the mast, which is omitted in 
the description in the docket. 

The crest as drawn by Vincent does not appear to have been borne 
by Sir Francis Drake himself; but it was used by the descendants of 
his brother so late as February 1740, as appears from a work-book in 
the College of Arms, I.B. 18, 139. In an exemplification of the 
crest in 1813 [Grants, 27, p. 277] it is described as blazoned by 
Vincent, except that the wyvern and the estoile on the mast-head are 

(Harl. MSS. No. 1154. Vide also Harl. MSS. No. 1172 ; the latter being a copy of 
the former, qu. in Cooke's handwriting ? Also in Miscell. Grants, Coll. of Arms, 
vol. II. p. 181.) 

Whereas it hath pleased the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty 
graciously to regard the praiseworthy deserts of Sir Francis Drake 


knight, and to remunerate the same to him not only with the honor- 
able order of knighthood and by sundry other demonstrations of her 
Highness' especial favor ; but also further desirous that the impres- 
sions of her princely affections toward him might be, as it were, im- 
mortally derived and conveyed to his offspring and posterity for ever, 
hath assigned and given unto him armes and tokens of virtue and 
honor answerable to y^ greatness of his deserts and meete for his place 
and calling. That is to say a field of Sable, a /esse wavy hetiveen two 
starves Argent. The healme adorned with A globe terrestrial, upon the 
height whereof is a ship under sail trained about the same with golden 
haulsers by the direction of a hand appearing out of the clouds, all in 
proper collour, with these words Auxilio Divino, The said arms with 
all other the parts and ornaments thereof here in the margin depicted, 
I Robert Cooke, Esq, al's Clarencieux King of Arms of the east, west, 
and south parts of y^ realme of England, according as the duties of 
mine office binds me, have caused to be registered, entered, and re- 
corded for perpetual memory with the arms and other honorable and 
heroicall monuments of the nobility and gentry within my said province 
and marches. In Witness whereof I have hereunto subscribed my 
name the twentieth day of June in the year of our Lord God 1581, 
and in the 23^^ of the prosperous reign of our most gracious Sovereign 
Lady Queen Elizabeth, &c. 

Rob* Cooke al's Clarenceux Roy d' Armes. 

Sir Bernard Drake, between whom and Sir Francis the alleged dis- 
pute arose, was the son of John Drake of Ashe, sheriff of Devon 
4 Elizabeth, by his wife Amy, daughter of Sir Roger Grenville of 
Stow, CO. Cornwall, and sister to the enterprising and heroic Sir 
Richard Grenville. 

Like his great namesake, Sir Bernard applied himself to sea ser- 
vice ; but the information as to his exploits is veiy meagre. In 1585, 
Queen Elizabeth at Greenwich conferred the honour of knighthood on 
him, an evidence that he had done some good service to the State ; and 
Purchas ^ prints the narrative of Captain Richard Whitbourne's Voyage 
to Newfoundland, who in detailing some events connected with one of 
his voyages to that then newly-discovered country states that '' one 
Sir Bernard Drake a Devonshire knight" came thither with a com- 
mission, and having divers good ships under his command he took 
many Portugal ships and brought them to England as prizes. 

Isaacke in his Antiquities of the City of Exeter ^ gives an account 
of the cause of Sir Bernard Drake's death, from which it appears that 

' Ed. fo. Lond. 1625, vol. iv. p. 1882. ' 8vo. Lond. 1677, pp. 137-8. 


having been at sea lie took some Portuguese ships (probably those 
referred to by Captain Whitbourne), the men belonging to which he 
brought into Dartmouth, and caused them to be sent to the gaol near 
Exeter Castle. The crew, it would seem, were suffering from a con- 
tagious disease with which they infected their fellow-prisoners, and 
'' at the Lent assizes in 1585, at which, as justices of the peace, were 
sitting on the bench Sir Bernard Drake, Sir John Chichester, Sir 
Arthur Bassett, Robert Cary, and Thomas Risdon, Esquires, a noisome 
smell arose from prisoners at the bar [who had been infected by the 
Portuguese], whereof in a very short space the Judge presiding, 
Serjeant Flowerdew, and the Justices before named died, as well as 
eleven of the Jury and several others in the City and County." 

Prince 1 states that "Sir Bernard had strength enough to recover 
home to his house at Ash," where he died on the 10th April, 1586. 
He was buried in the parish church of Musbury, in the county of 
Devon ; and in the south aisle of that edifice there is a large stone 
monument divided by pillars into three compartments, each of which 
contains two figures (male and female) kneeling to altar-desks in 
prayer, the centre division containing the effigies of Sir Bernard and 
his wife, underneath which is the following inscription : — 

Heeris the Monvment of S*" Barnard Drake, K*, who had to Wife Dame Garthrud, 
the daughter of Bartholomew Fortescue of Filly, Esq*", by whom hee had three sonnes 
and three daughters, whereof whear five living at his death, viz. John, Hugh, Marie, 
Margaret, and Helen. He died the x^'^ of April 1586, and Dame Garthrude his 
Wief was here buried the xii^** of Februarie 1601. Vnto the Memorie of whome 
John Drake, Esq^. his Sonne hath set this Monument, Anno 1611." 

The only other mention that I have met with of Sir Bernard Drake 
occurs in Fillegh church, an edifice erected in 1731 at the expense 
of Hugh Lord Clinton on the demolition of the original church, which 
he thought was placed too near his house at Castle Hill. With the 
ancient church all the old monuments appear to have been demolished 
since no trace remains of any of them in the present building, excejot 
two brass plates which, in October 1847, were nailed to the wall in 
Lord Fortescue's gallery pew, in an injured condition. It would seem 
from the inscription on one of the plates that the monument which 
the brasses once adorned was erected by Sir Bernard Drake to the 
memory of his brother-in-law Richard Fortescue of Fillegh, who was 
Sheriff of Devonshire 6th Elizabeth 1563-4, and lineal ancestor of the 
present Earl Fortescue. This plate represents Sir Bernard equij^ped 

' Worthies, ed. 1701, p. 246. 


in the military dress of the period. On the dexter side of the figure 
is a shield bearing the arms of Drake of Ash ; on the sinister side, 
a quarterly escocheon is engraved bearing the following coats, viz. : 
1. Fortescue;! 2. (obliterated); 3. Trewin ;2 4. Fillegh.^ 

On the lower part of the plate the following inscription is cut : — 

fforget who can yf (of) that he lyft (lived) to see 
ffortescue of ffylleghte the seventhe of that degre 
Remembrance of a frynde his brother Drake doth showe 
presentinge this unto the eyes of moo (more) 
hurtfull to none and fryndlye to the moste, 
the erthe his bones, the heavens possese his goste. 
Richarde ffortescue died at fiylleghte y^ last daye of June 1570. 

The other brass portrays Eichard Fortescue kneeling at an altar- 
desk in prayer, and on it is engraved the following inscription : — 

f^ere IgetS Uitf)ar:is Jfovteuut, of dF^Utqfi, iEsquter, iol^o truetr on tfit last 
Uage of JIunp, in tfje jjerc of oute ilortre OSotr 1570. 

The arms on this plate are> first (on the dexter side) : Quarterly, 
1. Fortescue; 2. Denzill ;* 3. Fillegh ; 4. Trewin ; the shield being 
surmounted by an helmet and mantlings, with a shield for a crest. 
The second coat (on the sinister side) being 1. Fortescue ; 2. Denzill ; 
3. ; 4. (obliterated); 5. Fillegh; 6. Trewin; 7. (oblite- 

rated) ; 8. (obliterated). 

Upon the supposition that the two plates ornamented one and the 
same monument, a curious instance is afforded of a tomb bearino- as 
well the portraiture of the man whose memory it was intended to per- 
petuate, as of the person by whom it was erected. 

There was a family connection between Sir Bernard Drake, Sir 
Walter Raleigh, and other of the Devonshire naval worthies of their 
time, as will appear from the accompanying sketch pedigree. 

' Azure, a bend engrailed argent, cotised or. 

2 Argent, on a bend vert between six cross-crosslets fitched at the foot three 
crosier staves or. This coat was brought to the Fortescue family by the marriage of 
Martin Fortescue, son and heir of Sir John Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice of EnWand 
anno 1442, with Elizabeth daughter and heiress of Richard Denzill of Wear Gifford 
and Fillegh, co. Devon, and it was acquired by the latter family from an alliance 
between Richard Denzill, the grandfather of Elizabeth, with Joan, daughter and 
heir of William Trewin of Wear Gifford aforesaid. 

3 Gules, a fess vairee between six crosses form^e or. This coat was also acquired 
by the before-mentioned marriage between Martin Fortescue and Elizabeth Denzill. 
The Denzill family acquired it by marriage with the Giffards. 

'• Sable, within a crescent a mullet in chief argent. 





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" Sir Richard Perrott " was one of the most daring pretenders to 
title and pedigree in the last century, and his audacity was in several 
instances attended with extraordinary though transient success. He 
assumed to be the heir of a Baronetcy created in the year 1716 ; and 
in the year 1767 he surreptitiously obtained from one of his Majesty's 
Secretaries of State a recognition of such rank and precedence, under 
the King's sign manual, which was actually registered in the books of 
the Office of Arms (I. 32, fo. 58) under the following form : 

George K. 

George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and 
Ii'eland, Defender of the Faith, &c. To our right trusty and right well-belored 
cousin and counsellor, Richard, Earl of Scarborough, Deputy to our right trusty 
and right entirely beloved cousin Edward, Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal, and 
our hereditary Earl Marshal of England, greeting. 

Whereas, to avoid all doubts and disputes about the rank and precedency of 

our trusty and well-beloved subject Sir Richard Perrott, Baronet, we have 

thought fit hereby to signify our royal pleasure, and to declare, that the said 

Richard Perrott, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, shall have 

and enjoy in all places, assemblies, and meetings, the place, rank, precedency, 

privileges, and immunities, of or belonging to the degree of a Baronet of this 

our realm, and to take place and commence as from the first day of July, One 

thousand seven hundred and sixteen. Our will and pleasure is, that you 

Richard, Earl of Scarborough, Deputy to our said Earl Marshal, do require and 

command that this our order and declaration be registered in our College of 

Arms, to the end that our Oificers of Arms, and all others, on occasion, may 

take full notice and have knowledge thereof, for which this shall be your 

warrant. Given at our Court at St. James's, the third day of January, 1767, in 

the seventh year of our reign. 

By His Majesty's command, 

H. S. Conway. 

" Sir Richard " asserted himself to be at once the male heir of the 
ancient family of Perrott of Haroldstone, co. Hereford, and also to be 
the representative, through a daughter, of Sir Thomas Perrott, who, 
as he averred, was about to be created a Baronet in" 1611, but had 
died before the patent had passed for him. He claimed descent from 
an Owen Perrott, said to be the grandfather of James Perrott of 
Wellington, and to be the husband of Dorothy, said to be the second 
daughter of Sir Thomas Perrott. But the Rev. E. L. Barnwell, in 
his Notes on the Perrot Family, 1867, p. 62, informs us that he had 
searched all the best pedigrees without finding the name of the pre- 


tended Owen, or the pretended Dorothy ;i nor is there any trace of 
the pretended Baronetcy of 1611. In fact, Sir Thomas Perrott died 
many years before the institution of the order of Baronets, though the 
date of his decease is not ascertained by Mr. Barnwell.^ 

Again a similar story is repeated. The dignity of Baronet is asserted 
to haye been conferred on James Perrott, esquire, of Richmond in 
Surrey, by King George the First, on the 1st of July, 1716. But 
for fifty years after its presumed creation no recognition of this 
dignity is to be found. In the Baronetage of Wotton, published in 
1727, there is no account of the Perrott family ; and in the list of all 
baronetcies, extant or extinct, appended to the Baronetage of 1741, 
the name is not inserted either under 1611 or 1716.^ 

There are some indications, however, of the assumption of the title 
before the end of the reign of George the Second. In the Gentleman'' s 
Magazine for 1759, this occurs among the deaths : — 

May 29. Sir Kob. Perrot, bt., at Brussels. 

And in the volume for 1769 we find the decease of " Sir Richard 
Perrot, Dublin." To the latter name "baronet" is not added; but 
if there was no baronetcy, either of England or of Ireland, who were 
these persons ? Did they actually live and die ? Or are these among 
i\\Q feint departures of the same extraordinary person who afterwards 
made himself more conspicuous and notorious ? and who, if the 
anecdotes told of him be true, was much in the habit of imposing 
upon the credulity of the world by means of the public newspapers. 

' The only child of Sir Thomas Perrott was named Penelope ; she was married 
first to Sir William Gower, knight, and secondly to Sir Eohert Naunton, knight. 
There is a monument in Letheringham church, Suffolk, to James Naunton, Esq., 
whereon he is stated to be "sonne of Sir Robert Naunton, knt., and Dame 
Penelope his wife, daughter and sole lieir of Sir Thos. Perrott, knt." (See The 
Topographer and Genealogist^ ii. 501.) 

2 His father's death took place in September 1592; and "his own death 
immediately followed that of his father." In or before 1595 his vddow (Lady 
Dorothy nee Devereux) had become the wife of the Earl of Northumberland. 
Craik, Romance of the Peerage, 1849, ii. 32, 33. 

^ It is equally absent from the similar lists appended to Playfair's Baronetage^ 
1809, and Debrett's Baronetage, 1821 ; but it appears in the lists in Beatson's 
Political Index 1788, and Betham's Baronetage 1805, under 1767, " with pre- 
cedency from July 1st, 1716." The latter -vN'riter prints the entry in italics, 
intending thereby to indicate that it was then extinct. Courthope, in the list 
given in his Synopsis of the Extinct Baronetage, 1835, copied it from that 
in the Baronetage of 1771, under the date of July 1, 1717, but with a caveat that^ 
^*- was " doubtful if a patent ever passed the seal " (p. 245). 


" Sir Eichard Perrott," our hero, was certainly the soi-clisant Sir 
Richard from the beginning of the year 1767, if not before ; and, that 
being the case, what other " Sir Richard Perrott " could have died, or 
have pretended to die, in Dublin in 1769 ? 

The earliest Baronetage, or list of Baronets, to which the impostor 
obtained admission, was, so far as we can trace, that published by 
Almon in 1769 (in 3 vols. 12mo). There is about the article an air 
of studied incompleteness, framed in order that it might wear the 
aj)pearance of being the result of imperfect information, and so be open 
to futm-e correction from " more competent authority." This is the 
whole of it : — 


This family is of antient extraction, and has produced many persons of note. 

The first of them advanced to the dignity of a Baronet was Sir Robert, by 
vu'tue of a sign manuel (^/c) from his Majesty Geo. I. dated July 1, 1716. 

Sir Richard, the present Baronet, married the daughter of , and has 

one son, John. 

Arms : Gules, three pears pendant or, in a chief of the second a demi lion 
issuant sable. 

Seat : At Richmond in Surry, (Vol. 11. p. 374.) 

And in the same publication, in a " Catalogue of all the Persons 
who have been created Baronets' of England," (copied from former 
Baronetages) is inserted, under the year 1716, 

July 1. Robert Perrot of Richmond Surry. (Vol. III. p. 257.) 

Thus, in two places, the first pretended Baronet of 1716 was dis- 
tinctly stated to have been named Bohert, who had been advanced to 
the dignity of a Baronet merely by vu-tue of sign manual. And so 
again in the " List of all the Baronets from their first institution," 
appended to Kimber and Johnson's Baronetage of 1771 (vol. iii. 
p. 336): — 

998. Robert Perrot, of Richmond, Surr}--, Esq., now claimed by Sir Richard, 
who has no patent. July 1, 1717. [no longer 1716.] 

Edward Kimber, the actual editor of the Baronetage of 1771, from 
whose pen the remark just inserted '' who has no patent," probably 
proceeded, and who did not insert any article on this family in the 
body of his work, was dead before its publication ; ^ and its com- 

^ Mr. Edward Kimber had compiled a small Peerage, printed in 1766, and 
again in 1769 ; he also wrote a History of England, in one volume 8vo. and the 
novel *' Joe Thomson," 2 vols. 12mo. (Lowndes, by Bohn, p. 1271.) We have not 
found the exact date of his death ; but Richard Johnson, who completed the 


pletion evidently fell into less careful hands. The result was that 
the agents of " Sir Richard Perrott " found admission for his 
monstrous genealogy, which is printed in the Appendix to that 
Baronetage, p>p. 458-467. It was thus introduced : — 

London, July 18, 1770. 
On examination of these volnmes, I * perceive that the family of Perrott is 
omitted ; but wishing to do strict justice to all mankind, I now insert a short 
account of Sir Richard and his family, from a curious pedigree left by him in 
the hands of the late Mr. Kimber ; which shows that the said Sir Richard 
descends from a princely line, at the head of which stands Brutus, the first King 
of Britain ; &c., &c. 

* Mr. T. L. who wrote this account of the Perrott family. 

It may be concluded that " Mr. T. L. who wrote this account," or 
at least wrote this introduction to it, was T. Lowndes, one of the 
booksellers whose names appear on the title-page. Whether he was 
actually the author of this precious concoction, or whether he merely 
" wrote it out," is not clearly stated ; ^ but it seems unlikely that it 
could have been composed by any but the great Sir Richard himself. 
It is pretended that it was chiefly extracted from a pedigree compiled 
in the seventeenth century by one Owen Griffiths ; but there is every . 

Baronetage of 1771, thus speaks of him : " Mr. Kimber, who fell a victim, in the 
meridian of his life, to his indefatigable toils in the Republic of Letters — to him 
I owe the present plan of this Work : He was the Architect, I only the Builder." 
Kimber is a very uncommon name. It was that of an apothecary at Windsor, 
William Kimber, who died August 28, 1782, aged 62, having married a neice of 
Dr. Bland, Dean of Durham, and Provost of Eton. This Mr. Kimber was 
esteemed as " an excellent wit:" see him commemorated in the Gentleman's 
Magazine 1783, p. 638. 

Richard Johnson is described in the Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth 
Century, iii. 601, as " a very useful Corrector of the Press, and Editor for the 
Booksellers." His tomb in Hendon churchyard was inscribed " To the memory of 
Mr. Richard Johnson, Citizen, who died Feb. 25, 1793, aged 53. He pos- 
sessed a good and generous mind ; was much beloved as well as being admired 
for his moral principles and literature." Idid. p. 760. His son of the same 
name, who died Feb. 11, 1795, aged 38, having saved some money as clerk to 
Mr. Curtis, a wholesale stationer, bequeathed in his will, dated 1 795 (and printed 
Ibid. p. 605), perpetual annuities for five poor widows of liverymen of the Sta- 
tioners' Company. 

Both Kimber and Johnson, therefore, were what were then called " Book- 
sellers' hacks," — not genealogists by profession or predilection. The former had 
twenty guineas for correcting the third edition of Ainsworth's Latin Dictionary. 
(^Lit. Anecd. v, 251.) 

' Subsequently, in p. 466, he says " Thus have I given a fair extract of that^ 
curious pedigree, which Sir Richard very obligingly lent Mr. Kimber." 


reason to believe that this Owen Griffiths is himself as mythical a 
personage as those he is supposed to commemorate. His performance 
is said to have had this absurdly bombastic heading : — 

This Pedigree of the most noble and princely House of Perrott, descended from 
a most numerous race of Kings, monarchs of Britain, was collected from the 
British annals, which will bear record of the truth, and that it is no fiction, to 
the latest posterity : it is most humbly dedicated to the most noble and puissant 
Prince, Sir James PeiTott, Marquis of Narbeth, Earl and Viscount Carew, and 
Baron Perrott, by his Lordship's poor but most faithful servant, Owen Griffiths, 
who was wounded by his side in Carew Castle, 1650. 

Among the lies told in the course of the ensuing pages is this, that 
Charles the First had that affection towards Sir James Perrott " that 
he ordered a warrant for a patent creating him Marquis of Narbeth, 
Earl and Viscount Carew, and Baron Perrott." But a few lines 
after it is added that Sir James died in 1641, — in charming incon- 
sistency with his defending Carew Castle in 1650 ! 

In other subsequent passages the writer is as self-convicting as he 
is presumptuous and mendacious. He states (p. 464) that "Sir 
Thomas Perrott was created a Baronet June 24, 1611, but died 
before his patent could be made out." Again (p. 465), " Sir James 
Perrott," having been " employed in many capacities by the govern- 
ment, on his relinquishing a balance due to him for the redemp- 
tion of British slaves, was on the first of July, 1716, created a 
Baronet, with limitation to the eldest son of his brother Richard, and 
his heirs male ; but not permitted to take rank from the original 
grant of this dignity to Sir Francis Perrott, Knight and Baronet, 
June 29, 1611 " — no Sir Francis having been before named. 

Thus the pretended first Baronet of 1611, and the pretended fii'st 
Baronet of 1716, have each an alias as to their baptismal name : the 
former is both Sir Thomas and Sir Francis, and the latter both Sir 
Robert and Sir James ! There was probably more of design than 
mere blundering in this perpetual ambiguity and mystification. 

The Baronet of 1716, whatever his own name might have been, was 
supposed to have been created with a special " limitation to the eldest 
son of his brother Richard ;" and it is this " eldest son of Richard," 
either already born or in futuro in 1716, that " Sir Richard Perrott" 
assumed to be. 

This pretender's biography, which was first fully detailed in print 
(so far as we can find) less than forty years ago, — for but few par- 
ticulars of his personal history are given in the Baronetage of 1771, 
is, like the genealogy which precedes it, such a tissue of monstrous 


falsehoods,! that no porHon of it can be at all relied upon ; but it may 
possibly afford some reflection, though a highly exaggerated one, of 
the erratic adventures of his actual career, and thus supply a fair 
estimate of his character. 

The Baronetcy, as assorted, was granted to '' his uncle Sir James 
Perrott, in 1716," with limitation to himself. This statement places 
the date of his birth, supposing he was then born, early in the 
eighteenth century. 

He succeeded (we are told) as second Baronet in 1731. He was 
present at the battle of Culloden in 1745, " in personal attendance on 
the Duke of Cumberland ;"2 and he afterwards entered into the service 
of Frederick the Great of Prussia, who in 1758 conferred upon him 
so mighty a post,^ that his acceptance of it was forbidden by the 
English government. In 1767 he obtained from Mr. Secretary Con- 
way— it would be curious to ascertain how — the extraordinary Fiat, or 
Warrant, recognizing his assumed title, with precedence from 1716, 
which has been already inserted at full. 

We are next told that Louis the Fifteenth of France created him 
a Baron, "with the privilege of the tabouret to his lady,^ and the 
wives of his successors." In 1770, however, he was in England, 
for in that year he brought up the loyal Flint Address during 

^ It was put forth by another great hiimivg, the late " Sir " Richard Broun, 
(who made himself a Knight, and his father a Baronet of Nora Scotia : see the 
particulars in our vol. II, p. 176,) in a little book entitled " The Baronetage for 
1844. By Sir Richard Broun, Eq.Aur., K.J.J., Hon. Secretary of the Com- 
mittee of the Baronetage for Privileges." Subsequently, we are soiTy to add, 
it was republished in several editions of Burke's Peerage and BaronctagCy 
and in the edition of the latter work for 1846 we observe mentioned certain docu- 
ments " in the hands of the present Baronet," It is from these papers we pre- 
sume that the extraordinary account given of Sir Richard's career was derived. 

^ These words are not from Broun, but from Burke, showing that the assum- 
ing Baronet of 1844 was admitted as a contributor by the latter author. 

3 This was something equivalent to the office of Lord High Admiral of 
Prussia, with powers to subjugate all the seas of the world to that new naval 
power ! The commission, dated 24 Oct. 1758, is printed in Johnson and Kimber's 
Baronetage, 1771, " but not the private instructions, which are, with the former, 
in the hands of the present Baronet." (Burke, edit. 1846.) 

* To the initiated in court etiquette this statement will appear scarcely less 
absm-dly ridiculous than the appointment to be Lord High Admiral of Prussia. 
The privilege of the tahouret, or to be seated on a stool in the Royal presence, 
was confined to the Duchesses of France and the wives of Grandees of Spain, 
and attempts to extend it to titular Princesses were jealously resisted. See the^ 
Memoires du Due de Saint Simon. 


tlie Wilkes riots, whereupon George III., as a si^ecial mark of favour, 
directed his son George Prince of Wales, then only eight years of age, 
to write him an autograph letter. Thus, for a second time, (if the 
copy of the letter given below be genuine,) this audacious impostor 
was successful in cajoling and misleading his sovereign. 

Not long after, one of the Wilkes mobs " dismantled " the royal 
favourite's mansion in Gloucester View, Park Lane, and burned its 
" costly effects " before it. But, in compensation, he received " a 
medal," a grant of the " ancient manor of Cheslemere," wherever 
that may be, and sundry other substantial tokens of his sovereign's 
sympathy and regard. 

On the 3rd of March, 1782, when, in consistency with the previous 
dates, he must have been approaching his seventieth year, he married 
Margaret Jemima, the daughter of Captain William Fordyce, " Gen- 
tleman of the Bedchamber to George the Third," and " great-grand- 
niece of John'iDuke of Argyll ;" who two years afterwards gave birth 
to a son and heir, through whom the family is said to have been 
perpetuated. But we will not now pursue their history further : for 
the history of the first " Baronet " is quite sufficient for our present 

The presentation of the Flint Address was the adventure by which 
our hero rendered himself most famous. It is thus recorded in the 
historical chronicle of the Gentleman's Magazine for the month of 
January, 1770 : — 

Monday 8. Sir Richard Perrot, Bart, arrived from Wales, with a petition from 
Flint, addressed to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, expressive of their 
loyalty, and of their disapprobation of petitions for the dis n of Par- 

The concmring accounts that are published in the papers of an infamous 
adventurer under the above name, involve a mystery, how such a man could 
procure an Address, and what means he could make use of to obtain countenance 
at Court to present it ; yet that an Address from Flint was presented, and that 
by one who calls himself Sir Richard Perrot, appears fi'om a letter wi'itten by the 
young Prince, with his own hand, of which the following is a copy :— 

" Sir Richard Perrot may assure the baronny of Flint that I have delivered 
the Petition to the King, and am much pleased with the loyalty and affection 
to the King and to myself expressed by the Antient Britons on this occasion. 

George, Pr. of Wales." 

This political escapade naturally set the newspapers to work to 
inquire into the pseudo-Baronet's antecedents, and the result was " 
anything but favourable to his reputation. We may hope, in charity, 
that scandal ran somewhat wild in the ensuing anecdotes ; but they 


cannot be more unfonnded than those advanced on the part of tlie 
claimant, and we hear nothing of their being even threatened with 
any prosecution for libel. They were originally published in the 
London Evening Post, and copied in the Gentleman^s Magazine for 
February, 1770 :— 

Particulars of the Noted Perrot, who presented the Flint Petition. 

This pretended baronet is plain D — k P 1, the second son of one P 1, 

a decayed distiller of Mardol, in Shrewsbury ; his elder brother an apothecary, 
but now practises as a physician at Tewkesbmy, in Gloucestershire, by virtue of 
a diploma from Leyden.* 

About nine 3'ears ago he was at Worcester, and boarded in the College 
churchyard, and thought to have carried off the daughter of a gentleman of 
fortune to Scotland, to have married her. They soon saw through him, and his 
scheme was frustrated. There he passed for a Knight of the order of the Eagle 
of Prussia, his Prussian Majesty, he said, having honoured him with that ancient 
title for his gallant behaviour in several actions, as a volunteer in that monarch's 
service. That was his travelling title there. 

In 1760 he passed, at Beverley, in Yorkshire, for Admiral to his Prussian 
Majesty, and pretended a commission ^ to purchase shipping for that monarch ; 
liut Lord Rockingham, suspecting the impostor, obliged him to decamp. 

At York he succeeded better, and having, by some fraud or other, raised money 
to equip himself, he paid his addresses to a young woman of fortune, and 
married her. What became of this unfortunate lady is not publickly known. 

Mr. Woodfall, in his list of the Baronets of Great Britain for this year, 
takes notice of him, with a very pompous coat of arms, the arms of England, 
which he has had the assurance to take upon him.^ 

While at Worcester, he visited one Mrs. G , of Staffordshire, who was 

i;i Worcester Castle for debt, and who is since dead. He got £300 from her, 

^ The father is in the pedigree simply described as Richard Perrott, but his 
wife as " Rebecca, daughter of Isaac Wyke of Wacton Court in Hereford- 
shire, Esq., paternally descended from Wyke, a knight to whom William the 
Conqueror granted divers lands on the banks of the Humber, whereon he founded 
a fair mansion for the reception of weary pilgrims," — and so on. '• They had 
issue. Sir Richard Perrot, the present baronet, James, M.D., and Eleazer." 
(Kimber and Johnson, iii. 466.) 

2 This pretended commission, dated at Berlin, 24 October, 17o8j and indorsed 
" Commission pour S'' Perrott, en qualite de Commandeur de Vaisseanx in 
Chef," is printed in the article in Kimber and Johnson, p. 466, with this boast- 
ful comment: "A Lord High Admiral of Great Britain could not have been 
vested with more extensive powers." 

3 The history of this armorial assumption would occupy more than a few 
lines: and it must therefore be deferred. It is quite of a piece with the pedigree ; 
and yet, notwithstanding its extravagance, has been repeatedly copied, and 
h.inded down, at least in part, to the present day. 



under pretence of marrying and releasing her from confinement, but no sooner 
had he got the money, than he left her to starve, and seduced the daughter of a 
very honest and reputable tradesman, brought her up [to] town, and when he 
was tired of her turned her off. Her dernier resort was to walk the streets, and 
in that situation is now in the most deplorable state, with a young infant. The 
poor unfortunate girl had a grandmother who left her £500 in her will, and 
when she found what way of life the girl had taken to, cut her off with only 
fifty ; the father took it to heart, as well as the grandmother, which terminated 
in the death of them both. 

After this, he paid his addresses to a young lady, entitled to a fortune of 
£8,000 at the death of her mother. Finding he could not finger the money 
immediately, he addressed the mother, got them both with child, and by degrees 
the whole of their fortunes. The mother broke her heart upon the occasion, and 
the daughter died raving mad in one of the madhouses of this metropolis. 

His next intrigue was at S — d — 's W s,^ where, being attracted with the 

beauty and activity of the celebrated Miss Isabella W n, ]Mr. R— s— d's 

mistress who owns the W — lis, he persuaded the girl to leave her keeper, and to 
live with him. In a few days she returned to R — s — d, with no other view but 
to abuse him. Mr. R— s— d upbraided her with incontinency, and gave her to 
understand that he had behaved with honour to her by settling £300 a-year 
upon her for her life, which in-itated Miss Isabella so far as to make her burn 
the settlement before his face, which terminated in the ruin of the poor girl's 
family. Mr. R — s— d turned off her father, brothers, and sisters, from the 
W — lis, and would never suffer them to perform there any more. 

He then took an elegant house looking into Hyde Park, and ordered a trades- 
man to fm'nish it in every respect suitable to his pretended rank, which was 
accordingly done. The poor tradesman durst not presume to demand immediate 
payment of Sir Rich. Perrot, hart, but was some time after informed that 
he was an impostor ; then he employed the gentlemen of the law to attack him 
for the debt. He immediately flew to the country with his dear Isabella, gave 
a bill of sale of the furniture to a broker, and caused the following to be inserted 
in the daily papers : — " Yesterday Sir Richard Perrot set out on a tom- to Italy, 
by way of Paris." This was done as a blind to preserve him from the talons of 
the vultures of mankind ; the scheme did not take, they found him out at 
Richmond, where he had served another tradesman the same trick, and found 
means to make off from both. When he had lived upon poor Isabella as long 
as she had anything of value left, he deserted her. Her generous keeper 
redeemed all her valuables from a pawnbroker's shop, which consisted in plate 
and jewels to the amount of £500, and very humanely allowed her a guinea 
a week, to keep her from starving. 

He then proceeded for IMontgomery, and came there the day after the last general 
election, sent for some of the lowest burgesses, and treated them to the amount 
of five pounds, and told them he was sorry he came a day too late, or he would 

» This evidently means Sadler's Wells, where a new theatre was erected in 
17fi5, by a ])uilder named Rosoman, Avhosc name is also handed down by Roso- 
man's Row, Clcrkenwell. (Gent. Mag. Dec. 1813, pp. 561, 562.) 


have given Mr. Clive a sweat. They laughed in their sleeves at his impudence 
and ignorance ; they knew him too well, 'twas too near Shrewsbury. 

This was the man who was appointed to deliver the Petition, or rather the 
Address, of the Bailiffs, Corporation, and Borough of Ylint—Londoyi Ev. Post. 

Notwithstanding what has been said above, an evening paper has the copy of 
a fiat, dated January 3, 17G7,as it is said to stand in the Heralds' Office, wherein 
it is declared, " That Sir Richard Perrot and his heirs male shall have pre- 
cedency as a Baronet of this Realm, the same to commence as from the first day 
of July, 1716." This Copy is signed, H. S. Conway. 

After this exposure had been made, it may be pronomiccd to have 
been truly discreditable to Mr. Thomas Lowndes, and the other pub- 
lishers of the Baronetage of 1771, to have given room in that work to 
the genealogical romance of the Perrotts. By heralds and genealo- 
gists we make no doubt that it was scouted at once : nor do we know 
that " Sir Kichard Perrott " was again recognised in other works on 
the Baronetage that appeared during the ensuing half-century of the 
reign of George the Third. On the other hand, we have not ascer- 
tained that it immediately received any public criticism — though either 
in reviews, magazines, or newspapers, such may not improbably have 
been the case. The next printed notice we have found of it is just 
forty years laterf 

With respect to the alleged siege of Carew Castle in 1650, on 
which occasion the trusty Owen Griffiths was wounded by the side of 
Sir James Perrott, we learn from Fenton's Historical Tour through 
Pemhroheshire, 1811, that that castle was garrisoned for the King in 
1644, and held out a long siege; but after the ill success of the 
royalists at Tenby it surrendered on quarter. The mythical Owen 
Griffiths however informs us that under the conduct of Sir James 
Perrott, Carew and Laugharn castles were again garrisoned in the 
year 1650, at his own expense, with 1,130 men — a statement entirely 
without foundation. Mr. Fenton refers to " Sir Richard Perrott " 
and his pedigree in the following terms : 

The pedigree this charlatan Baronet delivered in is a most curious travesty of 
the genuine one appertaining to that family ; with which \_l.e. the travesty] I 
have treated my readers in No. 13 [20] Appendix, and may throw some light on 
the history of a mian who blazed on the town about thirty-five years ago, and 
practised his imposture so successfully, that there exists a fiat of his present 
Majesty, dated 3rd Jan. 1767, and properly authenticated in the Heralds' 
Office, for his taking title and rank from 1st July, 1716. 

Subsequently, in his Appendix (pp. 73-75), Fenton prints part of 
" A pedigree of the late Sir Richard Perrott, Bart." but with this 

note :— 

Y 2 


This pedigree was left in the hands of the late Mr. Kimber, and is published 
in the Appendix to his Baronetage ; but I have transcribed only such parts as 
are imposture, for the charlatan made use of the real pedigree of the Perrott 
family of Pembrokeshire as a fulcrum to support his fabulous additions. 

But it must be added that it is not only those latter portions of 
the pedigree, which Mr. Fenton has quoted, that are fabricated im- 
postures. The whole of the earlier portions are interlarded with grave 
mis-statements, like that of the imaginary siege of Carew Castle, 
several of which are pointed out in Notes on the Perrot Family, by 
Edward Lowry Barnwell, M. A. (printed in the Archceologia Camhrensis, 
and also in royal 8vo. 1867, and noticed in our Vol. V. p. 369.) 

" Sir" T. C- Banks, in his Baronia Anglica Concentrata, 4to. 1844, 
gives an account of the family of Perrot (vol. ii. p. 116) among those 
he styles Barones Pretenmssi, because Ralph Perot had summons to 
attend a parliament at Salisbury 25 Edw. I.; and he betrays such 
want of judgment as to quote the pedigree from Kimber and Johnson, 
although with the remark that "there is reason to look upon it as 
neither correct in point of chronology, or identity of persons and mar- 
riages." But in a note below, after copying its title, as pretended to be 
written by Owen Griffiths, he condemns it more strongly, in these 
terms : " This pedigree so entitled, and declaratory of honours which 
were never granted, one would imagine was rather the fruit of a dis- 
ordered mind, than the produce of a serious research and faithful re- 
presentation." Yet afterwards, in p. 118, Banks admits the pre- 
tended Baronetcy of 1611 ! 

It is stated in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (edit. 1847), that 
" Sir Richard Perrott" died in 1796; and, after the ample and out- 
spoken reproofs we have now quoted, it would naturally be supposed 
that this flagrant imposture died away with him. Such, however, is 
not the actual result. We have been able to trace the persevering- 
assumption of the title, though in obscurity, from time to time, until 
at length, about five-and- twenty years ago, it again crept into our 
genealogical manuals, into the works of Burke, Debrett, Lodge, and 
Thorn — but never, we believe, into that of Dod, nor into the list of 
Baronets given in The Royal Kalendar or Red Book. The identity 
of the assumed dignity is shown by the date of the 1st of IMay, 1716. 


Sill Bernard Bruce of Connington and Exton and 

HIS Descendants. 

'ilie following statement appears in Burke's Peerage, ilt. 
Elgin : — 

Robert de Bruce, Lord of Annaudale, married in 1244 Isabel, 
daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 3rd Earl of Gloucester ; by wlioui he 
had a son, Robert, his heir, and Bernard of Connington and Exton. 
Sir Bernard was the ancestor of the only cadet branch of the House 
of Bruce which can boast of royal descent. He was seated at Exton, 
CO. Rutland, and was father of Sir John Bruce, whose only daughter 
and heir, Jane Bruce of Exton, was wife of Sir Nicholas Green. Her 
daughter and heir, Joan Green of Exton, was wife of Sir Thomas 
Culpeper ; and her daughter and heir, Catherine Culpeper of Exton, 
was wife of Sir John Harington, Her descendant in the 4th degree, 
Sir John Harington of Exton, heir -general of the only cadet branch 
of the royal Bruces, married Lucy Sidney, daughter of Sir William 
Sidney of Penshurst, by whom she had a son, John Harington, 
created Lord Harington of Exton by James the First, whose line 
failed ; and a daughter,^ Elizabeth Harington, wife of Sir Edward 
Montagu of Boughton. Through her the three families of the House 
of Montagu, the Dukes of Montagu and Manchester, and the Earls of 
Sandwich, Sondes Earl of Feversham, and his descendants, Lords 
Monson and Sondes, and Cholmley Baronet of Exton, are all descended 
from the Royal House of Bruce. 

This statement is for the most part erroneous. In Barkers 
Extinct Baronetage^ title Cotton of Connington, it is stated 
that Agnes de Bruce, who married Sir Hugh Wesenham, was 
daughter of Sir John de Bruce of Connington and Exton, and 
sole heir to her brother Bernard de Bruce — this also is incorrect. 

Several conflicting accounts of this branch of the family of 
Bruce are given by other writers, all of which with one exception 
are found to be untrue. 

As the descendants of Sir Bernard Bruce are numerous,^ it has 

' Sir James Harington (not Sir John, as in Burke), who married F-ucy Sidney, left 
Ijy her three married sons and eight married daughters. M. I. I'xtoii. Wright's 
Rutlandshire, p. 55. 


been thought that a correct pedigree of the Bruces of Conning- 
ton and Exton would be acceptable. 

Robert de Bruce, who married Isabel de Clare, is commonly 
known as '' The Competitor ;^' it will be convenient so to call 
him, and to speak of Bernard de Bruce, his alleged son, as Ber- 
nard I. The first question which arises is this — Was Bernard I. 
son of the Competitor or was he his brother ? The Visitation of 
Hunts in 1613 states that he was brother of the Competitor, and 
Camden adopts that statement. 

" Connington was antfently" (says Camden) " holden of the Honor of 
Huntingdon, and there, within a square ditch, are traces of an antient 
castle ; the seat, as also Saltrey, by gift of Canute, of Thurkill the 
Dane. On his exile it was, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, 
granted by the King to Waltheof afterwards Earl of Northumberland 
and Huntingdon, who married Judith niece of William the Conqueror, 
and whose daughter ]\[aud conveyed her inheritance in marriage first 
to Simon de St. Liz, and secondly to David son of Malcolm the First, 
King of Scotland, and the holy Margaret his wife, niece to King 
Edward the Confessor, grandchild to Edmund surnamed Atheling, by 
which marriage the stem royal of the Saxons became united with the 
blood royal of the Scotish Kings; in whose male line that Earldom 
and this lordship continued until Isabel, daughter and heiress of David 
Earl of Huntingdon, brother to Malcolm, William, and Alexander, 
successively Kings of Scotland, brought them both, by her marriage 
with Eobert de Brus, into that family. She gave this lordship of 
Connington, with other large possessions, to her second son Bernard de 
Brus ; and after four descents in that stem they were, by the marriage 
of Anne, daughter and coheir of Sir John de Brus, with Sir Hugh de 
Wesenham, conveyed into this family; after three more descents, Mary, 
niece and heiress of Thomas Wesenham, married William second son 
of Sir Richard Cotton of Ridwere, co. Stafford, from whom Sir John 
Cotton is lineally now descended." ^ 

A deed, stated in Wright's Rutlandshire^ p. 53, is consistent 
with either theory. It is dated Wednesday next before (25th 
April) the Feast of St. Mark the Evangelist, 11 Edw. I. 1285 ; 
and by it Bernard de Brus, son of Bernard de Brus of Exton, 
gave to the church and monks of St. Andrew's, Northampton, 

' Cotton J\ISS. cited Beauties of England and Wales, vol. vii. p. 543*. 


the church of Exton, and, inter alia, the pasture of cattle Avhich 
thcj had of the ahns of Isabel his grandmother. 

But whether Bernard II. were grandson or nephew of the 
Competitor, he would in either case have had a grandmotlier 

There is no trace of any earlier Bernard de Bruce than 
Bernard I., and, assuming that he was the first of that name, the 
question may be considered as settled by the fact that in 1263 
Bernard de Brus was a Justice Itinerant. He is so named in 
twelve fines of lands in Rutlandshire levied 47 Hen. III. (Feet 
of Fines, Rutlandshire, Hen. III. ISTos. 56 to 67 inclusive. J 

At that time, if he were son of the Competitor, he could not 
have been more than seventeen years old ; for the Competitor did 
marry until 1244; and Bernard, being a younger son, could not 
have been born before 1246. Three years later, viz. in August 
1266, a writ of extent issued of the lands " which were of Ber- 
nard de Brus our enemy lately deceased," which could not have 
applied to a youth only twenty years old. (50 Hen. III. Esc. 
K 61.) 

The next statement that Sir Bernard was father of Sir John, 
whose daughter married Sir N. Green, is found to be untrue. 
Two generations are omitted. Bernard I. was succeeded by his 
son and heir Bernard II., who died on the morrow of St. Edmund 
the King, Xovember 29 Edw. I. 1300, at which time Bernard 
III. his son and heir, was 26 years of age. (12 Edw. 11. Esc. 
Ko. 38.) 

Bernard III. died in or before June 1330, leaving two sons, 
Bernard IV. and John. Bernard IV. the eldest son was 18 
years of age in June 1331, when the Inquisition Esc. 4 Edw. III. 
No. 9, was taken. 

Bernard IV. died without issue, when Sir John, his brother, 
became his heir. (Esc. 24 Edw. III. No. 76.) 

Sir John died in 1344 or 1345, leaving four daughters, and 
his w'lte enceijite. By inquisitions taken after his death it was 
found that his four daughters, Agnes, rloan, Elizabeth, and Elen, 
were his heirs quoad tunc, but that his widow Margaret was 
gravida et prcegnans. A posthumous son was born 19 or 20 Edw. 


HI. 1346-7, who was named Bernard (^Bernard V.), and died 
the following year. 

Afjnes his eldest sister and coheir married Sir Huo-h Wessen- 
ham, and obtained livery of all the lands which were of her 
brother, as if she had been his sole heir ; but her sister Joan or 
Jane having married Nicholas Grene, asserted her right to an 
equal share, and eventually partition was made between them, 
their sisters Elizabeth and Elen having become nuns. The 
result was that Connington w^as assigned to Sir Hugh Wesenham 
and Agnes his wife, and Exton to Sir Nicholas Grene and Jane 
his wife. (33 Edw. III. Esc. No. 46.) 

From this time the male line of this branch of the family of 
Bruce disappears. 

It would seem that Bernard de Brus IL had a brotlier John 
Avho had a son Bernard, for in 14 Edw. II. 1321, Bernard son of 
John de Brus levied a fine of the manor and advowson of Exton 
to Bernard son of Bernard de Brus, in consideration of £300 ster- 
lings (Fines Kutland, Edw. II. No. 35,) and a fine of the manor 
and advowson of Connington to the same Bernard son of Bernard 
de Brus in consideration of 200 marks silver. (Fines, Hunts, 
Edw. IL No. 90.) 

As these fines were siir conusance de droit tantum and not come 
ceo it may be inferred that Bernard son of Bernard was in pos- 
session of the estates and that Bernard son of John had only a 
charge on them. This was probably his father's portion, and 
amounted to the sums mentioned in the fines, which for that time 
were very considerable. It may be assumed that this John was 
brother of Bernard II. 

In 1375 Elene, daughter and heir of Bernard de Bruce of 
Thrapston, released to Nicholas Grene and Joan his wife all her 
right and interest in the manor of Exton and lands in Hameldon, 
Cotsmore, and Greteham, and in the advowson of the church of 
Connington, which were of Bernard de Bruce, grandfother of 
said Joan ; and by another deed of even date the said Elene de 
Bru(;e released to Robert Lovetot and Robert de AYessenham all 
her right and interest in the manor of Connington, and in the 
advowson of the church of Connington, which w^ere of Bernard 


do Bruce, great-grandfather of the said Robert de Wessenham. 
(Placita coram Rege, Mich. 49 Edw. III. Calendar p. 23.) 

No consideration is mentioned in either of these deeds, and, as 
Bernard de Bruce III. grandfather of Joan Grene and great- 
grandfather of Robert de Wessenham was conusee in the fines 
levied by Bernard son of John, this reference in the deeds to 
Bernard III. seems intended to connect the deeds with the fines 
as arising out of the same transaction, viz. the purchase by Ber- 
nard III. of all the right and interest of Bernard son of John in 
the Connington and Exton estates, the fair inference is that 
Elene de Bruce was either daughter or grand-daughter of Ber- 
nard son of John. 

Before we take leave of the Bruce pedigree a fact connected 
with it deserves to be mentioned, as I have not seen it elsewhere. 
It appears from the documents which have been examined in the 
course of this inquiry that Robert Brus, son of the Competitor 
and father of King Robert, left a widow Alianora who married 
for her second husband Richard le Waleys. 

This Robert was called Robert de Brus senior, — his son, after- 
wards King Robert, being Robert de Brus junior. The manors 
of Connington and Exton were held by knight's service of the 
Honor of Huntingdon, which Honor was vested in the Compe- 
titor and his heirs until it was seized by Edw. I. as forfeited by 
Robert de Brus junior. 

Robert de Brus senior had married the Countess ofCarriek, 
and was in her right styled Earl of Car rick. She died in 1292, 
and thereupon he surrendered her Earldom to his son Robert 

By an Inquisition taken in 1304, after the death of Robert de 
Brus, senior, it was found that Robert de Brus, Earl of Carryk, 
was his son and heir, and was of the age of 30 years ; he was in 
fact born in 1274. 

By another Inquisition taken under the same writ, it was 
found that Robert de Brus junior was his next heir. (Esc. 
32 Edw. 1. No. 46.) 

The date of the death of Robert de Brus senior does not 
appear. y 

8th ]\[arch, 8 Edw. II. 1315, a writ issued on the petition of 


Alianora, "now wife of Eichard le Waleys, formerly wife of 
-Robert de Brus deceased," to inquire what lands the said Robert 
de Brus held of the King's father. This writ recited that the pe- 
titioner claimed dower of "all the lands which were of said 
Robert de Brus on the day he died, and which on the death of 
said Robert were taken into our fatlier's hands, and now are in 
our hands by reason of the forfeiture of Robert de Brus, son and 
heir of said Robert. (Esc. 10 Edw. II. No. 67.) 

By an Inquisition taken under this writ 10 Feb. 10 Edw. II. 
1317, it was found that Bernard de Brus held of said Robert de 
Brus the eighth part of a knight's fee in Exton, who now holds 
of the King by reason of the forfeiture of Robert, son of the said 
Robert. (Same Esc.) 

By an Inquisition taken in April 1319, before the Escheator 
of Hunts, after the death of Bernard de Brus, senior (Bernard II.), 
it was found that he died in Nov. 1300 ; that he held the manor 
of Connington of Robert de Brus, late Earl of Carrick ; and the 
said manor is now held of the King propter forisfacturam Roherti 
cleBrus j^roditoris Anglice : and further, that the services of the 
said manor had been assigned to Eleanor wife of Robert de Brus 
senior, in the name of dower. (Esc. 12 Edw. II. at No. 38.) 

By another Inquisition, taken in May 1319, before the Es- 
cheator of Hunts, after the death of said Bernard (Bernard II.), 
it was found that said Bernard held the manor of Exton of the' 
gift of Constantia de Morteyn ; that the said manor was held of 
Robert de Bruys, father of Robert de Bruys who now is ; and is 
now held of the King by reason of the forfeiture of Robert de 
Bruys who now is. (Esc. l2 Edw. II. No. 38.) 

It thus appears that Alianora the wife of Richard le Waleys 
was widow of that Robert de Brus of whom Bernard de Brus 
held Exton ; that the Robert de Brus of whom Bernard de Brus 
lield Connington was at one time Earl of Carrick, and was 
father of Robert de Brus, who in 1304 is styled Earl of Carrick, 
and in 1319 is described as Proditor Anglice; and that the ser- 
vices of the manor of Connington were assigned to Eleanor 
as widow of Robert de Brus senior, in the name of dower, 
Robert his son, Earl of Carrick and King of Scotland, being 
Robert de Brus junior. 


We now proceed to trace the descent from Agnes, wife of Sir 
Hugh Wessenham. Sir Robert Cotton the antiquary was her 
lineal descendant and eldest coheir, and through her became pos- 
sessed of Connington. In 1613 be entered his pedigree in the 
Visitation of Hunts, and traced his descent from Bernard I. de 
Brus, through Mary, who is there stated to have been daughter 
and heir of Eobert Wessenham. In the extract from the Cotton 
MS. given above, Camden describes her merely as ^' niece of 
Thomas Wessenham," as in fact she was. The statement in the 
Visitation that she was daughter of Robert Wessenham is untrue, 
— it has however been adopted by all subsequent writers. 

It is strange that such a mistake should have occurred ; for 
the lady in question was buried under a sumptuous monument in 
the church of St. Margaret, Westminster, (the parisli in which 
Sir Robert Cotton lived,) from which he ought to 
have known that this statement Avas fidse ; and there 
were painted windows in his church at Conning- 
ton which led to the same conclusion. In the 
same Visitation, printed by the Camden Society, 
p. 76, is a pedigree of Folvile, which seems to 
have been an extinct family, not brought down later than the 
reign of Edward HI. But the arms of Folvile arc shewn, viz. 
Barry nebule of six, argent and sable, a canton gules. 

The lady in question married William Cotton, who was killed 
at the first battle of St. Alban's, May 1455, and she afterwards 
became the wife of Thomas Lacy, and of Sir Thomas Bylling, 
Chief Justice of England. She survived her three husbands, and 
died 14 March, 1499. Her monument no longer exists, having 
been removed in or before 1758 ;^ but Weever gives engravings 
'of it and of that of her first husband, William Cotton. On lier 
monument the inscription was — 

Here lyeth . Dame Mary Bylling, late wife to Sir Thomas Bylling, Chief Justice of 
England, and to William Coton, and Thomas Lacy, which Mary died 14 March, 

1499.— Weever, 268, 269. 

On one side of her monument (an altar monument) were three 
shields with the arms of her three husbands, each impaling, not 
Wessenham, but Folvylle quartering Bruce. In the centre 
Cotton, impaling quarterly Folvylle and Bruce; on the dexter side 

' Nichols's Leicestershire, ii. 834. 


Bjlling, impaling Folvylle and Bruce; on the sinister, Lacy, 
impaling Folvylle and Bruce. On the top of the monument are 
four shields : 1. Folvylle, quartering Wessenham. 2. Bruce, 
quartering Wessenham. 3. Quarterly : i. Folvylle ; ii. Bruce; 
iii. A chevron between three eagles displayed ;^ iv. Wessenliam, 
4. Folvylle, quartering Wessenham. At the head of the monu- 
ment are Folvylle and Wessenham quarterly. 

On William Cotton's monument the arms are Cotton impaling, 
quarterly, I and 4 Folvylle, 2 Bruce, 3 Wessenham; so that in 
every instance in which the arms of Wessenham occur they are 
preceded by those of Folvylle. 

At the time of the Visitation in 1613 there were in the church 
of Connington the arms of this Lady's three husbands, each 
impaling, quarterly: 1. Folvylle; 2. Bruce; 3. Wessenham; 4. A 
chevron ermine between three double-headed eagles displayed. 

Also, on another shield, Bruce and Wessenham quarterly. 

Also a lady kneeling, bearing on her habit the same arms, viz. 
Bruce and Wessenham quarterly ; possibly these arms and the 
figure may have been reversed on some reparation of the window. 

All these arms are shown in the Visitation of Hunts 1613, 
which also shews the arms enamelled on an old basin and ew^er 
at Connington in the possession of Sir Robert Cotton, viz. Quar- 
terly, 1. and 4. Cotton; 2. Folvylle; 3. A chevron ermine between 
three double-headed eagles displayed ; with an escutcheon of pre- 
tence of Wessenham and Bruce quarterly. 

^ This in the Visitation of Hunts is given as the arms of Robert Wessenham's wife, 
the alleged mother of Mary. 


There is no instance of Cotton either impaling or quarterhig 
Wessenham except as subordinate to Folvylle. 

It is suprising that, with these arms constantly before him, Sir 
Robert Cotton did not recognise the fact that Mary the wife of 
William Cotton was not a Wessenham, but a Folvylle. 

With respect to her three husbands, the "Visitation of Hunts, 
1613, says that Sir Thomas Bylling was her second husband and 
Thomas Lacy her third. 

i\Ir. Foss was aware that Sir Thomas Billing's first wife did 
not die until March 1479. He therefore correctly states that Sir 
Thomas Billinor was her third husband; but he makes Thomas 
Lacy her first husband and William Cotton her second. (Foss's 
Judges, iv. 418.) 

It will be shown that each of these statements is incorrect. 
Her first husband was William Cotton, her second Thomas Lacy, 
her third Sir Thomas Bylling. 

Sir Hugh Wessenham had by Agnes his wife, daughter of Sir 
John de Brus and coheir of her brother Bernard, a son Robert, 
who was born in 1363 and died in or before 10 Hen. IV. 1408-9. 
This Robert had two sons and two daughters, viz. Thomas, 
Robert, Joan, and Cicely. Thomas enfeoffed certain persons, to 
the intent that they should settle Connington on Thomas Coton^ 
son and heir of William Coton and Mary late his wife, then the 
wife of Thomas Lacy in tail male. Remainder to Richard 
Coton, brother of said Thomas, in tail male; remainder to said 
Thomas Lacy and Mary his wife with divers remainders over. 
Thomas Wessenham died in 1459 without issue; whereupon the 
feoffees entered. Robert Wessenham, his brother, entered upon 
them and disseised them; but by a deed dated 14 October, 4 
Edw. IV. 1464, he released to them all his right. He died on 
Saturday after Michaelmas Day, 17 Edw. IV. 1477, without 
issue; and by an inquisition taken in November of the same year 
it was found that the said ]\Iary Lacy, John Kebell, and Thomas 
Rydhyll or Rydyll were his heirs, Mary as being daughter of 
Joan Folvylle, one of the sisters and co-heirs of said Robert Wes- 
senham ; John Kebell as son and heir of Ann, the other daughter of 
Joan Folvylle; and Thomas Rydhyll or Rydyll, as son and heir of 
Cicely, the second sister and heir of said Robert Wessenham ; 


and that Mary Lacy was then of the age of 54 years and more, John 
Kebell of the age of 40 years and more, and Thomas Kydyll of 
the age of 36 years and more. (17 Edw. IV. Esc. Xo. 71.) 

Sir John Cotton of Connington, fourth Baronet, the lineal 
descendant and heir-general of Mary Folvylle, died without issue. 
His only sister and heir, Frances Cotton, married William Han- 
bury, by whom she had a son who died unmarried, and two 
daughters who eventually became her coheirs, viz. Mary the 
eldest, who married the Eev. Martin Annesley; and Catherine 
Avho married Yelters Cornewall of Moccas, co. Hereford. 

The present coheirs of Mary Folvylle are, the Rev. Francis 
Annesley and Sir George Henry Cornewall, Bart. Mr. Annes- 
ley, as the eldest coheir of Sir Eobert Cotton, is a family trustee 
of the British Museum, and as Mary Folvylle was the eldest 
coheir of Agnes Bruce, who was the eldest coheir of Sir Bernard 
Bruce, Mr. Annesley is the eldest of all the co- heirs of Sir 

Neither John Kebell nor Thomas Eydyll has yet been identified. 

It remains to correct the statement of Sir B. Burke respecting 
the descent from Jane Green of Exton, wife of Sir Nicholas 
Green, that her daughter and heir, Joan Green of Exton, was 
wife of Sir Thomas Culpeper, and her daughter and heir Cathe- 
rine Culpeper of Exton was wife of Sir John Harington. It 
appears, from Esc. 9 Hen. V. No. 55, that Nicholas Grene and 
Joan his wife had two daughters, viz. Elizabeth wife of Sir John 
de Holand and Alianor wife of Colepeper; that Elizabeth 

died without issue ; that Joan Grene survived her husband and 
daughters and died 28 June, 1421, leaving John Colepeper, son 
of her daughter Alianor, her heir; and that the said John Cole- 
peper was at the date of the Inquisitions (June and August 1421) 
of the age of 40 years and more. 

It further appears from Esc. 16 H. 5, No. 11, that John Cole- 
peper and Jaliana his wife, being seised of the manor of Exton, 
by deed of 4th May in the 7 th year of Henry VI. 1429, en- 
feoffed certain persons to the use of said John Colepeper in fee. 
John Colepeper died leaving only a daughter, Katherine, then 
of the age of 24 years. Afterwards Katherine married Sir John 
Ilarryngton ; they had issue Robert Harryngton. Sir John died; 


Katherine died, and tlic use of tlie manor descended to said 
Robert Harryngton, son and heir of said Katlierine, being at the 
death of Katherine of the age of 40 years and more. Robert 
Harryngton died 10 February 16 Hen. VIl. 1501, and the use 
of the manor descended to John Harryngton, as son and heir of 
Robert, and at the death of Robert of the age of 30 years ; 
afterwards John Harryngton, son of Robert died, viz. 6 Nov. 
1523; and the use of the manor descended to John Harryngton, 
son and heir of said John Harryngton, at the death of his 
father of the age of 30 years and n:ore. 

This John Harington was succeeded by his eldest son Sir 
James, who married Lucy Sidney, sister of Sir Philip, by whom 
he had eioditeen children. The eldest son was created Lord 
Harington of Exton. He had a son, the second Lord Harington, 
who died without issue ; and ten daughters, of whom Frances, 
wife of Sir Robert Chichester of Ralegh, eventually became sole 
heir to her brother. Her daughter and heir, Elizabeth Chiches- 
ter, married the first Earl of Elgin, and her heir-general is the 
present Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

The coheirs therefore of Sir Bernard Bruce I. are IMr. Annesley 
and Sir George H. Cornewall, as representing ]\lary Folvylle — the 
representatives, if any, of Jane Folvylle and of Cicely Rydliyll — 
being coheirs of Agnes Bruce ; and the Duke of Buckingham as 
sole heir of Jane Bruce, the wife of Sir Nicholas Grene, and 
youngest coheir of Sir Bernard Bruce. 




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Fines in co. Rutland, temp. Hen. III. No. 56 to 67, both inclusive, were levied 
coram Gilberto de Preston et Bernardo de Brus, justitiariisitinerantibus. Some 
iji crasthio Paschce, i.e. Monday next after Easter week, 47 Hen. III. the 
others on Monday and Tuesday after Ascension Day in the same year. The 
fine next before these, No. 55, was levied in Easter Term, 46 Hen. HI.; the 
fine next after these, No. 68, was levied in Hilary Term, 50 Hen. III. 

50 Hen. III. Esc. No. 61. .20 Aug. (1266).— Breve tantum. 
Extent, terrarum qu£e fueriint Bernardi de Brus inimici nostri nuper 
defuncti. Conyngton, Hunts. 

32 Edw. I. (1304), Esc. No. 46. — Inquisitiones post mortem 
Eoberti de Brus senioris. Writ dated 1 May, 32 Edw. I. (1304). 

Inquisition taken 6 June, 32 Edw. I. Robertus de Brus senior die 
quo obiit tenuit Manerium de Caldecote de Domino Rege in Capite de 
Honore de Hunt. Dicunt quod Robertus de Brus, Comes Carryk, et 
filius pr^dicti Roberti de Brus, est propinquior haeres ejusdem Roberti, 
et est eetatis xxvii annorum et amplius. Menib. 4. 

Inquisition taken in Middlesex. Robertus de Brus junior est filius 
et haeres Roberti de Brus senioris, et est astatis triginta annorum. 

10 Edw. II. Esc. No. 67.— Writ dated 8 March, 8 Edw. II. (1315), 
reciting tbat Alianora, now wife of Richard le Waleys, formerly wife 
of Robert de Brus dudum defuncti, had petitioned for dower of all 
lands which were of said Robert de Brus die quo obiit, et qu£e per 
mortem ejusdem Roberti in manns patris nostri capta fuerunt, et mine 
pro forisfact. Roberti de Brus filii et haered. pr^dicti Roberti in 
manum nostram existunt. Orders inquiry what lands said Robert 
die quo obiit tenuit de dicto patre nostro. 

Inquisition inde taken in co Rutland, 12 Feb. 10 Edw. II. (1317). 
Bernardus de Brus tenuit de pr^edicto Roberto de Brus octavam 
partem unius militis in Exton, qui nunc tenet de Domino Rege per 
forisfact. Roberti filii ejusdem Roberti. 

Inquisition inde co. Cambridge. Robertus de Brus tenuit octavam 
partem feodi unius militis q. Bernardus de Brus nunc tenet et valet 
per ann. cc s. 

12 Edw. II. (1319), Esc. No. 38.— Inq. post mortem Bernardi de 
Bruys senioris, taken 2 April, 12 Edw. 11. (1319), at Yakele (Yaxley). 
Bernard de Bruys, senior, on the day of his death held no lands, &c. 
of the King m capite in co. Hunts ; but said Bernard held the manor 

Al^jy niS DESCENDANTS. 3-11 

of Connington de Roberto de Bruys nuper com. de Carryk in Capite 
per servitium militare, viz. p. tertiam partem quarts partis feodi imius 
militis, quod qiiidem manerium pr^edictus Bernardus senr. dedit cuidam 
Bernardo filio suo et hatred, suis in perpetnimi. Said Bernard son of 
Bernard senior is liis heir, and was at the death of his father of the 
age of 26 years. Bernard senior died in crastino S* Edmnndi Regis 
anno regui Regis Edwardi filii Regis Henrici vicesimo nono 23 Nov. 
(1300). Dictum manerium tenetur de Domino Rege per servitimn 
praedictum ppr. forisfacturam Roberti de Bruys proditoris Anglia?, et 
dicunt quod pr^edicta servitia prasdicti manerii assignata fuerunt 
Eleanora? uxori Roberti de Bruys senioris, tenendum nomine dotis. 

Inquisition taken at Uppingham, 10 May, 12 Edw. II. The jurors 
say that Bernard de Bruys senior and Agatha his wife held jointly 
the Manor of Exton of the gift of Constantia de Morteyn. Habendum 
to them, their heirs and assigns. Said Agatha survived her husband 
and held said manor after his death until she, in the time of Robert 
de Bruys, father of Robert de Bruys who now is, of whom said manor 
was held by knight's service as of the Honor of Huntingdon, enfeoffed 
Bernard de Bruys, son and heir of said Bernard and Agatha, of said 
manor, to hold to him and his heirs. And said manor is now held 
of the King in capite by reason of the forfeiture of Robert de Bruys, 
who now is, by the service of one-eighth part of a fee. 

Rot. Orig. Abbr. p. 289, 18 Edw. II. Rot. 26, (1324-5) —Bernar- 
dus de Brus finem fecit p. decem marcas pro lie. habend. feoffandi 
Rob"^ de Brus cl'icum de tertia parte Man'ii de Exton in com. Rotel. 

Rot. Orig. Abbrev. p. 289, 18 Edw. II. Rot. 26, (1324-5).— Ber- 
nardus de Brus finem fecit p. quinque marcas p. lie. h'enda feoffandi 
Rob°^ de Brus clericum de Manerio suo de Conyton et advocacione 
Ecclesias ejusdem villae. 

Fines, co. Hunts, 19 Edw. II. (1325), No. 117.— In the Octave of 
St. Michael, Robert de Brus clerk levied a fine sur done, grant, and 
render of the manor of Conyngton and advowson of the church of 
the said vill to said Bernard and Agnes for their lives. Remainder 
to Bernard son of said Bernard in tail male ; remainder to said 
Bernard in fee ; and this concord was made by precept of the King. 

Fines, co, Rutland, 19 Edw. II. No. 48.— In the Octave of St. 
Michael, Robert de Brus, clerk, levied a fine sur done, grant, and 
render of two-thirds of the Manor of Exton to Bernard de Brus for 
his life ; remainder to Bernard son of Bernard et Matill. uxori ejus in 


special tail; remainder to Bernard in fee; and this concord was 
made by the King's precept. 

Fines, co. Rutland, 19 Edw. II. (1325), No. 47.— In the Octave 
of St. Michael. Inter Bernardum filium Bernardi de Brus et Matill. 
iixorem ejus querentes, per Alexandrum de Hadenham custodem 
ipsor. Bernard, et Matill. p. breve Domini Regis ad lucrandum, et 
Bernardum de Brus deforc. 

This is a fine sur concessit levied by Bernard de Brus of one-third of 
the manor of Exton to Bernard son of Bernard de Brus and Matilda 
his wife, in special tail. Et heec concordia facta fuit per prseceptum 
Domini Regis. 

It appears from 4 Edw. III. Esc. No. 9, that Bernard de Brus, the 
conusee in this fine, was born in July 1311, and was only 14 years of 
age when this fine was levied. The fine was therefore levied per 
pr^eceptum Domini Regis, and the conusees appeared by their guar- 
dian, not ad lucrandum et perdendum, but ad lucrandum only. 

4 Edw. III. No. 9. Inquisitio p. m. Bernardi de Brus taken in co. 
Rutland, 18 June, 4 Edw. III. (1330). — Bernardus de Brus tenuit die 
quo obiit duas partes manerii de Exton de D'no Rege ad terminum 
vitae suae, per finem in curia D'ni Regis inde levatam de dono et con- 
cessione Roberti de Brus clerici : ita quod post mortem ipsius Ber- 
nardi du£e partes prsedictas cum pert. Bernardo filio Bernardi de Brus 
et Matill. uxori ejus et h^redibus de corporibus ipsorum Bernardi 
filii Bernardi et Matill. exeuntibus remaneant ; tenend. de D'no rege. 
Remainder to said Bernard in fee, which is held of the King in 
capite as of the Honor of Huntingdon " p. forisfactur. Rob*^ de Brus ; 
per servitium duodecimse partis feodi unius militis." And the jurors 
say that 

Bernard de Brus is son and heir of said Bernard, and will be of the 
age of 19 years on the eve of St. James next. 

4 Edw. III. No. 9 (1333). Inquisitio post mortem Bernardi de 
Brus, taken in co. Huntingdon, 14 June, 4 Edw. III. 1330. — Ber- 
nardus de Brus tenuit die quo obiit M. de Conyngton de D'no Rege in 
capite p. forisfact. Roberti de Brus conjunctim cum Agnete uxore sua,*' 
and one moiety of the advowson for life. And the jurors say that 

Bernard de Brus is son and heir of said Bernard and of the age of 
18 years and more. 

24 Edw. III. No. 76. Writ 20 Feb. 24 Edw. I. (1350).— Inq. p. 
mortem Matill. who was wife of Benedict de Fulsham, taken at Exton 


6 May, 24 Edw. III. 1350, say that Matillda who was wife of Benedict 
de Fulsham held, die quo ohiit, the manor of Exton for her life of the 
inheritance of Agnes and Joan, sisters and heirs of Bernard de Bruys, 
son of John de Bruys of Conynton : because they say that John 
Hotham, Bishop of Ely, gave said manor Bernardo filio Bemardi de 
Bruys et pr^edict^e Matill. uxori su^e et heredibus ipsius Bernardi 
filii Bernardi, et quia idem Bernardus obiit sine herede de corpori 
suo, descendebat jus dicti manerii Johanni de Bruys fratri et hseredi 
ipsius Bernardi; et post decessum ipsius Johannis descendebat jus, &c. 
Bernardo de Bruys, fil. et hfer. ejusdem Johannis; et post mortem 
ipsius Bernardi, descendebat jus, &c. Agneti et Johannaa soror. et 
haered. ipsius Bernardi et dicunt quod pr^edicta Matill. obiit. die 
Mai-tis prox. post festum Conversionis S*^ Pauli ult. pra^t. Dicunt 
quod dicta Agnes est astatis 10 annorum; et dicta Johanna est setatis 
9 ann. 

33 Edw. III. Esc. No. 46. Writ to the Escheator of Hunts, 24 
Feb. 32 Edw. III. (1358). — Inquire whether Bernard de Bruys was 
son and heir of John de Bruys, when he was born, when he died, and 
who are his heirs. Inquisition inde taken at Huntingdon. Bernard 
son of John de Bruys was heir of said John, and was born anno 
Regis, nunc xix. et post unum ann. in teg. obiit, viz. anno xx'^^^ Regis 
supradicti. Agnes now wife of Sir Hugh Wesenham, Joan now wife 
of Sir Nicholas Grene, Elizabeth, and Elen, the four daughters of 
said John de Bruys, were heirs of said Bernard. Afterwards said 
Elizabeth and Elen took the religious habit at Bolinton, co. Lincoln. 

By a,n inquisition taken at Oakham, 7 April, 32 Edw. III. it was 
found that Bernard de Bruys died within one year from his birth, and 
in the twenty-first year of the King's reign. That Agnes wife of Sir 
Hugh Wesenham is of the age of 19 years, and Joan wife of Sir 
Nicholas Grene of the age of 17 years. That Elizabeth de Bruys and 
Elen de Bruys entered the Priory of Bolynton, co. Lincoln, of the 
Order of St. Gilbert of Sempringham, and took the habit of religion 
in the same, and were there professed and recluse for the last seven 
years. That the manor of Exton was in the King's hands after the 
death of John de Bruys by reason of the minority of Bernard son and 
heir of said Sir John, and on occasion of the death of Matilda who was 
wife of Bernard de Bruys, brother of said John, which Matilda held 
said manor for her life of the inheritance of said John de Bruys while 
he lived, and of said Bernard son of John, which John and Bernard 
died in the lifetime of INIatilda, and she died about Christmas, 24 
Edw. III. 


It is stated in these proceedings that inquisitions were taken after 
the death of John de Bruys, by which it was found that his four 
daughters, Agnes, Joan, Elizabeth, and Elen were his heirs quoad 
tunc, but that Margaret his widow was gravida et prcegnans. That 
Agnes had proved her age, and that all the lands of Bernard de 
Bruys had been delivered to her and Sir Hugh de Wesenham on the 
false suggestion that she was sole heir. 

14 May, 32 Edw. II. Sir Hugh de Wesenham and Agnes his wife 
were summoned to shew cause why the lands which were of Bernard 
de Bruys should not be divided between said Agnes and Joan, and on 
21 Feb. 33 Edw. III. 1359, a writ of partition issued. 

Michaelmas, 44 Edw. III. (1370). Nicholas Grene and Joan his 
wife levied fine sur done, grant, and render of the manor of Exton to 
said Nicholas and Joan in special tail male; remainder to Elizabeth, 
daughter of said Nicholas and Joan, and the heirs of her body by Sir 
John de Holand : remainder to said Nicholas and Joan in special tail : 
remainder to said Nicholas in fee. Fines, Rutland, Edw. lit., No. 63. 

Placita coram D'no Rege apud Lincoln de termino S^' Mich^ A^ 
regni Regis Edw. III. post conq. Anglite quadragesimo nono. Rotel. 
Hunt. Memorand. quod Elena filia et h^res Bernard! de Bruys de 
Thrapeston venit hie in cm\ die Jovis prox. post festum S*^' Ed. Regis 
isto eodem termino et profert hie in cur. quoddam scriptum quod cogn. 
esse suum scriptum et petiit illud irrotulari, et irrotulatur in hjec verba : 
A tous yceux q. cest escript verront on erront. Elene file et heir 
Bernard de Bruys de Thrapeston salutz en Dieu. Sachetz mqi avoir 
relesse et p. moy et mes heyres a tons iours quitclame a Nichol Grene 
et a Johanne sa femme tout le dreyt et le cleyme qe iay en le manoir 
de Exton ove les appurtenances en le comitee de Roteland et totes les 
aultres terres et tenementz, fees, et advowesons ove les appurt^ en les 
viles de Exton, Hameldon, Cotesmore, et Greteham en mesme le 
comitee et I'avoueson de I'eglise de Connington en la comitee de 
Hunf^. Les quels manoir ove le app't'ces, terres, et ten^, fees, et 
avoueson avantditz jadis furent a S'" Bernard de Bruys, ay el a dite 
Johanne qi heir ele est et des q'ux manoir, terres, et tenementz, fees 
et avoueson avantditz les ditz Nichol et Johanne sont en present 
tenauntz en demeigne, services, et reversion; et estre ceo jeo oblige 
moy et mes heirs a garrauntir I'avaunt ditz fees et avouesons a les 
avauntditz Nichol et Johanne et lours heii's encountre totes gentz a 
tous jours. En teismoignaunce de quele chose a cest escript ay mys 
mon seal par yceux tesmoignes : Mouns'' John Basinges, Mouns^' Tho^ 


de Buxton, &c. Escript a Exton le Mardy en le fest de S* Edmond 
le Roye. L'an du reigne le Roy Edward tierz puys le Conquest xlix. 

Alia ejus relaxatio per quam remisit Roberto Lovetot et Roberto 
filio et heeredi Mouns"^ Hugo de Wessenham totum jus, &c. quod habet 
in manerio de Conyngton in com. Hunt, et in advocatione ecclesise 
dicti manerii, quae fuerunt Bernardi de Bruys besaile a le dit Robert 
filtz le dit Mouns^" Hugh, quod manerium dictum Rob. Lovetot modo 
tenet per legem Anglise, reversione inde spectante ad dictum Rob* fil. 
Mouns"" Hugon. Facta est hsec relaxatio in verbis Gallicis et est 
ejusdem dat. cum priore carta cum iisdem testibus. 

Pasch. 14 Rich. II. (lo91.) Thomas Edesale and Joan his wife 
levied fine co7ne ceo of the manor of Exton to Joan who was wife of 
Nicholas Grene of Exton, for which the conusee gave 100 marcs 
silver. Fines, co. Rutland, Rich. II. No. 13. 

17 Rich. II. (1393). Esc. No. 37.--Writ 23 September, 17 
Rich. II. Inq. p. m. Robert Lovetot taken at Conyton Friday after 
Michaelmas Day, 17 Rich. II. (1393.) The Jurors say that Robert 
Lovetot held Conyton the day he died of the King as of the Honor of 
Huntingdon ^;^r legem Anglice, of the inheritance of Robert Wesen- 
ham, son and heir of Agnes, who was wife of said Robert Lovetot : 
that Robert Lovetot died on the eve of St. Matthew the Apostle and 
Evangelist last (20 Sept. 1393): and that Robert Wesenham is heir 
of said Agnes and of the age of 30 years and more. 

10 Hen. IV. Esc. No. 27. [Torn.]— Inquisition taken Thursday 
next after (6 Dec.) the feast of St. Nicholas Bishoj), (1408). The 
Jurors say that Agnes, who was wife of Sir Hugh de Wesenham, died 

on \^torn off"] after whose death Robert her son and heir 

entered, on whose death jus ejusd. maner. descendebat Thom^ 

heered. dicti Roberti : that said Agnes gave it to Thomas Kyrkeby for 
his life : and that Thomas Kyrkeby died Tuesday next after (11 June) 
the feast of St. Barnabas the Apostle, anno D'ni Regis nunc octavo 

9 Hen. Y. Esc. No. 55 (a.d. 1421). — Inq. p. m. Johannte qua^ fuit 
uxor Nicholai Grene de Exton. 

Writ for Hunts dated 2 Aug. 9 Hen. V. ; for Rutland 30 June, 
9 Hen. V. 

Huntingdonshire. Inquisition taken Wednesday after (10 Aug.) 
St. Lawrence, 9 Hen. V. (1421). The Jurors say that Joan, who was 
wife of Nicholas Grene, and Thomas Wesenham, of Conyngton armiger 


held the day of the death of said Joan the advowson of Conyngton 
m fee simple in following form, viz that Thomas and his heirs should 
present for one turn and Joan and her heirs for the next, and so 
alternis vicihus for ever. That said Thomas Wesenham presented John 
Eston, who was admitted, instituted, and inducted. That John Cole- 
peper armiger, kinsman and heir of said Joan, viz. son of Alianor, 
daughter of said Joan, ought to present to said church ratione turni 
sui. That the Manor of Conyngton and said advowson are held of 
King in capite as of the Honor of Huntingdon : that the said Joan 
died 28 June last, (1421). Said John Colepeper is her heir : viz. son 
of said Alianor, daughter of said Joan ; and is of the age of 40 years 
and more. 

Rutland. Inquisition taken at Okeham, Thursday next before (13 
July) the feast of St. Margaret Virgin (1421. — Recites) a fine by 
which the manor of Exton was settled on Nicholas Grene and Joan 
his wife in special tail male : remainder to Elizabeth, daughter of said 
Nicholas and Joan, and her issue by Sir John de Holand : remainder 
to Nicholas and Joan in special tail : remainder to said Nicholas in 
tail : remainder to said Nicholas in fee. And the Jurors say that 
said Joan died 28 June last (1421) Said Nicholas and Joan died 
without issue male. Said John de Holand and Elizabeth died without 
issue of said Elizabeth by said John; and so the manor ought to 
remain to John Colepeper armiger, as kinsman and heir of said 
Nicholas and Joan: viz. son of Alianor, daughter of said Nicholas 
and Joan : said John Colepeper is of the age of 40 years and more. 

Fines, Hen. YI. Rutland. No. 4. In one month from Easter, 7 Hen. 
YI. (Easter Day, 7 Hen. YI. was 27 March, 1429) Robert Dabriche- 
court and Elizabeth his wife levied a fine come ceo of lands in Cottes- 
more and Greteham which were of Bernard Breux to John Colepepir 
armiger and Juliana his wife and others, for which the conusees gave 
100 marcs silver. 

38, 39 Hen. YI. (1460) Esc. No. 63.— Inquisition taken at Stilton 
Friday next before the feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, 39 
Hen. YI. CJan. 1461.) Dicunt quod Thomas Wesenham die quo 
obiit tenuit M. de Conyngton in villa de Conyngton. Thomas "Wesen- 
ham obiit die Lunfe prox. ante (11 Nov.) festum S*^ Martini in Yeme 
ult. praet. Robertus Wesenham est frater et hseres ejusd. Thomas et 
est eetatis sexaginta et sex annor. et amplius. 

Fines, Edw. lY. Rutland. No. 4. In eight days from the Purifica- 
tion, 4 Edw. lY. (1464), Brian Talbot and Katherine his wife, daughter 


and heir of Sir John Culpepyr, levied a fine come ceo of ten messuages, 
&c. in Exton to Gervase Cljfton, for which the conusee gave 100/. 

Fines. Rutland. Edw. IV. No. 6. In one month from Easter 
21 Edw. IV. (1481), Brian Talbot and Katherine his wife, who was 
wife of Sir John Haryngton, levied a fine of lands in Exton to Robert 
Hand and Richard Forster. 

17 Edw. IV. Esc. No. 71. — Inq. p. m. Roberti Wesenham taken at 
St. Neot's Tuesday next after All Saints, 17 Edw. (IV. Nov. 1477.) 

Recites inquisition taken 1 Aug. 35 Hen. VI. nuper de facto sed 
non de jure Regis (1457). Feoffment by Thomas Wesenham to John 
G. and Thomas and others. Thomas Wesenham voluit quod idem 
Johannes et Thomas et c^teri enfeoffati omnia pr^edicta maneria ilia 
cum pert, darent Thom^e Coton fil. et hser. WilP Coton et Marine 
nuper uxoris suee nunc uxoris Thom^ Lacy ; in tail male ; remainder to 
Richard Coton brother of said Thomas in tail male ; remainder to 
said Thomas Lacy and Mary his wife, with divers remainders over : 

That Thomas Talbot, being seised of said manor, &c. according to 
the will, declaration, and intention of Thomas Wesenham, by deed of 
14 Nov. 39 Hen. VI. (1460), gave and confirmed to John Nevile, 
John Fortescue, Richard Coton, John Grenefeld, Thomas Lacy, and 
others, and to the heirs of said John Grenefeld and Thomas Lacy, so 
that said John Nevile and others, except John Grenefeld and Thomas 
Lacy, were seised as of freehold, and Grenefeld and Lacy were seised 
in fee ; and, being so seised, Robert Wesenham, named in the writ, 
entered unjustly and disseised said John, John, &c. ^^er quod said 
Robert Wesenham was seised of said manor, &c. in fee, whereupon 
said John, John, &c. re-entered. Said Robert Wesenham, by deed 
dated 14 Oct. 3 Edw. IV. (1463), released all his right to said 
Grenefeld and Lacy : 

That Thomas Lacy survived Grenefeld, and is seised in fee, and the 
survivors of the other feoffees are seised as of freehold : 

Dicunt quod M. de Conyngton valet viginti et quinque libr. et 
tenetur de D'no Rege nuno ut de honore suo de Hunt. p. servitium 
octave p'tis unius feodi militis. Robertus Wesenham obiit die Sab- 
bati post festum S^^ Mich. Arch. 17 Edw. IV. : 

Praedict. Maria, Joh^ Kebell, et Tho^ Rydhyll sunt consanguinei et 
hseredes propinquiores ejusd. Rob*^ Wesenham: viz. p'd'a Maria filia 
Johanna Folvylle, unius soror. et heered. ejusd. Rob*^ ; et prjedictus 
Johannes Kebell, filius Annje, alterius fili^e ejusdem Johanna ; et 
praedictus Thomas Rydyll, filius Ceciliag Rydyll, secund^e sororis et 
hsered. praedicti Rob*^ Wesenham: 


Et prsedicta Maria est fetalis quinquaginta et quatuor annorum et 
amplius. Et pr^edictus Johannes Kebell est astatis quadraginta 
annorum et amplius. Et pr^dictus Tho® Rydyll est aet. triginta et sex 
annorum et amplius. 

16 Hen VIII. Esc. No. 11. — Writs for Northampton and Rutland 
dated 13 Not. 15 Hen. VIII. (1523). 

Rutland. Inquisition taken 6 Oct. 16 Hen. VIII. (1524), after 
death of John Harrjngton. Sir John Colepeper and Juliana his wife 
were seised of the manor of Exton, and by deed of 4 May, 11 Hen. VI. 
(1483), enfeoffed John Rathby and others to the use of said John 
Colepeper and his heirs. Said John Colepeper had issue an only 
daughter Katherine. Said John Colepeper died, leaving said Kathe- 
rine then of the age of 24 years. Afterwards Katherine married Sir 
John Harryngton. They had issue Robert Harryngton. Said John 
Harryngton died. Katherine died : and the use of the manor 
descended to said Robert Harryngton, as son and heir of said Kathe- 
rine ; being at the death of said Katherine of the age of 40 years. 
Afterwards, viz. 12 Feb. 16 Hen. VII. (1500-1), said Robert Har- 
ryngton died ; and the use of the manor descended to John Harryng- 
ton, named in the writ, as son and heir of Robert, and at the death of 
Robert of the age of 30 years. Afterwards John Harryngton, son of 
said Robert, died, and the use of said manor descended to John 
Harryngton, as son and heir of said John. And the Jurors say that 
John Harryngton, named in the writ, died 6 Nov. last, (1523). 
John Harryngton, armiger, is his heir ; and was at the death of said 
John Harryngton of the age of 30 years and more. 

Inquisition taken at Northampton, 20 Oct. 16 Hen. VIII. 1524. 
16 Hen. VIII. Esc. No. 73. — States a recovery suffered by John 
Haryngton, named in the writ, and Alice his wife, of the manor of 
Isham to the use of John Haryngton, then son and heir apparent 
of John Haryngton, named in the writ, and Elizabeth Mutton, now 
wife of said John Haryngton the son, in special tail. Remainder to 
John Haryngton, in the writ named, in fee. John the son and 
Elizabeth his wife are still living. And the Jurors say that John 
Haryngton died 6 Nov. last ; said John is his heir, and of the age of 
30 years and more. 

It appears from 16 Hen. V. Esc. No. 11, that John Harryngton, in 
the writ named, had a son Robert, and left his wife Alice surviving. 
Comp. No 11 and No 73. He made a will in 15 Hen VIII. 


AND HIS Collection of Manuscripts. 

There is a very brief notice of the late Sir Thomas Phillij^ps in the 
popular biographical manual entitled Men of the Time, in which he is 
correctly designated as "an antiquary and genealogist," and is stated, 
less correctly, to have "published a large number of antiquarian and 
archaeological works." Most people would understand this to mean 
that he was a very voluminous author ; but that was not the case — 
the multitudinous " works " he committed to the press were not his 
own, and they were more often privately printed than published. It 
is further added that " The remarkable collection of MSS. he has 
brought together possesses a world-wide reputation." 

More accurately defined, these are actually the main features for 
which Sir Thomas Phillipps will be commemorated by future bio- 
graphers. He will scarcely be classed as an Author, notwithstanding 
the extraordinary number of '' antiquarian works," or rather records, 
of more or less value, that he (imperfectly) passed through the press. 
In this respect he was a very prolific Editor ; but his own authorship' 
was limited t© a few prefatory pages, scattered here and there, — to a 
Letter on Parochial Registration written in 1833, (of which 50 copies 
were printed,) and to little if anything else of which we are aware. The 
especial function in which Sir Thomas Phillipps surpassed the other 
Men of his Time was as a Collector of Manuscripts. For one-half of 
the Nineteenth Century, and somewhat more, he had been indefati- 
gably busy in that capacity; and it is now more than forty years since 


the late Joseph Hunter, carried away by an enthusiastic conception of 
what the Phillippsian collection had even then become, declared that 
" Sir Thomas Phillipps is a gentleman who, with the spirit of a 
Bodley, a Cotton, or a Harley, and deserving, like those eminent men, 
the respect and gratitude of his country, has brought together a col- 
lection of the Manuscripts of the middle ages such as never before was 
assembled in private hands." (Preface to Notices of English Monastic 
Libraries^ 1831.) 

Though so ardent a genealogist, his ancestry was never inserted in 
the Baronetages : only in the recent editions of Debrelt we find this 
statement : " This family is a branch of the Picton Castle family 
before the creation of the Baronetcy of Picton Castle [in 1621], and 
is believed to be descended from the Pentipark line." The fact is 
that Sir Thomas was the natural son of Thomas Phillipps, esq. of 
Broadway in Worcestershire, who devised to him that estate and 
other property of considerable amount. His father was Sheriff of 
Worcestershire in 1801, and died in 1818. The family had lived at 
Broadway for three generations, and Sir Thomas traced their ancestry 
upwards for one or two more to a yeoman living at Pypard in Wilt- 
shire : all which he duly recorded at the College of Arms. In fact, 
he was as zealously interested in the genealogy of the Phillipps's ^ as 
if his own birth had been stainless, and as if he had actually proved 
his descent from Phillips of Picton Castle.^ 

Sir Thomas Phillipps was born at Manchester on the 2nd July, 
1792. His mother was Hannah, daughter of James Walton, of 

* Among the works of the Middle Hill Press we find " Phillipps Family. Wills 
and Inquisitions post Mortem: printed from office copies obtained from the several 
registries. Folio. Several volumes.^' We are not aware, however, of copies of these 
volumes elsewhere than in Sir Thomas Phillipps's own library. 

He printed also, " Phillipps of Picton Castle, co. Pembroke, and its branches of 
Phillipps of Abertowin, Rushmore, Caermarthen, Pentypark' and Llangwnor, and 
Kelsant." 4to. 4 pages. (Printed by Bridgwater, in London, 183 . .) 

" Phillips of Wanborough and Cliffe Pypard." 3 sheets. 

He also reprinted, shortly after his marriage, " An Account of the Family and 
Descendants of Sir Thomas Molyneux, Kt. Chancellor of the Exchequer in Ireland 
to Queen Elizabeth. Evesham : By J. Agg. 1820. 4to, pp. 102." (This had been 
previously privately printed by Sir Capel Molyneux, Bart.) Also a short account 
of the Life of General Sir Thomas Molyneux. Half-sheet (14 copies). 

' The coat of Phillips of Picton Castle appears on the monument of the Rev. Owen 
Phillipps of Winchester college (ob. 1678). who was one of the Broadway family : 
and Sir Clifford William Phillipps, Sheriff of London, who was first cousin to Sir 
Thomas's grandfather, imagined that he was descended from those of Picton Castle, 
according to Warburton in his Middlesex Ilhisiraied. (Burke's General Armory.) 


Warley in Sowerby near Halifax. He entered Rugby school at the 
age of fifteen, and was afterwards a member of University college, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1815, M.A. 1820. He was elected 
a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries on the 1st April, 1819, and of 
the Royal Society in the same year. 

He was created a Baronet by patent dated September 1, 1821.^ 
He was a Deputy Lieutenant of Worcestershire ; in 1825 he served 
the office of High Sheriff" of that county ; and, if we recollect, on 
more than one occasion he put forward his name as a candidate for 
parliament : but his political professions, though intended to be of the 
most popular complexion, never met with any serious response. 

In 1861 he was appointed a Trustee of the British Museum, — an 
appointment the secret history of which it is not in our power to 
relate : but it is obvious that it was founded upon some anticipations 
as to the destination of his collections which have not finally been 

It is stated that he was a member of the Literary Society at 
Athens, and of other continental societies. ^ At home he was Fellow 
of the Geological and Royal Geographical Societies, and an honoraiy 
member of the Royal Society of Literature. 

' Sir Thomas Phillipps seems to have borne, in succession, three different coats of 
arms : 

1. Sable, a lion rampant argent within an orle of fleurs de lis or. Crest, a demi- 
liou rampant argent, holding in the paws a fleur de lis or. What authority he had 
for this simpler coat we do not find. It is given in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage 
for 1834. 

2. When raised to the dignity of a Baronet in 1821, the following coat of arms was 
granted to him : — 

Sable, semee of fleurs de lis or, a lion rampant argent, ducally crowned gold, and 
holding in the dexter fore paw a sword erect proper, all within a bordure wavy of the 
second. Crest, on a mount vert, a lion rampant sable, seme of fleurs de lis or, 
charged with a bendlet wavy ermine, and holding in the fore paw a sword as in the 
arms. These arms are correctly blazoned and engraved in Debrett's Baronetage, edit. 
Courthope, 1835. 

3. In 18.. he obtained a new grant, assimilating his coat more closely to that of 
Phillips of Picton Castle, (which is Argent, a lion rampant sable, collared and chained 
or. Crest, a lion as in the arms,) viz. Argent, a lion rampant sable, semee of fleurs 
delis, collared and chained or, holding in the dexter paw a sword erect proper, within 
a bordure wavy of the second. Crest, as before? 

His motto, throughout, was Deus, Patria, Rex. 

2 It is also stated in Debrett's Baronetage (and elsewhere) that in 1866 Sir Thomas 
Phillipps was Chairman of the Council of the Society of Arts : but this was an error 
arising from confusing his name with that of Sir Thomas Phillips, knight, Q.C. who 
was Chairman of that society in 1866. 


Sir Thomas Phillipps commenced his antiquarian pursuits in the 
direction of genealogy and family history, and we have heard that 
the seed which afterwards grew so largely and so wildly was sown in 
the following accidental way. Whilst still an undergraduate, he 
accompanied a fellow collegian, Charles Henry Grove, (afterwards 
Rector of Sedgehill,) to the house of his father Mr. Grove of Feme 
in Wiltshire ; where, on young Phillipps's way to his room, he ob- 
served in the passage a box from which some old deeds were partly 
exposed to view. The next morning, on inquiring what they were, he 
was told by Mr. Grove that they were his title-deeds ; upon which Mr. 
Phillipps begged to be allowed to arrange and put them in order, an 
offer which was thankfully accepted. The result was the pedigree of 
Grove of Feme, which was printed at Evesham in 1819, and which 
also appears in Hoare's Wiltshire, though Sir Thomas Phillipps's 
name is not there mentioned in connection with it. It is certain, how- 
ever, that his genealogical propensities were much encouraged and 
fostered by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, who continually in the course of 
his great work introduced his name with the designation "my friend 
and coadjutor." In fact, Sir Thomas Phillipps was to take a no less 
important part in the history of that county than the whole of its 
Northern division : and for this reason Sir Richard Hoare limited 
himself to " South Wiltshire." This is distinctly stated in the preface 
to Sir Richard's first volume, dated in 1822 : 

Another circumstance has contributed very essentially to my plans, and which will 
ultimately tend, I trust, to the illustration of the Northern district of our County. In 
my worthy friend Sir Thomas Phillipps, Baronet, I have found a most active, intelli- 
gent, and zealous coadjutor; who, though an inhabitant of Worcestershire, has most 
kindly undertaken our Northern district of Wiltshire. 

This was written when Sir Thomas was scarcely thirty ; at a 
time when Sir Richard Hoare might well indulge the anticipation 
that another Baronet, whose wealth and apparent zeal might bear 
some comparison with his own, and who was many years his junior, 
might have the perseverance to complete the design which he, at an 
advanced period of life, so industriously and so munificently set on 
foot and which he eventually, so far as his own undertaking went, 
succeeded in accomplishing, though partly by a posthumous provision. 
Sir Thomas was, however, of a different disposition to Sir Richard 
Colt Hoare : equally laborious perhaps, and perhaps even better 
acquainted with those branches of archaeology which are considered to 
belon"" more immediately to County History, he wanted Sir Richard's 


method, and perseverance, and abundant mnnificence and liberality. 
Sir Richard had the wisdom to avail himself of the aid of various able 
assistants, some of whom, where requisite, he generously remunerated 
for their pains and labour : but Sir Thomas Phillipps hung back in 
such cases, and too often disappointed hopes that he had raised by 
proposals at first flattering and attractive. Nor did he, like Sir 
Richard, conciliate and interest his superiors and equals as well as 
his inferiors : on the contrary, he expected others to enter into his 
own views, and, on being disappointed, he resented their inattention 
and presumed apathy, and frequently abandoned his design as if they 
were in fault instead of himself.^ 

It would, however, be unfair to pass unnoticed the following passage 
prefixed to the History of the Hundred of Downton by its author, 
George Matcham, esq. LL.D. (in the year 1834) 

But the aid derived from many valuable notes of a gentleman, who, although 
not resident amongst us, has yet taken a great interest in the topography of Wiltshire, 
and whose reputation as a diligent and acute antiquary as well as a munificent encou- 
rager of archaeological research, renders any commendation of mine not only unne- 
cessary but indeed out of place, (the name of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart, will pro- 
bably be anticipated,) demands a more particular acknowledgment. A reference to 
his extensive collection, made, 'propria mamc^ from many private sources and from 
almost every public repository of papers, has often enabled me to recover the track, 
before lost ; and I am aware that, if I had more closely followed the example of 
industry and perseverance which he has shown, this account might have been rendered 
less imperfect. 

Sir Thomas Phillipps certainly deserves the credit of having, in a 
desultory way, provided considerable materials for the history of 
Wiltshire. As with his other productions, there is really some 
difficulty in tracing the whole of them, but we have endeavoured to 
form the following- list : — 


Collections for Wiltshire. By Thomas Phillipps, Esq. Jun., printed at Evesham in 
1818. 8vo. pp. 86. 

Collections for Wiltshire. Printed at Salisbury in 1819. Six copies only. 8vo. 
pp. 72. 

An Essay towards the description of the North Division of AViltshire. By one 
John Aubrey of Easton Pierse.^ 

* Here is an example, from the Appendix to Lowndes's Bibliographer'' s Manual^ 
1864, p. 236 : Pedigrees of Ancient Wiltshire Gentry, before the Visitations. Folio. 
"In the press, and stopped in consequence of the refusal of the Wilts ' Modern ' Gentry 
to encourage it.'" This remark was from Sir Thomas's own pen. 

2 An efficient edition of Aubrey's Collections for Wiltshire was at length published by 
the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, in 4to. 1862, corrected and 


Part I. 4to. 1821, 

Part II. (no title) 60 pages. (Left imperfect.) Title not printed until 1838. 

Monumental Inscriptions in the County of Wilton: Collected for Sir T. Phillipps, 
Bart. — and unfortunately collected, and edited, by very incompetent hands. The 
disguise in which the Latin inscriptions are generally shrouded forms a pleasant 
puzzle for those best versed in such compositions, whilst it suggests that collation with 
the originals, where still practicable, is very desirable, if only in respect to dates. The 
collection is in two Parts or volumes, the first for South Wilts consisting of 108 pages 
foolscap folio,! in 1821-2 : the second, for North Wilts, pp. 286. (Copies were 
very sparingly distributed.)^ 

Institutiones Clericorum in comitatu Wiltonise, ab anno 1297 ad annum 1810 
(i.e. to the close of 1809). In two volumes, foolscap folio, pp. 107, the first printed 
at Salisbury in ] 821-2, the second at Middlehill 1824-5. These are institutions to 
benefices from the registers of the Bishops of Salisbury: confined to Wiltshire, because 
those for Dorsetshire had previously been published by Hutchins in the History of 
that county, and it will be seen by reference to remarks made by Hutchins that for 
various reasons there are certain deficiencies as regards both counties. The book is a 
mere calendar, without indexes; but it was of very considerable use to Sir Richard 
Hoare's history, not only as supplying the incumbents of the churches, but often, in 
its column of patrons, furnishing valuable aid in tracing the descent of manors. 

Index Registri Cartarum Ecclesise Cathedralis Sarum penes Biblioth. Interioris 
Terapli. 1822, folio, pp. 28. 

The Parish Register of Durnford, Wilts, ab anno 1574 ad annum 1650. Salisbury, 
1823. 8vo. pp. 49. This is followed by extracts from the register of Highworth in 
Wiltshire between 1542 and 1663. pp, 8. (10 copies printed.) 

Stratton St, Margaret's Register; South Minster and Sevenhampton Registers, 
Svo. pp. 16. 

Wiltshire Gentry circa temp. Caroli I. et II. from the Harleian MS. Evesham, no 
date. Folio, pp. 8. (50 copies.) 

Cartulary of Malmesbury. From the Cottonian MS. Faustina B. viii. Middle-hill. 
Folio, pp. 8. (50 copies.) [Qu- If afterwards increased to 25 pages in 1829?] 

Cartulary of Bradenstoke, from the Cotton MS. Vitellius A. xi. 1833. Folio, one 
sheet only printed. (6 copies.) 

enlarged by the Rev. John Edward Jackson, M.A. F.S.A. Rector of Leigh Delamere. 
At p. viii, of the introduction occurs the following notice of Sir Thomas Phillipps's 
edition : "A few copies of the Text in its original state, without note, arrangement, or 
heraldic illustration, were printed some years ago : the first part of vol. A. at the press 
of J. Davy, Queen Street, Seven Dials, 1821; the second part at Middle Hill, 1838 : 
both, it is understood, by direction of Sir Thomas Phillipps." 

! The size which Sir Thomas Phillipps usually adopted was foolscap, being suited 
to his private press. Where the word folio occurs, therefore, in the following pages, 
it will be understood to mean Foolscap folio. 

^ There is no copy even in the British Museum. The only one we know in London 
is in the library of the College of Arms. At Stourhead the Part for South Wilts is 
" interleaved with MS. additions." {Hoare, Catalogue, p. 415.) The Wiltshire Insti- 
tutions are more available for ordinary uses, as several copies are accessible. 


Visitatio Heraldica Comitatus Wiltonise. a.d. 1623. Middlehill, 1828, folio. | 
Unpaged, but containing 258 pages, including title, one leaf of Index, and two leaves 1 
of Errata. 

Pedigrees of Ancient Wiltshire Gentry, before the Visitations ; folio. 

Wanborough Court Rolls from 1649 to 28 Car. II. 1829. Fol. (12 copies.) 

Survey of the Manor and Forest of Clarendon in Wilts in 1272. London, 1833. 
4to. (Printed in the Archceologia, vol. xxv.) 

North Wiltshire Musters, anno 30 Hen. VIII. from the original in the Chapter 
House, Westminster. London, 1834. Folio. 

Possessors of Knight's Fees and liands in Wilts, temp. Regum Stephani, Heniici 
II. et Ricardi I. excerpta ex Pipse Rotulis. Pp. 4. (8 copies.) 

Wiltshire Fines, from Edward III. to Richard III. 

Wiltshire Close Rolls, temp. Edw. III. (pp. 4.) 

Oratoria ex Roberti Wyvill Registro. — Oratoria ex Registris Waltham et Metford. 
— Dignitaries of Sarum Cathedral. — Excerpta ex Registris Episcoporum Sarum. 
Folio, no date ; pages 5 — 28. 

Paternal Coats, Crests, and Mottoes of the Gentry of Wiltshire, by Thomas Gore I 
of Alderton, 1663. Copied from his MS. by the Rev. Thomas Leman, of Bath, I 
1839. Folio. ' 

Compositions, or Fines, of Wiltshire Gentlemen for not taking the Order of Knight- 
hood at the Coronation of King Charles I. : levied in 1630, 1631, and 1632. Printed 
in 1855, 2 leaves folio. 

Lands leased by Queen Mary during her reign in various Counties, from Harl. MS. 
1192. Pro comitatu Wilts. Knights of Wilts and Hants, temp. Edw. I. Extracts 
from the Register of Winterslow, and from the Churchwardens' Accounts. 

He was equally anxious, in his early days, to promote tlie topo- 
grapliy of Oxfordshire : and he printed 

Inquiries proposed by Mr. Phillipps to the Nobility, Gentlemen, and Clergy of 
Oxfordshire, with a view of completing, from their answers, an account of the 
Antiquities and Natural History of the several Parishes of the County. (Printed at 
Evesham, 1819.) 2 pp. folio. 

Parochial Collections for the County of Oxford : from the MSS. of Anthony Wood, 
Hutton, and Hinton, 1825. (Folio, pp. 98.) The parishes extend only to letter E. 
(Printed at Evesham). 150 copies printed. 

Oxfordshire Pedigrees, from No. 1557 Harl. MSS. Folio, pp. 98. 

Chipping Norton Parish Register. Folio, pp. 4. 

For Shropshire he printed 

Antiquities of the County of Salop, the Parishes arranged Alphabetically. Folio. 
8 pages only ; and, of course, a mere beginning. 

Human Nature displayed in the History of the Parish of Myddle, written by 
Richard Gough, a.d, 1700. London, 1834, pp. 80. [A proposition has recently 
appeared for reprinting this book.] 

Sir Thomas Phillipps purcliased of Mr. Nichols in 18 . . the 
imprinted Collections for Gloucestershire formed by Ralph Bigland, 


Garter. This work had been partly printed, and published in 
numbers by Garter's son, Richard Bigland of Frocester, esq. ; com- 
mencing in 1780, and proceeding to 1790, when it stopped at the 
letter N, the parishes being arranged alphabetically. Sir Thomas 
Phillipps continued the printing, but during the letters and P only. 

Another topographical book of some importance which may here 
be mentioned is A Book of Glamorganshire^ s Antiquities, by Rice 
Merrick, Esq. 1578. Printed at Middle Hill. 1825. Folio. Pp. 68. 
(Fifty copies.) 

Sir Thomas Phillipps made it one of his objects to print the Heralds' 
Visitations. He printed those for Cambridgeshire 1619, Hamp- 
shire 1575, 1622, and part of 1686, 1854, folio, pp. 28, Middlesex 
1663, Northumberland 1615, 1858, folio, pp. 6, Oxfordshire 1574, 
Somerset 1623, Wilts 1623, and portions of several others, of which 
we gave a list in our Second volume at p. 188. And yet when the 
Harleian Society was formed in 1869 for this object in particular, and 
for the publication of other inedited manuscripts relating to genealogy, 
family history, and heraldry, he did not give it his name and counte- 
nance ; nor did he often extend his patronage to the literary efforts 
of others, though he was disposed to expect, if he did not obtain, 
such assistance himself. 

In 1819 Sir Thomas Phillipps proposed to resume the publication 
of The Topographer^ a periodical magazine commenced by Sir S. Eger- 
ton Brydges and the Rev. Stebbing Shaw the historian of Stafford- 
shire, in April 1789, and continued until June 1791 (forming 4 vols, 
8vo.).^ But he only produced one Number, which is entitled " The 
Topographer, Numb. I. For March 1821." It consists of 60 8vo. 
pages : and contains the following articles : 

1. Church Notes from Winston, Stoke Charity, Hunton, Weyhill, Abbot's Ann, 
Monxton, and Quarley in Hampshire, contributed by W. H. of Whitchurch. 
2. Church Notes from Kemble, Wilts. 3. Church Notes from Irnham and Corby in 
Lincolnshire, and St. Colomb in Cornwall, from the MSS. of Anthony Wood 8569. 
4. Valuation of Oxfordshire Abbeys, from Harl. MSS. 5. Oxfordshire Visitations, 
by Lee, 1574 (this occupies 44 pages). 7. Extracts from Remington Register, in the 
County of Somerset ; with Church Notes from Hemington and Radstock. 8. Ex- 
cerpta e cartis familise de Bamfylde de Poltiraore, Devon, 1291 to 1541, with pedi- 
gree of Beauchamp of Hache to Bampfield, from Harl. MS. 1559. 

Another effort in the same direction was made by him in the year 

' There was an attempted continuation in 4to, 1792, entitled Topographical 
Miscellanies ; but it did not go far. See Upcott's English Topograph]/, vol. \. 
p. xxvii., and Lowndes, (edit. Bohn,) p. 2698. 


1833, when the periodical miscellany entitled Collectanea TopograpMca 
et Genealogica was commenced under his anspices. In the Prospectus, 
which is now before us,i it was announced that among its chief contri- 
butors were expected to be Sir Thomas Phillipps, the Rev. Dr. Bandi- 
nel the Bodleian Librarian, Frederic Madden, esq. then Assistant 
Keeper of the MSS. in the British Museum, the llev. Joseph Hunter 
the historian of South Yorkshire, George Baker, esq. the historian of 
Northamptonshire, and John Gage, esq. Director of the Society of 
Antiquaries. All these gentlemen kept their promises. Certain pro- 
mises of financial support which were held out by Sir Thomas Phil- 
lipps were not at all kept; and the labour of Editorship devolved 
entirely on the late Sir Frederic Madden.^ Sir Thomas Phillipps's 
signature (the letter P.) is appended to seven articles in the first 
volume, viz. — 

Extracts from a Chronicle of the Abbey of Meaux, containing the genealogies of 
Scarres, Hyldeyhard, and Stutevylle. 

Extracts from Robert Aske's Collections. 

Extracts from the Cartulary of St. Peter's Abbey, Shrewsbury. 

Contents of the Cartulary of the Priory of St. Nicholas at Exeter (continued 
through four numbers). 

Tenants in Capite in Shropshire, circ. Edw. I. from a roll in the possession of 
Richard Heber, esq. 

Boundaries of Pendleton, co. Lancaster, 

Charter of William de Stafford, son of Hervey Bagot, — being one of nearly 1000 
ancient deeds of Shropshire and of the Priory of St. Thomas near Stafford, sold by 
auction in 1833, and purchased by Sir T. P. 

He also furnished materials towards the " List of Monastic Cartu- 
laries at present existing, or which are known to have existed since the 
dissolution of Eeligious Houses," which was compiled by Sir Frederic 
Madden, and extends (in portions) through volumes I. and II. There 
was a corrected reprint of this in 1839. 

• We have also an earlier Prospectus, showing that, two years before, the project 
had been entertained for " a Topographical and Genealogical work to be entitled 
Collectanea To2yographica, to appear in Quarterly Parts," — the First Part in January 
1832. It waste be conducted under the superintendence of Mr. Hunter, "John 
Bayley, esq. F.S.A., author of the History of the Tower of London," Mr. Madden, 
and Sir Thomas Phillipps. In 1833 the valuable volume of Excerpta Hidorica which 
had then been recently edited by Mr. Samuel Bentley, was taken as the model of 
the work. 

^ After the first two or three volumes it passed into the hands of the present writer. 
The Collectanea was completed in eight volumes royal octavo, 1834 — 1843, and its 
sequels have been The Topographer and Genealogist, in 3 vols. 8vo, 1846 — 1858 ; 
and The Herald and Genealogist, 1863 — 1873, now proceeding in its eighth volume. 


In the Second Volume: — 

Catalogue of Charters in the Winchcombe Cartularies in the possession of Lord 
Sherborne ; 

and, after that, little if any thing more. 

Sir Thomas Phillipps also had printed, at other presses than his 
own, — 

Index of [Crown] Leases of Manors and Lands in England, granted since the 
Reformation, annis 4 and 5 Edw. VI. Edited by Sir T. Phillipps, Bart. From the 
Original MS. formerly in the possession of Craven Ord, Esq. and now in the Library 
of Wm. Wynne, Esq. of Peniarth. London : Printed by Gardiner and Son, Princes 
street, Cavendish square. 1832. Foolscap 8vo. Title. Preface 1 page, and pp. 31. 
[The term Index is misapplied. It is a catalogue in order of time (the dates com- 
mencing in p. 6), and unfortunately it is destitute of an alphabetical index.] 

Glamorganshire Pedigrees. From the MSS. of Sir Isaac Heard, Knt , Garter 
King of Arms. Edited by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. [Vignette of the Ticiris 
Lativiensis.] Worcester: Printed by Deighton and Co. 1845. Title-page. Dedi- 
cation. " To the Reverend John Montgomery Traherne, Chancellor of the Diocese of 
Llandaff, through whose industry we look forward to possessing a complete History 
of Glamorgan, This Work, in humble aid of his more extensive and valuable labours, 
is dedicated, with the sincerest respect, by his faithful friend Thomas Phillipps."" 

To finish our account of Sir Thomas Phillipps's literary efforts 
before we turn to the subject of IMS. Collections, it may be further 
noticed that he persevered in making several communications to the 
Society of Antiquaries, which are printed in the Archceologia, from 
the xxvth volume to the xxxviith, and to the value of some of which 
justice was done in Earl Stanhope's anniversary address on Saint 
George's Day 1872. By the care of the officers of the Society we 
may be satisfied that these are in a great measure free from his usual 

There was much, no doubt, in theory and intention that was 
admirable about Sir Thomas Phillipps. He was not a mere Collector, 
like so many who collect, whether books or pictures, or other curiosi- 
ties, merely for collecting's sake, to be wondered at for their profusion 
or ostentation, or to accumulate a valuable property for future profit 
to themselves or their representatives. He had a great amount of 
plodding though ill-directed industry, and conceived large schemes 
for the advancement of the studies to which he was attached, and the 
preservation of the materials from which they derive their sustenance. 
He desired to diffuse information as well as to preserve it, but he 
went strangely to work in his means and operations. He was con- 
stantly endeavouring to perpetuate historical records by the art of 


printing, for which purpose he set np a private press at Middle Hill : ^ 
but every thing was done after a self-sufficient and incompetent 
fashion. Had he taken better advice, employed better workmen, and 
proceeded more upon method and system, he might have sensibly 
advanced those branches of literature to which his task was directed : 
but he was ever inclined to rely upon his own powers, to engage 
unqualified assistants, and to be a niggard and ungenerous pay- 
master, and the result was abundant error and perpetual incomplete- 
ness. He formed the bad habit of abbreviating ^ and contracting in 
his transcripts, in a manner which his printers frequently misunder- 
stood, but which, if he ever took the trouble to correct, it was by 
furnishing tables of Errata — sometimes weeks or months after the 
sheets had been printed off! The Errata to his Wiltshire Visitation 
occupy four pages foho, at the end of which 

The Editor apologizes for numerous errors by stating that the Work was printed 
by a young printer whilst the Editor was abroad, and could not revise the press. 

And so it happened, from one cause or another, again and again : 
the productions^ of Sir Thomas Phillipps's press may be generally 
characterised as at once the most numerous and the most inaccurate 
that have ever been the result of zeal without care or discretion. 

Few tasks have already occasioned, or will continue to occasion, 
more trouble and embarrassment to the bibliographer, than that of 
endeavouring to arrange a correct account of the multitudinous and 
fragmentary productions, whether intended for public or private distri- 
bution, of Sir Thomas Phillipps. They are, beyond precedent, without 
titles, without paging, and without indexes, — ai^ecpaXa and areXeara. 
And yet it may be acknowledged that the inquirer into all that Sir 
Thomas Phillipps has undertaken, and left unfinished, will find much 
information in two very useful works, — Martin's Catalogue of Pri- 
vately Printed Boo^s, and Lowndes' Bibliographer s' Manual. 

In the fii'st edition of the former work, 1834, eighteen pages are 

* We find it stated in Timperley's History of Pnnting, and thence retailed by 
Allibone, that Sir Thomas Pliillipps set up his private press at Middle Hill in 1819, 
but we are rather disposed to date his so doing at the beginning of 1821. 

' Of his abbreviation one very amusing instance fell to our own experience. He 
directed to Messrs. Nichols in ParV. Street. This the Post Office read as Park Street, 
and as there were then some score of Park Streets in the town and suburbs, the letter 
made the tour of the metropolis before the name of Nichols at last conducted it to its 
right destination, covered with the autographs of all the baffled letter-carriers. 


occupied with an account of the productions of the Middle Hill Press 
down to the year 1833 inclusive, — not titles merely, but with many 
interesting particulars regarding them. 

In Lowndes's Bibliograpliers' Manual^ edit. Bohn 1861, there are, 
at pp. 1856-8, enumerated thirty-eight of Sir Thomas Phillipps's 
productions, but in the supplemental volume of the same work, 1864, 
there is a much longer list of the Middle Hill Press, including also 
what has been printed for him at other presses. The articles here 
noticed exceed 120, besides a list of sheet pedigrees ; it is followed by 
the titles of 44 more, added from a list given in Notes and Queries, 
No. 13, 1858: and, after all, there is this apologetic postscript, — 
" The preceding is as complete a list as we have found it possible to 
make," — and that notwithstanding the Baronet himself had contributed 
his aid. See also in the Catalogue of the Library at Stourhead, 1840, 
8vo. at p. 415, the contents of a volume of Miscellaneous Collections 
by Sir T. Phillipps, consisting of 21 articles. 

It was more extraordinary that as a collector he finally became 
almost omnivorous. In his early days his object had been mainly the 
records of local and family history, with a view particularly to the 
history of Wiltshire, Oxfordshire, and other districts for which he 
entertained an especial interest. But he was gradually led on to the 
purchase of large masses of heterogeneous manuscripts, and in all 
languages, which carried him far away from any useful purpose beyond 
mere collecting. On several occasions he acquired whole libraries of 
MSS. at one purchase ; as, first, that of Professor Van Ess of DaiTn- 
stadt, next that of M. Chaudin of Paris, and afterwards the very con- 
siderable collection formed by Meerman of the Hague. 

It was said at one time (about 1836) that he had purchased for 
10,0007. the entire stock which had been advertised in a miscellaneous 
Catalogue of Manuscripts by Thomas Thorpe a well-known bookseller 
in Piccadilly. 

His mansion at Middle Hill had long been full to overflowing, when, 
ten years before his death, he purchased Thirlestane House in Chel- 
tenham, and converted into libraries the galleries which had been 
previously occupied by the large collection of pictures that belonged to 
the late Lord Northwick. Here for the present they rest, under the 
guardianship of his son-in-law the Eev. John Fenwick. 

It cannot be justly alleged that Sir Thomas Phillipps was not fully 
aware of the essential importance of having those keys to his vast 

AUTOTYFE, b S f S. C! 

Fel3T 16'^ 1866. 




Note. — By inadvertence, the pages of Vol. 
YI, go from 480 to 589 ; pages 589 to 684 
should have been 481 et seq. There has been 
nothing omitted ; it is simply an error of 

shortly preceding tbe Eevolution of 1688.^ It may be of interest 
to observe tbat the younger Bowyer and the successive Messrs. 
Nichols have held the appointment of Printers of the Votes and 
Proceedings of the House of Commons from the time of Speaker 
Onslow to the present day. 

John Bowyer Nichols, F.S.A. the son of John Nichols by 
his second marriage with Martha, daughter of Mr. William' 
Green, of Hinckley in Leicestershire, was from an early age the 
coadjutor of his father in editing The Gentleman s Magazine. He 
completed his father's Illustrations of the Literary History of the 
Eighteenth Century, the sequel to the Literary Anecdotes, and, in 
addition to other literary work, superintended the passage 

* See the Memoir of John Nichols in The Gentleman'^ Mnguzini- for Dec. 1826, 
^vi'itten by Mr. Alexander Chalmers, F.S.A. 


ALiTCJTr?E, b s & s. c 

TehT 16^^ 1866. 




The subject of the present ]\Ieiiioir was tlie representative of a 
family, which, while carrying on successfully the business of 
printing, has for three generations more or less distinguished 
itself in the sphere of literature and archaeological research. His 
grandfather, John Kichols, F.S.A., was the well-known author 
of the Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, the com- 
piler of one of the greatest of our local histories, Tlie History of 
Leicestershire^ and for forty-eight years the editor of the Gentle- 
man's Magazine. As a printer, he was the pupil, partner, and 
successor of William Bowyer, a learned typographer and author, 
himself the son and successor of another William Bowyer, who 
carried on the business of a printer in London from a period 
shortly preceding the Revolution of 1688.^ It may be of interest 
to observe that the younger Bowyer and the successive ]\lessrs. 
Nichols have held the appointment of Printers of the Votes and 
Proceedings of the House of Commons from the time of Speaker 
Onslow to the present day. 

John Bowyer Nichols, F.S.A. the son of John Nichols by 
his second marriage with Martha, daughter of jMr. William- 
Green, of Hinckley in Leicestershire, was from an early age the 
coadjutor of his father in editing The GentlemarLS Magazine. He 
completed his father's Illustrations of the Literary History of the 
Eighteenth Century, the sequel to the Literary Anecdotes, and, in 
addition to other literary work, superintended the passage 

' See the Memoir of John Nichols in The Gevihwnn'A MoguzinriovDec. 182fi, 
written by Mr. Alexander Chalmers, F.S.A. 



tlirough the press of the greater part of the County Histories 
which appeared during the first half of the present century, ren- 
dering by his great topographical knowledge, and by his industry 
and attention, the greatest service to their authors. He married, 
in 1805, Eliza, eldest daughter of Mr. John Baker, ^ of Salisbury 
Square, Fleet Street, surgeon, afterwards of Hampstead, by 
whom he had fourteen children, of whom, however, six died 
in infancy. He died on the 19th of October, 1863, and was 
buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. A memoir of him, from the 
pen of John Gough Xichols, appeared in The Gentleman^ Maga- 
zine for December 1863, of which a few copies were reprinted, 
with some additions, for private circulation in March 1864, and 
illustrated with a photographic portrait taken in 1860. 

John Gough Nichols, the eldest son of John Bowyer Xichols, 
was born at his father's residence in Red Lion Passage, Fleet 
Street, on the 22nd of May, 1806. He was named Gough after 
the distinguished antiquary Richard Gough, who was his god- 
father and the intimate friend of his father. While he was yet 
in his earliest infancy^ on the 8th of February, 1808, the printing- 
office adjoining the house in Red Lion Passage was destroyed 
by fire, and during its re-building his father took a house in 
Thavies Inn, Holborn, which became the scene of John Cough's 
earliest recollections. He used to tell in later days how he once 
strayed from home there, and was lost for a whole day, being 
found in the evening, by an acquaintance of his father, sitting 
in tears on the steps of St. Andrew's church. On the com- 
pletion of the new building his father resumed his residence 
in Red Lion Passage, where he remained until his removal to 
Parliament Street in 1818. 

In the early part of 1811 he was placed at a school at Islington 
kept by Miss Roper. Here he had among his young school- 
fellows a boy who was his senior by a few months, the son 
of his fr.ther and grandfather's valued friend Mr. Isaac Disraeli, 
the author of The Curiosities of Literature. This son, destined 
in later years to eclipse his father's fame and to attain the highest 
distinction not only as an author but as a statesman, was Ben- 
jamin Disraeli, the present Prime IMinister. 

' See a Memoir in The Gentleman^s Magazine for 1825, ii. 642. 


In the summer of 1814 he was sent to the school of Dr. Waite 
at Lewisham, where he remained until the end of 1816, and in 
January 1817 was placed at IMerchant Taylors'. 

In letters Avritten to Mr. J. B. Nichols respecting his late pupil, 
shortly after his leaving, Dr. Waite speaks highly of his talents 
and capacity. Unfortunately, however, he was placed, on his 
entrance at Merchant Taylors', though some years older than many 
of his schoolmates, in the lowest class in the school, owing to a 
wish to that effect injudiciously expressed to the Head Master 
by his father's brother-in-law, the Kev. John Pridden, who 
accompanied him, in loco parentis^ on his first going there. 
This put him at a disadvantage, compared with others of his 
age, which he was never able altogether to recover, and it was 
always a point of which he spoke with regret. Dr. James Hessey, 
who in later years became the Head Master of the school, was at 
Merchant Taylors' as a pupil during part of the time when Mr. 
Nichols was there, and we take the liberty of quoting from a 
kind and sympathetic letter, written by him to Mrs. Gough 
Nichols the day after her husband's death, the following passage, 
in which he refers to those old school-days. " Personally 1 
grieve for one who is connected with my very earliest recol- 
lections, v/ho took me, day by day, when I was a very little 
boy, most kindly to Merchant Taylors^ school, and with whom 
I have frequently had friendly intercourse since that distant 
date, 1823, for fifty years. I remember being struck, even in my 
childhood, with his kindness, and I cannot refrain from express- 
ing to you my respect for his memory." 

Journals kept by him during his school - days are still in 
existence, and indicate already the bent of his mind. He makes 
notes on churches, and copies inscriptions and epitaphs. The 
following extract seems worth recording: — " 1823, May 7. I 
went in the evening (for the first time) with my father to the 
meetings of the Antiquarian and Royal Societies. Saw there 
{inter alios) Sir Humphry Davy, Mr. Hudson Gurney, ]\Ir. Ellis, 
Mr. Taylor Combe, Mr. Davies Gilbert, Mr. Cayley, I\Ir. Wm. 
Tooke, &c. &c, AVe inspected in the library of the Eoyal 
Society Wickliffe's copy of his English translation of the Bible, 
two MS. vols. foli5 (about coeval with the invention of printing), 

a 2 


and a Greek MS. of the Testament of tKe 9tli century ; tKat is, as 
old as the Alexandrian MSS. in the Antiquaries Library." 

A letter from ]\Ir. Isaac Disraeli to Mr. J. B. ^'ichols, dated 
June 7, 1823, contains this testimony to John Gough's early 
sagacity. He says, *' I am gratified to find that your son treads 
in your footsteps, by the readiness with which he has been able 
to ascertain our unknown blunder." It appears that he had 
succeeded in assigning to its actual writer a letter which the 
author of The Curiosities of Literature had supposed to have been 
by some other person. 

Notwithstanding the drawbacks to which we have alluded, 
voung Nichols made such good progress at Merchant Taylors' 
that, had his birthday fallen a month or two later, he would have 
obtained the removal to St. John's, Oxford, which he so much 
desired. But, with a numerous family growing up, his father did 
not then feel himself justified in sending him to the University 
without the aid of the Merchant Taylors' scholarship, and in the 
summer of 1824 he left school to join in the business and literary 
labours of his father and grandfather. 

Even before his school-days were over John Gough had been 
the useful assistant of the latter, under whose competent direction 
he commenced those historical and antiquarian studies in which 
he afterwards attained such high distinction. His first literary work 
after leaving school was to help in the compilation of the Pro- 
gresses of King James the First, the latest work of John Nichols; 
after whose death, on the 26th Nov. 1826, it was John Gough, 
although his name does not appear on the title, who completed and 
superintended the publication oi the Progresses in the year 1828. 
He began also to take an active part in the editorial management 
of The Gentleinaiis Magazine, to which he had already been an 
occasional contributor. From this time to the year 1856, when 
the proprietorship of The Gentlemaris Magazine was relinquished 
by Messrs. Nichols, he continued either as joint or sole Editor to 
have a large share in the literary direction of the Magazine, as 
well as contributing to its pages many historical essays of con- 
siderable value, and compiling its copious obituary. The writer 
of a memoir of Mr. Nichols in The Antiquary, a publication 
which not unworthily endeavours to fill in l!ome respects the 


place formerly occupied by Tlie Gentlemans Magazine^ truly 
observes that this department of the ]\Iagazlne has " in itself 
rendered that work invaluable to the future biographer and his- 
torian." The direction thus given, however, by j\Ir. Nichols and 
his coadjutors to Tlie Gentleman s Magazine was less popular than 
intrinsically solid and valuable, and its proprietors had the mor- 
tification to find it not only outstripped in circulation by its 
modern rivals, but gradually tending to become an actual loss. 

In 1829 he published his first separate work, a collection of 
Autographs of Royal^ Noble, Learned, and Remarkable Person- 
ages, accompanied by Biographical Memoirs. The fac-similes 
were engraved by C. J. Smith, from originals, most of which 
are in the British Museum. In addition to a Prefatory Essay, 
the volume contains short memoirs of between four and five 
hundred persons, and exhibits extensive research and historical 
knowledge in its young author. 

In August, 1830, he paid a visit to Mr. Eobert Surtees, 
at Mainsforth, near Durham, at whose suggestion he joined 
the Rev. James Raine (the historian of Xorth Durham), and his 
brother-in-law, the Rev. George Peacock, F.R.S., of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, afterwards Dean of Ely, and his sister. Miss 
Peacock, in a Scottish tour. They visited Edinburgh, Stirling, 
the Trosachs, Dumbarton, Glasgow, Lanark, Melrose, and. Ab- 
botsford (where they were disappointed at finding Sir Walter 
Scott absent from home), thence returning to Durham and 
Mainsforth. In a letter to Mr. J. B. Nichols, dated Sept. 17, 
1830, Mr. Surtees writes that John Gough has just left them 
on his return home, and adds : " AVe are sorry to part with him; 
but 1 hope this little northern tour has established an intimacy 
between us which will only end w4th my life." 

Mr. J. G. Nichols continued a constant correspondent of Mr. 
Surtees until his early death in 1834; and several of the letters 
addressed by Mr. Surtees to him are printed in the Life by Mr. 
Raine.i On the formation of the Surtees Society, in that year, 
he was appointed one of its Treasurers ; an office which he con- 
tinued to hold until his death. 

In 1831 he published an octavo volume on London Pageants, 
' Life of Robert Siu'tees, published by the Surtees Society, 1852. 


which was received with considerable favour. It contained an 
account of all the Koyal Processions and Entertainments in the 
City of London from the time of Henry the Third, and of the 
Lord Mayors' Pageants from that of King John to the year 1827. 

Li June, 1833, Messrs. Nichols commenced the publication 
in quarterly parts of the Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, 
for the collection and preservation of original and inedited mate- 
rials of value to the topographer and genealogist. Of this work, 
which was completed in eight volumes in 1843, Mr. John Gough 
Nichols was one of the original Editors ; and, latterly, the sole 

In 1834 we find him engaged in assisting the Rev. W. L. 
Bowles in the preparation of a History of Lacock Abbey, 
Wilts. From the correspondence which took place between 
them relative to this work we extract the following passage from 
a letter of Mr. Bowles : — , 

Rev. W. L. Bowles to J. G. Nichols. 

My dear Sir, Bremliill, May 16, 1834. 


Age, anxieties, and a mind not capable of wandering in the perplexed mazes 
of heraldic antiquities, or indeed fitted to laborious research of any kind, admo- 
nish me that I had better end at Old Sarmn and leave to younger hands the con- 
clusion of the History of Lacock. 

The pains you have taken must have been infinite, and the accuracy of the 
information is in itself an important addition to English heraldry and genealogy, 
and as such might make the fii'st portion of the History of Lacock interesting and 
most valuable .... I see no reason why what is ^vi-itten may not directly appear 
as the First Part of the History of Lacock Nunnery, in the county of Wilts, by 
the Rev. W. L. Bowles, assisted by John Gough Nichols, esq., and I shall leave 
to you to insert or omit what you think proper in the last sheets. 

In a subsequent letter, however (Aug. 1834), Mr. Bowles says: 
" You have given to this interesting chapter, colour, life, and 
language, as well as historic knowledge, far far greater than any- 
thing to which I can pretend. It is, therefore, a matter of diffi- 
culty in what manner my name can appear as author of the 
History of Lacock." 

The work was published in the succeeding year as the joint 
production of Mr. Bowles and Mr. Nichols, under the title of 
Annals and Aiitiquities of Lacock Abbey. 

On December 3, 1835, he was elected a Eellow of the Society 


of Antiquaries. He had previously been a constant visitor at 
their meetings, and on Feb. 3, 1831, had communicated a short 
paper on a monumenlal brass plate from Tours, which, as well 
as many subsequent communications, in the course of his life, to 
the meetings of the Society, has been printed in the Archceo- 
logia. As Printer to the Society he carefully read every sheet of 
that work ; and not a few of the authors of the various commu- 
nications will acknowledge the value of suggestions received 
from him. A list of his contributions to the Archceologia 
will be found in the list of works at the conclusion of this 

Among the various occasions on which he took a promi- 
nent part in the proceedings of this Society may be mentioned 
the discussion which took place in 1862 respecting the produc- 
tions of Holbein and his contemporaries, which arose on the dis- 
covery of Holbein's will, and of the date of his death, Oct. or 
Nov. 1543, communicated to the Society by Mr. W. H. Black 
in 1861. Mr. Nichols contributed a valuable paper on the con- 
temporaries and successors of that painter, whose works are so 
frequently confounded with his own ; and another in the suc- 
ceeding year on Holbein's portraits of the Koyal Family. 

He naturally took a great interest in the question which was 
raised in 1865 by Mr. Herman Merivale, whose death has so 
soon followed that of Mr. N^ichols, respecting the authenticity 
of the famous " Paston Letters." A paper in their defence 
having been read before the Society of Antiquaries, on Novem- 
ber 30, by Mr. Bruce, the matter was referred by the Society, on 
December 12, to a Committee of eight Fellows, of whom Mr. 
Nichols was one, for their investigation. The result of their 
labours was reported to the Society on IMay 10, 1866, and pub- 
lished in the forty-first volume of the ArchcBoloc/ia, pp. 38-74. 
The facts brought out by this discussion fully established to the 
satisfaction of the Society, and, among others, of Mr. Merivale 
himself, the genuineness of the letters. 

His active participation in the labours of the Society con- 
tinued to the time of his death. On the 8th May, 1873, he read 
a paper at the Society of Antiquaries' meeting on Religious and 
Social Gilds and the College at Walsoken ; and on the 15th of 


the same month another paper on some Portraits by Quintin 
Matsys and Holbein. 

The latter of these will appear in the Archceologia, and the 
former in the Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Archceolo- 
gical Institute^ to which it was also communicated. 

To return to his earlier literary avocations — One of the most 
important works which passed through the press of Messrs. 
Kichols during the first years of Mr. John Gough Nichols's 
connection with it was The History of Modern Wiltshire^ by 
Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart. In the different divisions of 
the County Sir Richard availed himself of the assistance of 
several gentlemen whose names are associated with his own in 
the authorship of the various parts of the work, Mr. J. G, 
Kichols undertook the Hundred of Alderbury ; and this part, 
forming the first Part of Volume V., was just finished, but not 
published, at the time of the death of Sir Richard on May 19, 
1838. The Hundred of Frustfield, which had been undertaken 
by George Matcham, esq., and the History of Old and Xew 
Sarum by Robert Benson, esq. and Mr. Hatcher, were still incom- 
plete. The progress of this work occasioned several visits by 
Mr. Nichols to Wiltshire, of which we may especially note one 
undertaken in the September fbllowitig the death of Sir Richard 
for the purpose of making arrangements for the completion of 
the history. 

In 1838 he published "^ Description of the Frescoes dis- 
covered in 1804 in the Guild Chapel at Sir afford- on- A v on ^ and 
of the Records relating thereto,^' being an account of some very 
curious mediaeval paintings, written to accompany a reissue of 
the careful drawings by Thomas Fisher, first published in 1808 ; 
and a Description of the Church of St. Mary^ Warwick, and of 
the Beauchamp Chapel; and the Monuments of the Beauchamps 
and Dudleys. 

In the same year he suggested, and in conjunction with his 
friends, Sir Frederic Madden, the Rev. J. Hunter, Mr. J. Payne 
Collier, Mr. John Bruce, Mr. W. J. Thoms, and otlier gentlemen 
whose names he has recorded in the passage below quoted, esta- 
blished the Camden Society, the objects of which were announced 
to bo " to perpetuate and render accessible whatever is valuable, 


but at present little known, amongst the materials for the Civil, 
Ecclesiastical, or Literary History of the United Kingdom." 

" By the popularity of this plan " (we quote from ]\Ir. Nichols's 
preface to his Catalogue of the Society's Works, 1872,) " and by 
the influential advocacy of several powerful friends (among 
whom the late Mr. Amyot, Treas. S.A., the late Eev. Dr. Bliss, 
of Oxford, and Mr. Purton Cooper, Q.C., were especially active), 
the Camden Society rapidly atchieved a triumph beyond the 
hopes of its projectors. Of its first book, 500 copies having been 
taken, a second impression was jshortly required; and a thousand 
copies were printed of the other works of the year. By the 
anniversary in 1839 the members were beginning to exceed the 
copies thus provided, and it was then determined to admit 1,200 
]\Iembers, and to limit the Society to that maximum. This large 
number also was quickly attained, and there was besides a book 
of Candidates waiting for future vacancies." 

The success of the Camden Society led to the formation of the 
JElfric, the Shakespeare, the Percy, the Parker, and several 
similar societies, most of which it has survived. 

Of the hundred and ten volumes illustrative of our national 
history, issued by the Camden Society up to the time of Mr. 
Kichols's death, many were edited by himself But, as has been 
observed by the writer of the short memoir in the Athenceum 
(Nov. 22, 1873), *' There is scarcely a volume among the long 
series which docs not bear more or less marks of his revision, and 
more or less acknowledgment of the value of that revision on 
the part of their respective editors. It was the same wutli the 
majority of the writers connected with works on history or 
genealogy which passed through the press under the careful eyes 
of Mr. Nichols." 

His first contribution to the Society's publications was a paper 
entitled Notices of Sir Nicholas Lestravge, prefixed to Mr. W. 
J. Thoms's Anecdotes and Traditions, published in 1839. He 
subsequently edited for tlie Society the following works : The 
Chronicle o/Ca^az5, published in 1846; Chronicle of the Rebellion 
in Lincolnshire in 1470, and Journal of the Siege of Rouen 1591, ^j/ 
Sir Tliomas Coningshy, 1847 ; The Diary of Henry Machyn from 
1550 to 1563, 1848 ; I'he Chronicle of Queen Jane and two years 


of Queen Mary, 1850; The Discovery of the Jesuits College at 
Clerkenwell in March 1627-8, 1853 ; Grants, 4'G. from the Crown 
in the reign of King Edward V., 1854; Inventories of the Ward- 
robes, ^'c, of Henry Fitz-Roy Duke of Richmond, and of the Ward- 
robe Stuff at Baynard's Castle of the Princess Dowager, 1855 ; 
The Letters of Pope to Atterbury ivhen in the Tower of London ; 
and Narratives of the Days of the Reformation [chiefly from the 
Manuscripts of Fox the Martyr ologist), 1859; Wills from Doctors' 
Commons (edited in conjunction with Jolm Bruce, Esq.), 1863; 
and in 1867 and 1868 History from Marble, compiled in the reign 
of Charles 11. , by Thomas Dingley, Gent., of the introduction, 
notes, and literary illustrations of which, by Mr. Nichols, it is 
remarked by the AthensBum writer that it may truly be said that 
they doubled the value of that remarkable book. 

In 1862 he published a Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of 
the Camden Society, comprising the eighty-six volumes which 
had been issued up to that date, which he subsequently com- 
pleted and re-issued in 1872 as a Catalogue of the First Series 
of the Works of the Camden Society, one hundred and five in 

Mr. Nichols's death found him still with work on hand for 
this Society, having made considerable progress with the Auto- 
biography of Lady Ann Halket, in the reigns of Charles I. and 
Charles II , and Two Sermons preached by Child-Bishops at St. 
PauVs and at Gloucester, with other Documents relating to that 
Festivity, which have been for some time announced for publica- 
tion by the Society, and the completion of which has now been 
undertaken, the former by S. R. Gardiner, Esq., the present 
Director of the Society, and the latter by Edward Rimbault, 
Esq., LL.D. 

About 1840 he contemplated writing an account of the Monu- 
ments and Brasses of the Brookes and Cobhams in Cobham 
Church, Kent. These were at that time in a melancholy state 
of dilapidation, but Mr. Francis C. Brooke, the present repre- 
sentative of the family, before leaving England in 1839, had 
commissioned Mr. D. E. Davy to have them put in a state 
of repair at his expense. Mr. Davy had recourse to the assist- 
ance of Mr. Nichols and Mr. Spence, then of Rochester, to whom 


the idea of restoration, or rather repair and the prevention of 
further mischief, had ah'eady occurred, and under their super- 
intendence tlie scattered fragments of the brasses were restored 
to their places, the inscriptions completed, the stonework of the 
fine monument of George Lord Cobham repaired, and, at a 
trifling cost, the whole put in tolerable condition, and the pro- 
gress of further damage stopped.^ A much more thorough and 
complete restoration was afterwards effected by Mr. Brooke be- 
tween 1862 and 1868, at a cost of nearly 7001. The progress 
of this work occasioned frequent visits to Cobham and much 
correspondence both with ]\Ir. Spence and Mr. Davy from 1840 
to 1843. Mr. Nichols's letters on the subject to Mr. Davy have 
found their way to the British JMuseum (Add. MS. vols. xvii. 
xviii.), and contain much interesting matter relating to these 
remarkable monuments. From some of these letters it appears 
that he abandoned his intention of writing his Memorials of the 
Cobhams, on account of his being dissatisfied with the plates 
intended to illustrate the work. 

In 1841 he edited for the Berkshire Ashmolean Society the 
Union Inventories^ with a memoir of the Unton family; and in 
the same year he commenced the publication of a series of 
Examples of Decorative Tiles, the original purpose of which was 
to recommend the revival of the art, and to furnish patterns to 
those who might undertake the manufacture of ornamental pave- 
ments. Four Parts of this work were issued, the last in 1845, 
and in it Mr. Nichols was able to say that its object had been 
fully accomplished. Messrs. Chamberlain, of Worcester, and 
Minton and Co., of Stoke-upon-Trent, had produced a few tiles, 
and the adoption of this kind of pavement in the restoration 
of the Temple Church had been already decided upon by the 
time that the first number had appeared, but a considerable 
impetus to the revival was given, and the best examples made 
generally known, by the publication of this work. 

In 1843 he undertook, at the request of his kind friend 
Mr. William Perry Hervick, of Beaumanor, to arrange his 
valuable series of papers and manuscripts, comprising, iiiter alia, 

' A short account of the work done at Cobham will be found in the Gentlemansy 
Magazine for March, 1841, p. 306. 


Manor Rolls of Beaumanor as far back as the time of Edward I., 
and the Exchequer Records of the period (1616 to 1623) during 
which Sir William Herrick (who purchased Beaumanor) was 
Teller of the Exchequer. These last were completed and a 
Calendar of them made in 1858, and the family letters and 
papers in 1862. A full account by Mr. Xichols of these interest- 
ing documents and papers appeared in The Athenceuni of August 
27, 1870. He also directed and superintended for Mr. Herrick 
the execution of a Genealogical and Armorial Stained-glass \Yin- 
dow in the Hall at Beaumanor, a description of which he printed 
in 1849. 

The concluding part of the Collectanea Topograpliica et Genea- 
logica^ published in 1843, contains an announcement of the com- 
mencement of The Topographer and Genealogist, a work on the 
same model and of similar contents. The parts of this work, 
of which six form a volume, were intended to be issued at inter- 
vals of two months, but the state of ]\lr. Nichols's health and 
the multiplicity of his engagements caused considerable delays, 
and it was only in 1858 that Part 18, completing the third 
volume, made its appearance. As we shall hereafter have occa- 
sion to relate, he then decided to close the series and to commence 
The Herald and Genealogist. 

In 1844 he contributed an historical introduction to a hand- 
some volume, printed for the Fishmongers^ Company, The Fish- 
mongers' Pageant on Lord Mayor^s Day^ 1616. A second edition 
of this work was printed in 1859. 

On the formation of the Archaeological Institute, under the 
name of the Archseological Association, in 1844, ]\Ir. J. G. 
Kichols became an original member, and adhered to that Society 
on its disruption and the foundation of the rival " Association" 
in 1845. 

While taking a very decided part with the majority of the 
Central Committee, and contending that they, if not regarded as 
representing the original Association, were clearly not seceders, 
as termed by ]\Ir. Pettigrew, but were expelled by the minority 
(see Gent. Mag 1845, vol. xxiii. p. 631, and vol.xxiv. p. 289 j, he 
nevertheless remained on good terms with many archaeological 
friends who tojk the other side. Mr. Nichols attended most of 


the annual meetings of the Institute, and communicated to it 
many valuable papers. 

In connection with the Archaeological Institute we must not 
omit to mention the long friendship in which kindred tastes and 
pursuits bound together Mr. Nichols and ]\Ir. Albert Way, from 
its foundation the Director of that Society, who has survived 
him so short a time. All who partake in any degree of their 
love for history and antiquities will feel that they have seldom 
lost within a few months two such valuable associates. 

In 1849 he published the Pilgrimages of Walsingliam and 
Canterbury by Erasmus, an original translation, with an introduc- 
tion and extensive notes. This little book met with very general 
approval, and the impression was soon exhausted. He lately 
had it in contemplation to issue a second edition, and had revised 
with this object a considerable part of the text, but his numerous 
other engagements caused it to be deferred. It is hoped that 
it may shortly be published. 

In the same year, in pursuance of the will of his friend Mr. 
John Stockdale Hardy, F.S.A. Eegistrar of the Archdeaconry 
of Leicester, who died on the 19th July in that year, he under- 
took to edit the Literary Remains of that gentleman, which 
were published in 1852 in a handsome 8vo. volume, prefaced by 
a memoir by Mr. Nichols, and illustrated by a portrait and 
several engravings. 

His health had never been strong, and in 1856 he found 
the strain of the editorial work of the Gentleman's Magazine, 
of which, since 1851, he had supported the whole burden, 
in addition to his other literary undertakings, too great for 
him. Mr. J. H. Parker having expressed a wish to take up the 
magazine, the property in it was transferred to him for a nominal 
consideration, and Mr. J. G. Nichols ceased to be the Editor. 
As loner as it remained in Mr. Parker's hands the hio-h character 
of the magazine sustained no derogation. vSpecial attention 
continued to be paid to history and antiquities, and architectural 
topics became particularly prominent. Mr. Nichols continued 
to take an interest in the magazine, and among other contribu- 
tions furnished its pages with the Autobiography of Silvanus 
Urban, Gent., an interesting account of matters and persons 


connected with the early history of the magazine from its first 
establishment by Edward Cave at St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, 
in 1731, to the death of its founder in 1754. 

The use made by Mr. Nichols of the time thus set free from 
the toil of a monthly publication is seen in his Literary Remains 
of King Edward the Sixth, edited by him in two volumes 
4to. for the Koxburghe Club in 1857-8. A. great part of the 
first volume consists of an introductory biographical memoir, 
evidencing throughout the careful and accurate research for 
which its author was so remarkable, and the Literary Remains 
themselves are illustrated by copious notes. It is perhaps to be 
regretted that this work should have been destined for so limited 
a circulation as the hundred copies printed for the club, and the 
publication of the Biographical Memoir, in a more popular form, 
would be very desirable. 

In 1859 he wrote an account of The Armorial Windows in 
Woodhouse Chapel, hy the Park of Beaumanor, in Charmvood 
Forest, which was read at the Annual Meeting of the Leicester- 
shire Architectural and Archaeological Society at Loughborough, 
July 27, and printed for private distribution at the expense of 
William Perry Herrick, esq. of Beaumanor. 

A new edition of Hutchins's History of Dorset having been 
undertaken in 1860 by Mr. William Shipp of Blandford, Mr. 
Nichols, though not assuming the nominal responsibility of 
editorship, engaged to give a general superintendence to the 
work. It had originally been proposed that this should be 
merely a reprint of Hutchins, but, owing to Mr. Nichols's repre- 
sentations, and in a great measure by his assistance, the History 
has been extended to the present time. The concluding part of 
this work is now in the press, the whole of the topographical 
portion having already been published. 

In 1860 he edited, for presentation to the Eoxburghe Club by 
Lord Delamere, The Boke of Noblesse addressed to Edward IV. 
on his Invasion of France. In Mr. Nichols's own interleaved 
copy of this work (in which he has written, ** This copy I wish 
to be presented after my death to the Library of the British 
Museum ") he has prefaced it by this note: '^ The following pas- 
sage of a leading article in the Times of June 2, 1860, is an evi- 


dence how much the invasion of France by Edward IV. is for- 
gotten : * We have no intention of invading France, and if, since 
the days of Henry VI. we have ever set foot in France, it has 
not been to threaten her independence or to substitute one 
dynasty for another, but simply to keep France from molesting 
her neighbours and unsettling Europe.' " 

In the Introduction to The Boke of Noblesse (written to excite 
the people of this country to commence an unprovoked attack 
upon their neighbours), after a review of the contents of the 
work, the story of this forgotten war is told at length, an inter- 
esting chapter of History, but, though not actually disastrous, 
not one which flatters national vanity, and therefore perhaps the 
more instructive. 

At the time of his death he was engaged, and had made con- 
siderable progress, in editing for Mr Paul Butler for presentation 
to the Roxburghe Club a curious old poem, entitled Throck- 
morton s Ghost. 

In the autumn of 1861, on the occasion of the visit of the 
Archaeological Institute to Windsor, an arrangement was made 
that a History of Windsor Castle should be undertaken as the joint 
task of a number of literary men then there assembled, of whom 
Mr. Nichols was one. The leading portion of the work was to 
have been written by Mr. Woodward, at that time Her Majesty's 
Librarian. The department undertaken by Mr. Nichols was 
" The Royal Funerals." The proposal was one in which the late 
Prince Consort took much interest, and, subsequently to his 
death, on a wish being expressed by Her Majesty to Mr. Wood- 
ward that he should undertake such a history, Her Majesty was 
pleased to express her gratification on hearing that it was already 
in contemplation. This work was unfortunately never carried 
out, and on Mr. Woodward's death, in 1869, the plan seems to 
have dropped; but Mr. Nichols had prepared considerable ma- 
terial for his portion, and it may be hoped that his notes, which 
are now in the hands of the Dean of Windsor, may ultimately 
in some form or other be made useful for their intended pur- 

The termination of Mr. Nichols's connection with the manasre- 
ment of The Gentleman's Magazine, after a continuance for 


upwards of thirty years, had been rendered urgently necessary by 
the state of his health, and had produced in this respect a most 
satisfactory effect. But it was with great reluctance that he 
renounced the editorial task, and little more than a year elapsed 
before Ave find him planning the establishment of another peri- 
odical, which ultimately took the form of The Herald and 
Genealogist. At first it was proposed that this publication should 
be simply a continuation of The Topographer and Genealogist^ 
but at regular two-monthly intervals, as had been originally in- 
tended with that publication, and at a reduced price. A proposal 
to this effect was inserted in the concluding part of The Topo- 
grapher, A^ol. III., and dated Dec. 15, 1857, but the plan re- 
mained for some time in abeyancCf and it was not until September 
1862 that the first number of the Herald made its appearance. 
It was received with a good deal of favour, and its eight volumes 
contain ample evidence of Mr Nichols's industry and research, 
and his appreciation of these qualities in others, as well as of 


It is at the particular request of the Avriter of these words that 
we have given them especial prominence, inasmuch as they were, 
he says, intended for the express object of pointing out one of 
the marked characteristics of the late Editor of this publication, 
in a field of literature which called forth as much the moral 
sense of duty as the historical knowledge of the writer. 

But, in his insatiable appetite for work, he was only too apt 
to overburden his own physical powers, and other engage- 
ments and uncertain health interfered seriously with the intended 
reo-ularity of the publication. This again tried the patience of 
subscribers, many of whom dropped off, and the work has only 
been continued at a considerable pecuniary sacrifice. At the 
time of his death seven Volumes and five Parts of the eighth 
had been published, but the remainder of this Volume was far 

' Athenaeum, Nov. 22, 1873. 


advanced and the greater part of it had already been put in type 
and revised by Mr. Nichols. Tlie publication of the concluding 
Part has onty been delayed in order that it might be accompanied 
by this Notice of its Editor. 

In editing The Herald he was frequently in communication 
with many of those American genealogists who have for some 
years past pursued their researches, on both sides of the Atlantic, 
with great industry and intelligence. His pages were always 
open to American correspondents, and he had the opportunity 
of making known in this country many valuable American con- 
tributions to o-enealoo'ical literature. In return he was honoured 
by being elected a Corresponding Member of the New England 
Historic- Genealogical Society and of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society; and at the meeting of the latter Society, on December 
11, 1873, the President, in announcing his decease, submitted a 
short memoir of him, prepared by Mr. Whitmore, from which 
we extract the following passages : — 

Here, in America, we have reason to regret his loss as being one of the few 
English genealogists who felt an interest in the Transatlantic branches of 
English families. Mr. Nichols was one of the leaders of the new school of 
genealogists; one of those who seek the truth in all things, and who subject 
everything to analysis and proof. No longer content to repeat the fables of the 
heralds of the seventeenth century, the genealogist of to-day traces out and uses 
the original records which alone are of value. ** Of course the judicious liberality 
of the British Government, botb in opening the great Record Offices to the 
public and in publishing selections from the National Archives, has enabled 
antiquaries to work with advantages denied to their predecessors. Still the 
movement began with the students, and Mr. Nichols Avas one of the leaders in 
the improvement. 

We have every reason, therefore, to lament that our late associate has thus 
been stopped in his career of usefulness, and to join in the most sincere expres- 
sions of regret. To many of us the notice of his death was a shock as great 
as the loss of any of our immediate circle, and we feel it to be as great a calamity 
to American as to English literature.* 

The compilation of the Obituary of The Gentlemaris Magazine 
was, as has already been stated, a department of that work to 
which he had given special attention, and to which he attached 
great importance. Its discontinuance, under the management 
of ]\Ir. Parker, w^as regretted by him as a public loss, and 
suo- crested the revival of an idea which he had before entertained 


' Journal of the Massachusetts Historical Society , 1873, p. 122. 



of the publication of a magazine devoted solely to contemporary 
biography and the record of family events. Mucli against the 
counsel of his own immediate circle, though not without a good 
deal of encouragement from literary friends, Mr. Kichols at- 
tempted the realization of this idea in The Register and Magazine 
of Biography, the first number of which appeared on January 1 , 
1869. He yielded, however, so far to advice as not to undertake 
the task of editor, though he contributed many articles to its 

Notwithstanding the almost universal expression of approba- 
tion which greeted the undertaking, the amount of public support 
which The Register received disappointed even those whose ex- 
pectations were less hopeful than those of its projector. After 
six months' trial Messrs. Nichols abandoned the attempt. Every- 
body, it seemed, would be glad to be able to refer to such a work 
in a public library; scarcely two or three hundred would pay 
sixpence per month to possess or support it. 

In 1870 he undertook to edit a re-publication by Messrs. 
Eoutledge of Whitaker's History of Whalley. It was not at 
first proposed that any considerable modification of the original 
work should be attempted; but Mr. Nichols was never satisfied 
to do anything which he took in hand in an imperfect or per- 
functory manner. He had not a very high opinion of Dr. 
Whitaker's history, and his principal inducement to undertake 
this task, was the hope that he might make the new edition some- 
what more satisfactory than the old. The work was so much 
enlarged that it was thought better to divide it into two volumes, 
the first of which was published in 1871, and the second, though 
far advanced, was not quite finished at the time of his death. 

Mr. Nichols joined the London and Middlesex Archseological 
Association on its first establishment in 1855, and was elected a 
Member of its Council in 1857, and a Vice-President in 1865, 
which offices he retained until his death. The Transactions of 
this Society also bear witness to his untiring industry and exten- 
sive knowledge. A list of his communications to it will be 
found at the end of this Memoir. 

In July 1871 he presided as Chairman at the annual meeting 
of the Surrey Archseological Society, held at Cranley; and at 


their visit to Newdegate from the meeting at Charlwood on July 4, 
1872, he communicated an elaborate paper on the Newdigate 
Family, which has since" been printed in the Society's Proceed- 
ings, having been revised for the press by him in the summer 
of 1873. He was also an Honorary Fellow of the Societies of 
Antiquaries of Scotland and of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The biography of a student and man of letters affords little to 
tell of a personal character. Mr. Nichols's habits were influenced 
by the fact that his health was never robust. In liis younger 
days especially he led a very quiet and retired life. As a bachelor 
he resided in his father's housed and he remained unmarried until 
his thirty-eighth year. In a life marked for the most part only 
by successive labours of the pen, even an excursion on the 
neighbouring continent was an event. On August 18, 1841, 
he started with his friend Mr. John Rivington for a short tour 
on the Continent. They went from London to Hamburg 
by steamer, thence by Wittenberg and Magdeburg to Berlin 
and Dresden, visiting the Saxon Switzerland, and returning by 
Weimar, Leipzic, Frankfort, the Rhine, and Antwerp. His 
letters and journals give a full and interesting account of this 
excursion, which, to his regret, was the only one he was ever 
able to make in Germany — though he made several and some- 
times lengthened visits to France. 

Retiring as were his habits, he did not decline to take part 
in such business as his literary or other associations naturally 
threw upon him. He was elected in 1836 a member of the 
General Committee of the Royal Literary Fund, of which his 
father was, as his grandfather had previously been, one of the 
Registrars. From this time to the close of his life he con- 
tinued to take an active part and interest in its affairs. He was 
appointed a member of the Council in ]84o, a trustee of the 
Newton Estate in 1850, and again elected on the General Com- 
mittee in 1852, retaining that office until his death. He had 
also been from the year 1845 one of the Trustees of the Printers* 
Pension Corporation. 

He was for several years a governor of the Grey Coat School, 
Westminster, until ousted by the new scheme of the Endowed 
Schools Commissioners. He was a governor of the Westminster 




Blue Coat School, which has fortunately escaped from being 
reformed out of existence. He had been also for many years a 
director, and was latterly chairman and treasurer, of the York 
Buildings Waterworks Company. 

John Gough Nichols married, on the 22nd July, 1843, Lucy, 
/ eldest daughter of Frederick Lewis, Esq. Commander R.N., by 
/ whom he had one son, John Bruce Nichols, B.A., born Nov. 18, 
1848, lately of St. John's College, Oxford, and now of Parlia- 
ment Street and Holmwood, whose name was joined in 1873 to 
those of his father and uncle as Priaters of the Votes and Pro- 
ceedings of the House of Commons ; and two daughters, 1. Lucy- 
Burgess, who was born June 8, 1844; married June 1, 1869, to 
Percy Mortimer, Esq., younger son of Charles Mortimer, Esq., of 
Wigmore, Capel, Surrey, and has issue one son, John Hamilton, 
born Aug. 13, 1872; and 2. Anna-Eliza, born Aug. 27, 1855, 
died Sept. 16, 1856. 

For four years after his marriage he resided at 27, Upper 
Phillimore Place, Kensington, afterwards for a short time at 
Wandsworth, and subsequently for a long period at 28, Upper 
Harley Street, and at Brighton. In 1868 he took a lease of 
Holmwood Park, near Dorking, a residence belonging to the 
family of Larpent, from whom he purchased the freehold shortly 
before his death. 

His house was always a cheerful and hospitable home, and 
seldom without its guests, to whom Mrs. Nichols was a genial 
and entertaining hostess. In the midst of all the distractions of 
society he pursued his literary work in a persevering but un- 
ostentatious manner, ready however at all times to take a kindly 
interest in the lighter occupations of those around him. 

Several photographs of Mr. J. G. Nichols, taken at various 
periods, have preserved a not unsatisfactory record of his personal 
appearance in the later years of his life. The one accompanying 
this memoir is enlarged from a carte de visite by Hennah and 
Kent, taken in 1866. His portrait at the age of 24 is also con- 
tained in a family group in water-colours by D. Maclise, R.A., 
an early work of that painter, executed for Mr. J. B. Nichols in 
1830, and representing his eight children ; and a medallion by 
Leonard Charles Wyon, IMedallist and Engraver to Her Majesty's 


Mint, from wlilcli a number of medals both in silver and bronze 
were struck, lias an excellent likeness of himself and his wife in 
1868. He had been from boyhood a great admirer and to some 
extent a collector of coins and medals, and had lone/ been a 
member of the Numismatic Society. But such medals as had 
reference to family history had an especial interest for him, and 
he had recently been in correspondence with his friend Mr. 
Richard Sainthill of Cork on the subject of foreign medals struck 
in commemoration of silver and golden weddings. Mr. Wyon's 
medal was designed as a memorial of Mr. Nichols's silver 
wedding, on July 22, 1868, and the reverse has an inscription 
recording the event. 

Throughout the summer of 1873 his friends had observed with 
regret a decided falling-ofFin his health and strength. This, how- 
ever, was not indicated by any diminution of his energy or appetite 
for work. He continued to bestow an immense amount of labour 
upon The History of Whalley as well as on The Herald and Gene- 
alogist and other undertakings. To such an extent was this 
carried as to cause the impression on his medical advisers that he 
was injuring his health by overwork. On the 5th of Auo-u?t he 
attended the Court of the Company of Stationers, of which lie had 
just been chosen one of the Wardens, and dined at the Hall, and 
on the next day he was present for the first and only time at the 
Meeting of the Stock Board of the Company. He had always 
taken a great interest in the City Companies. One of liis earliest 
works had been that on London Pageants, and he had subse- 
quently written upon subjects connected with the Fishmono-ers' 
the Vintners', the Mercers', and other London Companies. The 
Stationers' Company, with which his name had been loner 
connected, was of course especially interesting to him, and on the 
occasion of the visit of the London and Middlesex Archseoloo-ical 
Association to Stationers' Hall in 1860 he read a paper on its 
history, which was afterwards printed both in the Transactions 
of the Society and separately. He had frequently expressed his 
regret that the period at which he might expect to serve the 
higher offices of the Company should be at a time in his life 
when he could hardly anticipate health and strength to go 
throuo'h them. 


On the 26th of Auofust he was in town for the last time. He 


was then feeling unwell, and shortly afterwards went down to 
Brighton, partly in order to avail himself of the advice of his 
friend Dr. Pickford. Early in October he returned to Holm- 
wood without having much improved ; but, in writing to 
excuse his non-attendance at the Court of the Stationers' Com- 
pany on Oct. 7, he was able to say that his medical advisers 
promised him that a fortnight's entire rest would restore him 
to health. An incapacity to follow out this prescription, vain 
as the result proved that it would have been, was, however, 
one of the symptoms of his malady. His family became 
seriously alarmed, and, on the 14th, Sir William Gull was 
called in and saw him several times, as did afterwards another 
London physician. These great authorities concurred in still 
taking a favourable view of the case ; but the patient con- 
tinued to sink. So late, however, as ISov. 3rd he was able to 
walk from his own room to another, and to read a proof of the 
new edition of Mr. Evelyn Shirley's Stemmata Shirhiana, on 
which he wrote a memorandum that he would have read more 
if he had had it. From this time, however, he rapidly sank ; 
and, after much suffering in the last days, expired about 4 a.m. 
on the 14th of November, 1873. 

A post-mortem examination showed the real cause of his 
illness and death to have been an internal cancer, supposed to 
have been of about eight montlis' growth, and beyond the power 
of medicine to alleviate or cure. 

The writer of these pages might not unreasonably be suspected 
of partiality were he to attempt to do justice to the personal worth 
and character of John Gough Nichols. But he cannot refrain 
from quoting the words of one in no way connected with him 
by kindred, yet well enough acquainted with him to appreciate 
his merits: — " I have often thought of his great worth, his re- 
tiring modesty, his quiet, unobtrusive ways, his perfect gentle- 
ness, his opinion, mildly tendered, often browbeaten, but always 
true in the end, on a point of learning — in fact, I looked on him 
as a living lesson of a gentle spirit from which I might draw 

A large number of friends and dependents followed him to his 


last resting-place on Wednesday the 19th of November He 
was buried in a grave at the east end of Holm wood Church, 
now marked by a granite slab, and a monumental brass is being 
prepared, from the design of his friend Mr. Waller, which will 
be placed in the church, and is intended to bear the following 
inscription : — 






BORN MAY 22nd, 1806, DIED 


NOVEMBER 14th, 1873. 


Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might. 

Ecclesiastes, ix. 10, 


Autographs of Eoyal, Noble, Learned, and Remarkable Personages conspicuous 
in English History, from the Reign of Richard the Second to that of Charles the 
Second, with some Illustrious Foreigners. Engraved under the direction of 
Charles John Smith. Accompanied by concise Biographical Memoirs and inter- 
esting Extracts from the original Documents, by John Gough Nichols. Imp. 4to. 

London Pageants. I. Accounts of Sixty Royal Processions and Entertain- 
ments in the City of London ; chiefly extracted from contemporary writers. 
II. A Bibliographical List of Lord Mayors' Pageants. Royal 8vo, Pp. 125. 1831. 

Annals and Antiquities of Lacock Abbey, in the county of Wilts, with Memo- 
rials of Ela the Foundress, the Countess of Salisbury, and of the Earls of Salis- 
bury of the Houses of Salisbury and Longespe, &c. by W. L. Bowles, M.A. and 
John Gough Nichols. 8vo. 1835. 

The Modern History of South Wiltshire, by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart. 
Vol. V. I. The Hundred of Alderbury, by Sir R. C. Hoare and John Gough 
Nichols, F.S.A. Folio. Pp. 223. Date on Title of Part, 1837; on that of 
Volume, 1844. 

Description of the Church of St. Mary, Warwick, and of the Beauchamp 
Chapel, and the Monuments of the Beauchamps and Dudleys ; also, of the 


Chantry Chapel of Isabella Countess of Warwick, in Tewkesbur}' Abbey. 4to. 
Pp. 40. Seven folio plates. No date (1838). 

An Abridgement of the same. 12mo. 

Ancient Allegorical, Historical, and Legendary Paintings in Fresco, discovered 
in 1804 on the walls of the Chapel of the Trinity at Stratford-upon-Avon, from 
drawings by Thomas Fisher, F.S.A. with Fac-similes of Charters, Seals, Rolls 
of Accounts, &c. Described by John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. Folio. Pp.14. 
Plates 1838. 

Notices of Sir Nicholas Lestrange, Bart, and his Family Connexions. In 
Anecdotes and Traditio7is, Edited by W. J. Thoms, Esq. F.S.A. Camden 
Society's Publications, No. V. 4to. pp. ix.-xxviii. 1839. 

The Unton Inventories, relating to Wadley and Faringdon, co. Berks, in the 
years 1596 and 1620, from the originals in the possession of Earl Ferrers. With 
a Memoir of the Family of Unton. Printed for the Berkshire Ashmolean Society. 
4to. Pp. Ixxxviii. 56. 1841. 

The Fishmongers' Pageant on Lord Mayor's Day, 1616. Chrj^sanaleia, the 
Golden Fishing, devised by Anthony Munday, Citizen and Draper. Represented 
in twelve plates by Henry Shaw, F.S.A., from contemporary drawings in the 
possession of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers. Accompanied with 
various illustrative documents, and an Historical Introduction by John Gough 
Nichols, F.S.A., Lond. and Newc, Citizen and Stationer. Printed for the Wor- 
shipful Company of Fishmongers. Imp. folio. 1844. 

The same. Second edition. 1869. 

Examples of Decorative Tiles, sometimes termed Encaustic, engraved in fac- 
simile, chiefly in their original size, witli Introductory Remarks. 4to. Text 
pp. xxxii. Woodcuts 101 on pp. 97. 1845. 

The Chronicle of Calais in the reigns of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. to the 
year 1540. Edited from MSS. in the British Museum. C. S. No. xxxv. 4to 
Pp. xlii. 228. 1846. 

Chronicle of the Rebellion in Lincolnshire 1470. Pp. 28. Jounial of the 
Siege of Rouen, 1591. By Sir Thomas Coningsby of Hampton Court, co. Here- 
ford, pp. 84. In The Camden Miscellany, Yo\. I. C. S. No. xxxix. 4to. 1847. 

The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant Taylor of London. From 
A.D. 1550 to A.D. 1563. C. S. No. xlii. 4to. Pp. xxxii. 464. 1848. 

Pilgrimages to Saint Mary of Walsingham and Saint Thomas of Canterbury. 
By Desiderius Erasmus. Newly translated, with the Colloquy on Rash Vows 
by the same Author, and his Characters of Archbishop Warham and Dean 
Colet, and illustrated with Notes. 8vo. Pp. 6, xxiii. 248, and fi-ontispiece. 1849. 

Description of the Armorial Window on the Staircase at Beaumanor, co. 
Leicester. Privately printed. 8vo. Pp. 8. Xo date (1849). 

The Literary Remains of John Stockdale Hardy, Fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries, sometime Registrar of the Archdeaconry Courts of Leicester. 
Edited in pursuance of his will by John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. 8vo. 
Pp. xxiv. 487. Five Plates. 1852. 

The Chronicle of Queen Jane, and of two years of Queen Mary, and especially 
of the Rebellion of Sii' Thomas Wyat. Written by a Resident in the Tower of 
London : with illustrative Documents and Notes. C. S. No. XLVIII. 4to. 
Pp. viii. 196. 1850. 


Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London. C. S. No. Llli. 4to. Pp. xxxv. 
108. 1852. 

The Discovery of the Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell in March 1627-8; and 
a Letter found in their House (as asserted) directed to the Father Rector at 
Bruxelles. Ito. Pp. 61. 1852. In Tlic Camden Miscellany, Vol. II. C. S. 
No. LV. 1853. 

Grants, &c. from the Cro\rn during the reign of Edward the Fifth, from the 
original Docket Book, M.S. Harl. 433; and two Speeches for opening Parliament, 
by John Russell, Bishop of Lincoln, Lord Chancellor. With an Historical Intro- 
duction. C. S. No. LX. 4to. Pp. Ixvii. 96. 1851. 

Inrentories of the Wardrobes, Plate, Chapel Stuff, &c. of Henry FitzRoy, 
Duke of Richmond; and of the Wardrobe Stuff, at Baynard's Castle, of 
Katharine Princess Dowager. With a Memoir and Letters of the Duke of 
Richmond. Ito. Pp. c. 55. In The Camden Miscellany , Vol. III. C. S. 
No. LXI. 1855. 

Literary Remains of King Edward the Sixth. Edited from his Autograph 
Manuscripts, with Historical Notes and a Biographical Memoir by John Gongh 
Nichols, F.S.A. Printed for. the Roxburghe Club, 4to. 2 volumes. Pp. ccclx. 
636. 1857-8. 

The Letters of Pope to Atterbury when in the Tower of London. 4to. 
Pp. 22. In Tlie Camden Miscellany, Vol. IV. C. S. No. LXXili. 1859. 

Narratives of the Days of the Reformation, chiefly from the Manuscripts of 
John Foxe, the Martyrologist, with two Contemporary Biographies of Arch- 
bishop Cranmer. C. S. No. Lxxvii. 4to. Pp. xxviii. 366. 1859. 

The Armorial Windows erected in the reign of Henry VI. by John Viscount 
Beaumont and Katharine Duchess of Norfolk in Woodhouse Chapel, by the 
Park of Beaumanor, in Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire, including an in- 
vestigation of the differences of the coat of Neville. Read at the annual 
meeting of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society at 
Loughborough, July 27th, 1859. Privately printed. 4to and 8vo. Pp. iv. 50, 
and Pedigree. 1860. 

The Boke of Noblesse : addressed to King Edward the Fourth on his Invasion 
of France in 1475. With an Introduction by John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. 
Printed for the Roxburghe Club. 4to. Pp. Ix. 96. (Presented to the Club by 
Lord Delamere). 1860. 

A Descriptive Catalogue {in Second Edition of the First Series) of the Works 
of the Camden Society, stating the nature of their Principal Contents, the 
Periods of Time to which they relate, the Dates of their Composition, their 
Manuscript Sources, Authors, and Editors, accompanied by a Classified Ar- 
rangement and an Index, and Illustrative Particulars. 4to., uniform with 
Camden series, pp. xvi. 72. 1862. 

Do. do. The Second Edition. 4to. Pp. xxiv. 92. 1872. 

The Family Alliances of Denmark and Great Britain from the earliest times 
to the present. Illustrated by Genealogical Tables and a plate of the Arms of 
Denmark. 8vo. Pp. 46. 1863. 

Wills from Doctors' Commons. A selection of the Wills of Eminent Persons 
proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury 1495-1695. Edited by J. G. 
Nichols and John Bruce. C. S. No. lxxxiii. 4to. Pp. viii. 175. 1863. 



The Heralds' Visitations of the Counties of England and Wales. An account 
of what has heen done towards their publication. 8vo. Pp. ii. 60. 18G4. 

History from Marble. Compiled in the reign of Charles II. by Thomas 
Dingley, Gent. Printed in Photo-lithography by Vincent Brooks from the 
original m the possession of Sir Thomas Winnington, Bart., with an Intro- 
duction and Descriptive Table of Contents. C. S. Nos. xciv. and xcvil. Two 
volumes 4to. Pp. 196, ccccxvii. 1867-8. 

An History of the original Parish of Whalley and Honor of Clitheroe, in the 
counties of Lancaster and York, to which is subjoined an Account of the parish 
of Cartmell. By Thomas Dunham Whitaker, LL.D., P.S.A., Vicar of Whalley. 
The fourth edition, revised and enlarged. By John Gough Nichols, F.SA. 
Vol. I. Royal 4to. Pp. Ixvi. 362. 1870. 

The following works were left unfinished by Mr. Nichols at his 
death, but will shortly be completed and issued : — 

History of Whalley, Vol. II. 

Two Sermons preached by Child Bishops at St. Paul's and at Gloucester: with 
other Documents relating to that Festivity. For The Camden Miscellany ,Yo\.Yll. 

Autobiography of Ann Lady Halket in the reigns of Charles I. and Charles II. 
For the Camden Society. 

Throckmorton's Ghost. For the Roxburghe Club. 

Periodical Publications, edited by Mr. J. G. Nichols : — 

The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review, from December 1851. New 
Series, Vols. XXXVI. to XLV. Demy 8vo. 1851-1856. 

Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica. 8 vols. Royal 8vo. 1834-1843. 
The Topographer and Genealogist. 3 vols. Demy 8vo. 1846-1858. 
The Herald and Genealogist, 8 vols. Demy 8vo. 1863-1874. 

Papers communicated to the Society of Antiquaries : — 

Description of a Brass Plate from Tours with inscription. Read Feb. 3, 1831. 
ArchcBologia, Vol. XXIIL pp. 427-429. 

Observations on Ancient Paintings in St. Mary's Church at Guildford. Read 
Feb. 16, 1837. Vol. XXVIL pp. 413-414. 

Remarks on a Specimen of Ancient Damask. Read March 9, 1837. Ibid, 
pp. 421, 423. 

Observations on the Heraldic Devices discovered on the Effigies of Richard 
the Second and his Queen in Westminster Abbey, and upon the mode in which 
those ornaments were executed : including some Remarks on the Surname Plan- 
tao-enet and on the Ostrich Feathers of the Prince of Wales. Read June 4, 
1840. Vol. XXIX. pp. 32-59. 

Description of the Silver Matrix of the Seal of Thomas de Prayers. Read 
June 10, 1841. Ibid. pp. 405-407. 

The second Patent appointing Edward Duke of Somerset Protector, temp. 
King Edward the Sixth : introduced by an Historical Review of the various 
measures connected therewith. Read March 21, 1844. Vol. XXX. pp. 463- 


On an Amity formed between the Companies of Fishmongers and Gold- 
smiths of London, and a consequent Participation of their Coat-Armour, Read 
Februaiy 22, 1841. Ibid. pp. 499-513. 

Description of an Ivory Diptych. Read Dec. 9, 1847. Vol. XXXII. p. 456. 

Some Additions to the Biographies of Sir John Cheke and Sir Thomas Smith: 
in a Letter addressed to Charles Henry Cooper, Esq. E.S.A., one of the Authors 
of the Athense Cantabrigienses. Read March 31, 1859. Vol, XXXVIII. pp. 

Inventoiy of the goods of Dame Agnes Hungerford, attainted of murder 
14 Henry VIII.; with remarks thereon by .J. G. N. and the ReA*. John Edward 
Jackson, M.A. F.S.A. Read May 19, 1859. Ibid. pp. 353-372. 

Notices of the Contemporaries and Successoi-s of Holbein. Read March 13, 
1862. Vol. XXXIX, pp. 19 46. 

Remarks upon Holbein's Portraits of the Royal Family of England, and more 
particularly upon the several Poiiraits of the Queens of Henry the Eighth . Read 
June 4, 1863. Vol. XL, pp. 71-80. 

An original Appointment of Sir John Fastoife to be Keeper of the Bastille of 
St. Anthony, at Paris, in 1421. With Illustrative Remarks, Read Dec. 8, 1870. 
Vol. XLIIL pp. 113-123. 

Observations on Religious and Social Guilds suggested by the Charters of Con- 
fraternity of the Pardon of Walsoken, and the History of the College or Hospital 
of Walsoken. Read May 8, 1873. To be printed in Tj'ansactions of the Norfolk 
and Xorn'lch Archceological Society, Vol. VIII. (An Abstract in Proceedings 
8. A. Vol. VI. pp. 15-19.) 

On certain Portraits by Quintin Matsys and Holbein, in the Collection of the 
Earl of Radnor, at Longford Castle. Read May 15, 1873. To be printed in 
ArcTiisologia, Vol. XLIV. 

Papers communicated to tlie Arch^ological Institute : — 

A Se<;ret History of a remarkable Passage in the Life of Charles Brandon 
Duke of Suffolk. Read at the meeting at Winchester, Sept, 12, 1845, but not 
printed (?) 

On the Seals of the Earls of Winchester, and On the Seals of Winchester City, 
and on the Seals for the Recognizances of Debtors temp. Edw. III. Read at the 
same meeting on Sept 13, 1845. Proceedings, <fc. Wifichesfer, pp. 103-110. 

On the Seals for Cloths used by the King's Aulnager. Read at the same time, 
but not printed (?) 

On Precatory or Mortuary Rolls, and particulaiiy one of the Abbey of West 
Dereham, Norfolk. Read at Norwich, August 3, 1847. Memoirs, ^•<?. Norwich^ 
pp. 99-114. 

The Descent of the Earldom of Lincoln, with Notices of the Seals of the Earls. 
Read at Lincoln July 31, 1848. Menwirs, ^-c, Lincoln, pp. 253-279. 

The Earldom of Salisbury. Read at Salisbury July, 1849. Menwirs, &<;^ 
Salisbury, i^l>. 211-234. 

On the Descent of the Earldom of Oxford, Read at Oxford on June 21, 1850. 
Arch. Journal. Vol. IX. -pp. 17-2-8. 

The Descent of the Earldom of Gloucester. Read at Bristol, August 2, 1851. 
Memoirs, ^'c, Bristol, pp. 65-79, 


Papers comnmnleated to the London and Middlesex Arch^o- 
LOGicAL Association: — 

Answer filed in Equity respecting the Park and Common at Haworth, temp. 
Charles II. Transactions. Vol. I. pp. 183-191. 

The Brass of John Birkhede at Harrow. Vol. I. pp. 276-284. 

Biography of Richard Gongh, Esq. Director S.A. (Abstract.) Vol. I, 
pp. .319-320. 

The Ancient Mace or Jewelled Sceptre at Guildhall. Vol. I. pp. 355-6. 

Notices of the Stationers' Company, their Hall, Pictures, and Plate, and their 
Ancient Seal of Arms. Read at Stationers' Hall, April 12, 1860. Vol. II. 
pp. 37-61. 

(This was also separately printed under the title " Historical Notices of the 
Stationers' Company, &c." for private distribution. Demy 4to. 1861.) 

Pictures in the Deanery at Westminster. Ibid. pp. 167-168. 

Henry de Yeveley, one of the Architects of Westminster Hall. Ibid. pp. 

Notices of Pictm-es in the Middle Temple Hall, the Parliament Chamber, and 
Inner Temple Hall, and Pictures at Bridewell. Ibid. pp. 65-7-1:. 

Notices of John Lovekyn, four times Lord Mayor of London, and Master of 
Sir William Walworth. Vol. III. pp. 133-137. 

The Muniments of the Vintners" Company. Ibid. pp. 432-447. 

The Biography of Sir William Harper, Alderman of London, Foimder of the 
Bedford Charities. Read Feb. 14, 1870. Vol. IV. pp. 70-93. 

Remarks on the Mercers' and other Trading Companies of London, followed 
l>y some account of the Records of the Mercers' Company. Read at Mercers' 
Hall April 21, 1869. Ibid. pp. 131-147. 

A Triple Civic Marriage in the year 1560 and other Notes in Illustration of 
Machyn's Diary. Read March 13, 1871. Proceedings at Evening Meetings, 
pp. 30, 31. 

Papers communicated to tlie Surrey Archjeological Society: — 

Bowyer of Camberwell. Surrey ArchcBologlcal Collections, Vol. III. pp. 

The Origin and early History of the Family of Ne"wdigate so long as they 
remained connected with Surrey. Read at Newdegate on the visit of the 
Surrey Archaeological Society, July 4, 1872. Vol. VI. 


accumulations wliicli could only be provided by Catalogues of tlicii- 
contents. He began nearly fifty years ago to form and print a 
general catalogue of his collection. Moreover, be showed his esti- 
mation for catalogues by reprinting those of some remarkable 
foreign collections with which he had no actual concern; i and even 
volunteered to perform the same desirable service for some contempo- 
rary collectors.^ But his own Catiilogue, unfortunately, is chiefly the 
work of his own hands, superficial and unsatisfactory : whereas he 
could not have expended a portion of his wealth better than in the 

employment of diligent and experienced workmen in this depart- 

It will, however, we are sure, be considered one of the most inte- 
resting features of this article that we should give some account of this 
Catalogue, such as it is : — 

Catalogus Librorutn Manuscripto^nim in Bibliotheca Phillippica. 1824. pp. 24. 

The first sheet describes Nos. 1 — 386. 

The second Nos. 387 — 761, being all the Van Ess collection, described in four pages. 

The third Nos. 762 — 1034, being the Chardin collection. 

The fourth Nos. 1036—1387, ex bibliothecis Yarnold, &c. &c. 

The fifth contains the Meerman collection ,2 which is continued in the sixth, to 
No. 2010; after which, Nos. 2011 — 2156, manuscripts from the abbey of St. Martin 
at Tournay. 

Then follow various MSS. purchased from various libraries, including those of Sir 
Gregory Page Turner, Muschenbroek, Brury, Engel, Williams, Lloyd, Lang, Allard, 
Rennie, Ord, Hibbert, Speyer, Lord Guilford, Dr. Parr, Yriarte, Santander, de Alna, 
Tross, Cooper, &c. &c. 

1 In 1824 he reprinted Huddesford's Catalogue (1761) of Anthony k Wood's MSS. 
This has since been rendered waste paper by the more complete. Catalogue of that 
collection by the late William Henry Black. In the same year Sir Thomas Phillipps 
printed a Catalogue of some of the MSS. in the Public Library at Basle; in 1828 
three several catalogues of MSS. at Lille, Arras, and St. Omer. See further par- 
ticulars of these and others in Lowndes' list of Sir T. P.'s works. 

^ Catalogjis Mainiscriptorum in Bibliothecis Anglice. Pars 1. 1833. Contents: 
Manuscripts of the Rev. Samuel Butler, D.D. (Bishop of Lichfield) pp. 8; of the 
Hon. Robert Curzon at Parham, 1837, p. 9; ofWm. Ormsby Gore, esq. at Porkington, 
pp. 10, 11 ; of the Rev. Walter Sneyd, of Cheverel ? Herts, pp. 12-24 ; of the Earl of 
Kingston, pp. 25-42; Scientific MSS. of James Orchard Halliwell, esq. F.R.S. 
1839, pp. 43-45 {afterwards cancelled). Continuation of the MSS. of the Rev. 
Walter Sneyd, pp. 46-55, — and other supplements more doubtfully appropriate to 
the same volume, mentioned in Lowndes, Appendix, p. 229. 

•* (}f the Meerman collection a fuller catalogue was printed in 1829, but extemling 
only to No. 634 : iu 12 pages. (Fifty-two copies.) 



Fifty copies were printed of all the sheets, except the firrit, of which there were only 
twelve, and one hundred copies of those containing the Guilford MSS. 

Besides tlie Catalogue, the following articles from tlic collection 
were printed in extenso at the Middle Hill press : 

Sir Paul Ryeaul's Diplomatic Letters from Hamburgh. 1691. Ex. MSS. Phillipps, 
3,073. Folio, pp. 8. 

Itinerarium ad Terram Sanctum: per Petrum de Suchen 1336, scriptum 1350 
(Germanice). Middle Hill, 1825. ISmo, pp. 5— 78 (not completed). 50 copies. 

Neri's Art of Painting on Glass. (A reprint, 100 copies.) 

Le Lion de la Chasce : par Gaston IH. Comte de Foix, Seigneur de Beam. From 
MS. Phillipps 10,298. Daventry, 1844. Small 4to. pp. 16. 

Pedigrees of Carmarthenshire, Cardiganshire, and Pembrokeshire, in continuation 
of Lewis Dwnn, to about the years 1700-10, from the MS. of John Philipps Allen Lloyd 
Philipps, Esq. of Dale Castle, co. Pembroke. Typis Medio-Montanis inpressit Jacobus 
Rogers. 1859. Title-page. Preface 2 pp. wherein the number of correspondents 
to whom the Editor returns his acknowledgments shows that this was a work on 
which he bestowed considerable labour. An alphabetical index of Pedigrees : another 
of Places; and Errata (4 pp.) Extracts from the Liber Niger or Custumale of the 
Bishop of St. David's, a.d. 1326 (4 pp.) Then the pedigrees, 44 pp. Foolscap. 8vo. 

Heredes ex Inquisitionibus post Mortem, a primo Edwardi I. a.d. 1272, ad 
decimum septimum Henrici Vlti. a.d. 1439. Ex MSS. Philipps, No. 6538. 
Pars 1. Curante D. T. Phillipps, Bart. Typis Medio-Montanis exeudit C. Gilmour, 
1841. Foolscap folio. Title-page, preface, and pp. 87. 

The first page is headed : " Escheats. Heirs to Estates, found by Inquis. post 
Mortem. (From Povey's MSS.) " The lists are under reigns, in alphabets of the 
first letter only, as in the old MS." calendars. As all that is printed extends only to 
the end of letter C; this well-conceived effort was as abortive as many other of the 
Editor's projects. He printed only 25 copies. 

Pedigree of Blunt, of Heathfield Park, co. Sussex ; and of Lidiard Milicent, co. 
Wilts. It is a single broadside sheet, partly from Harl. MSS., 1425, but continued 
to the year 1831. (Brit. Mus. 606 k. 18.) 

Pedigree of Goddard of Swindon, Clive-Pipard, and Purton [to 1825]. Broadside 
sheet. (Brit. Mus. 606 k. 18.) 

Pedigree of Carewe, of Carewe Castle, co. Pembroke, and Mohun's Ottery, co. 
Devon, and the Branches of Haccombe, Antony, Bury, and Crowcombe [to 1836]. 
Broad-sheet, printed in 1836. (Brit. Mus. 606 k. 18.) 

In his Collection of Manuscripts^ Sir Thomas Phillipps has 
certainly left a rich legacy to posterity — particularly if, like those 
of Bodley, Cotton, Harley, Sloane, Dodsworth, and Anthony a 
Wood, it should be hereafter made available for general use; but 
the course he pursued in collecting was as wild and eccentric as 

' There can scarcely be found a more striking illustration of the advance in price 
of ancient manuscripts than the valuation which was ma4e of the J^ansJown? CoUcQ- 


can be conceived. In this peculiar field of his pursuits no man was 
more profuse in his expenditure, and yet no man more illiberal and 
even unjust in his treatment of those with whom he had dealings. In 
both respects the cupidity of the true Collector was prominently 
evinced. No sum was too large for the acquisition of a treasure that 
once attracted his desires, and he seemed to act with a chivalrous 
generosity in preserving valuable manuscripts from destruction as if 
they had no other champions but himself. He would not surrender 
that honour to any competitor, whether private or public, and the 
purveyors of the national collection had often to relinquish desirable 
records that they might be added to the buried stores of Middle Hill. 
The commercial result of this was that manuscripts became greatly 
enhanced in price, because at sales by auction so certain were the 
literary brokers that Sir Thomas Phillipps would be the eventual 
purchaser of any attractive or important lot, that the object of each 
bidder was to secure the commission, or margin of profit, for himself. 
That profit, however, was seldom carried so easily as by a morning's 
attendance at an auction : the subsequent settlement of accounts with 
the Baronet was in most cases a process of far greater difficulty. 

It is only charitable to conclude that the ultimate views of this 
strange man may have been far more public-spirited than his system 
or habits enabled him to realise. To literary inquirers he usually 
expressed much willingness that his treasures should be available for 
their purposes ;^ but the permission would be accompanied by condi- 
tion at the time of its purchase by Parliament in 1807. Mr. Planta, then Principal 
Librarian of the British Museum, estimated its value after the following wholesale and 
average manner : — 

Burghley and Cecill Papers, 120 lots at 10^. . . . . . 1,200 

Sir Julius Caesar's Papers, 50 vols, at 10/ 500 

Twenty-seven volumes of original Registers of Abbeys, at 10/. . . 270 

One hundred and fifty volumes, at 6/. . . . . . . 750 

Nine hundred and eighty-five, at 2/. . . . . . . 1,970 

Forty numbers of Roval Letters, at 5/. . . . . . . 200 

Eight columns of Chinese Drawings, at 10/. ..... 80 

(The Petty Papers, amounting to 15 volumes, being reserved by the family.) 
And even the above sum is more than the country gave for that now inestimable 

collection : for it was transferred at the average of the valuations made by three 

parties, viz, for 4,925/. 

^ " The liberal spirit evinced by Sir Thomas Phillipps on applications to examine 

2 B 2 

364 sill THOMAS rillLLIPPS 

tions that they Khonld be visited at such personal inconvenience as in 
most cases amounted to prohibition, and even when the visit was paid 
there were many chances that the objects desired for inspection had 
been mislaid. 

Sir Thomas Phillipps died at Cheltenham on the 6th Feb. 1872, 
and his last will is dated only five days before, on the 1st of the same 
month. It was proved in Her Majesty's Court of Probate on the 19th 
of Jime following, when the personal property was returned as under 
120,000Z. The executors and trustees are Samuel Gael, esq., of 
Charlton Kings, and the Rev. John Haydon Cardew, of Greville Villa, 
Cheltenham. Amongst other provisions the testator leaves to his wife, 
Lady Phillipps, " who is otherwise amply provided for by her marriage 
settlement, the sum of lOOZ. as a mark of his love." He leaves to his 
trustees his mansion, Thirlestane House, and all other his real estate 
in Cheltenham, together with his MSS., library, pictures, and effects 
generally, and all other his personal estate, for the use of his daughter 
Katherine, wife of the Rev. J. E. A. Fen wick, for her life, with 
remainder to her third son Mansel Thomas PhillijDps Fenwick and his 
heirs in tail male, whom failing, to the use of the first, second, fourth, 
and every other son of his said daughter Katherine for life, with suc- 
cession to the heirs of each, in tail male, whom failing, to the right 
heirs of his said daughter Katherine for ever. His collection of manu- 
scripts, library of printed books, pictures, prints, medals, bronzes, 
curiosities, plate, furniture, and articles of vertu, to be heirlooms for 
successive owners, until some person under the trust shall become 
entitled thereto absolutely. He bequeaths, also, to his said trustees for 
the use of his said daughter Katherine all sums of money payable 
under policy of insurance, and all other monies and securities due to 
him at his decease ; together with monies to arise from the sale of 
lands at Childs Wickham in the county of Gloucester. 

He left directions in his will that the Catalogues both of his MSS. 
and his Printed Books shall be continued by James Roper and his son ; 
also that the printing of the Catalogues of his MSS. and Printed 
Books shall proceed under the superintendence of Richard Coxwell 
Rogers, esq, of Dodswell Court ; and likewise the printing of Bigland's 

any of liis MSS. and the readiness with which they are entertained, is well known to 
the extensive circle of his friends and acquaintance; a spirit, indeed, which always 
exists in, and distinguishes, a mind deeply imbued with a love of literature." Mr. 
John Martin, writing in 1833. 


Gloiicestersliire. At the last lioiir, when the will was brought for his 
signature, he directed the addition of these two conditions regarding 
his library, 1. that no Roman Catholic should ever be admitted to it; 
and 2. that in the appointment of new trustees some literary persons 
of high character should be selected. He had previously directed the 
perpetual exclusion of his son-in-law, Mr. J. 0. Halliwell and his wife, 
whose stolen marriage he never forgave. 

In regard to the ultimate destination of his Library, it was his 
evident intention that it should not be dispersed, but eventually be 
made available for general use. It remains for the present in a 
handsome and commodious building, in a town centrally situated, and 
sufficiently accessible : but the difficulty in rendering it largely useful 
may be found to lie in the absence of an adequate establishment of 
custodians and attendant officers. 

It is probable that an Act of Parliament may be the best method to 
rectify what is amiss in Sir Thomas Phillipps's own stipulations, and to 
make his collections as truly available for public use as, it may be pre- 
sumed, he really desired, though labouring under prejudiced and distorted 
views. If such an act were to take the course of uniting the collection 
to those of the British Museum, where custodians and servants are 
already provided, it would be one to which we think few persons would 
entertain or oft'er any objection. 

Sir Thomas Phillipps was twice married: first, in 1819 to Hamet, 
natural daughter of the late Lieut.- Gen. Sir Thomas M(Jyneux, Bart, 
of Castle Dillon, co. Armagh. She died in 1832; and Sir Thomas 
married secondly, in 1842, Elizabeth Harriet Anne, daughter of the 
Rev. John William Mansel, Rector of Ellesborough, Bucks, and 
grand-daughter of the late Sir William Mansel, Bart, of Iscoed, co. 
Carmarthen. By the former lady only he has left issue, namely three 
daughters, — 1. Henrietta Elizabeth Molyneux, married in 1842 to 
James Orchard Halliwell, esq. F.R.S. the well-known editor of 
Shakespeare and a long list of literary works— who, since his father- 
in-law's decease, has taken the name of Phillipps, in conformity with 
the will of his wife's grandfather ; 2. Mary Sophia Bamfylde Foster, 
married in 1845 to the Rev. John Walcot, Rector of Ribbesford, co. 
Worcester, and died in February 1858 ; and 3. Katharine- Somerset, 
wife of the Rev. John Edward Addison Fenwick, A^icar of Needwood, 
CO. Stafford. 

The position of the CRESTS of the KNIGHTS of the 
the knights of the TOISON D'OR at DIJON. 

To the Editor of The Herald and Genealogist. 

Sir, — Every now and then a paragraph appears in the morning 
papers stating that on a certain day a high official of the College of 
Arms visited the Royal Chapel of St, George at Windsor and made 
the changes in the arrangement of the banners and atchievements of 
the Knights of the Garter necessitated by the death of a member of 
the Most Noble Order and the nomination of his successor. Please 
allow me to express my hope that on the next occasion of his visit 
Garter will give the needful orders for the restoration of the crests to 
their proper position upon the helmets of the present Knights. 
There are among them many heraldic anomalies which require correc- 
tion. The crests which represent animals passant or rampant are at 
present placed just as they would be depicted upon the panels of a 
carriage turning their sides towards the spectator. Now any one who 
has examined intelligently a mediaeval seal or illumination knows that 
the animals borne as crests invariably looked towards the front of the 
helmet, or in the direction in which the wearer was going. On a large 
number of the helmets at Windsor the crests turn their heads and 
tails in every direction but the right. Why should the stag of Buc- 
cleuch, the silver wolf of Granville or Sutherland, the red lion of 
Wellington or Cowley, the black bull of Shaftesbury, or the golden 
lion of Westminster, be represented rather as if turning away from 
the foe, inste9.d of being ready to meet him face to face ? The old 
" stall-plates " fastened within the stalls below in no case give a pre- 
cedent for such an anomaly. 

Above the stalls of the Chevaliers of the Toison d^Or at Dijon the 
crests of the Knights were made to look towards the high altar, but 
then the helmets were arranged to face in the same direction; whereas 
at St. George's Chapel all the helmets are affrontes, and a large pro- 
portion of the crests turn their tails towards the altar in a manner 
which is not heraldically correct, though possibly it might be inter- 
preted as being thoroughly Protestant. 

Do, Sir, raise your voice also, if needful, to impress upon our 
worthy officials at the College of Arms the necessity of correcting 
these matters without delay, though they may be now of long standing, 
and of thus averting from themselves the reproach once uttered 
against their predecessors, " You silly people, you don't even under- 
stand your own silly business ! " I am. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, Johx Woodward. 

St. Mary's Parsonage, Montrose, N,B. 



By James Edwin-Cole, of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law. 

From the reign of Edward I. to the establishment of the Common- 
wealth, a period of four centuries, few families equalled and none 
exceeded in prominence of position, in wealth, or political power, that 
of Boiirchier. Intermarrying with the sovereign house of Lovaine, 
and with the Plantagenet princesses of England ; and distinguished 
alike in the camp, in the council chamber, at court, and in letters, one 
or other of its members filled well nigh every important office and 
dignity in the state. Amongst them were numbered a Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas, a Justiciar of Ireland and the first lay Lord 
Chancellor of England, a Cardinal Archbishop of Canterbury, four 
Knights of the Garter, a Lord Treasurer, three Barons Bourchier, three 
Earls of Ewe, two Earls of Essex, six Barons Fitzwarine, five Earls 
of Bath, and two Barons Berners, besides some others lords of parlia- 
ment and many valiant knights. Space does not here permit even a 
sketch of their lives and actions, so that labour must be reserved for a 
separate work, which the writer purposes at a future date to devote to 
their consideration. Meanwhile he refers the curious reader to the 
ponderous tomes of Froissart, Dugdale, and other old historians. 

Descended from this illustrious race, whose extensive estates had 
been carried to other families by heiresses of the senior lines, was 
Charles Bourchier, who married Barbara, the eldest daughter of 
Richard Harrison, of Balls, in Hertfordshu-e, M.P. for Lancaster, by 
his wife Audrey, eldest daughter of George Villiers, fourth Viscount 
Grandison. This lady died, 27 December, 1719, in her fifty-first year, 
and was buried with her husband in the old parish church of Clontorf, 
near Dublin, where until recently a large and handsome monument, 
ornamented with the arms of Bourchier, recorded that " they came 
into Ireland after the Revolution with the Hon'^^^ Gen* Villiers, father 
to the present [fii'st] Earl of Grandison, and uncle to the aforesaid 
Barbara." In his adopted country Mr. Bourchier filled the j)Ost of 
"Agent of the Regiment of Horse commanded by the Lord Windsor;" 
and on 5 October, 1692, was elected M.P. for the borough of Dun- 
garvan, for which he was again returned on 5 August, 1695; and on 
3 December, 1715, he was chosen for the city of Ai'magh. He died 


18 May, 1716, and had issiie five dangliters and four sons, viz. : — 
Marj, living unmarried in 1718; Barbara (wife of Richard Prittie, of 
Dmialley, co. Tipperary, by whom she had issue); Cathaiine (wife of 
William Yarner, grandson to Sir Abraham Yarner, by whom she had 
issue); Anna Maria (first wife of John, Lord Ward, created Viscount 
Dudley and Ward, by whom she had John, second Viscount Dudley 
and Ward, who died s.p. in 1788); and Arabella Bourchier, who 
died unmarried prior to 1718. The sons were, Charles, baptized at 
St. Michan's, Dublin, 3 April, 1695; Francis, baptized there 22 Aug. 
1796, who both died young; Edward, the younger surviving son (of 
whom on p. 370); and Richard, the elder surviving son, known as 

" The Honourable Richard Bourchier," who early in life entered 
the service of the East India Company. He was appointed 
Resident at Surat,^ and subsequently promoted to be Governor 
of Bombay, where he was mainly instrumental in founding and 
a chief contributor towards the support of its English Church. 
By his wife Sarah, daughter of Mr. George Hawkins, of Clay- 
hill in Epsom, Surrey, he had issue, two daughters (Sarah, 
who died unmarried 10 June, 1796, and Emilia, who died un 
married in her 67th year on 1 Jan. 1800) and two sons, viz.: 
I. Charles Bourchier, Governor of Madias, who, after his 
return to England, built, at a cost of about £53,000, the 
superb and sumptuous mansion in Shenley, Herts, called 
Colney-house, of which an elaborate description is given in 
The New British Traveller, by James Dugdale, LL.D. 
(4*^., London, 1819). He served as sheriff of Hertfordshire 
in 1788; and married 6 May, 1776, Anne, daughter of 
Thomas Foley, M.P. for co. Hereford, but died without 

* About a generation earlier there was another Mr. Bourchier, who was one of 
the eight members of the council at Surat, and who in 1677 was locum tenens 
for the Deputy-Governor of Bombay. Captain Alexander Hamilton's Neiv 
Actount of the East Indies (8vo. Loudon, 17ii), and Anderson's The English 
■in Western India (8vo. London, 1856), give long accounts of the eventful 
career of this gentleman, whose name they spell "Boucher" and "Bowcher." 
They relate that he and another of his colleagues had the misfortune to become 
obnoxious ro and to excite the jealousy and envy of their chief, the Governor- 
General Sir John Child ; and that to avoid his malignant and vindictive per- 
secutions and to insure their personal safety thev were compelled to withdraw 
from the settlement. Mr. Bourchier escaped to Delhi, and obtained the protec- 
tion of the Great Mogul, Aurungzebe, at whose court he resided for some time, 
but afterwards returned to Surat. I have as yet been unable to ascertain what 
was the degree of relationship between this individual and the above-named 
Kiehard Bourchier. 


issue at tlie age of 82, on 2 Feb. 1810. His widow died at 
Hadham, Herts, 14 May, 1814, in lier SOth year. 
II. James Bonrchier, of Little Berkh amp stead, sheriif of Hert- 
fordshire in 1792, wlio died at Bath 5 Sept. 1816. By his 
wife Eliza Diana, daughter and coheiress of Eev. Samuel 
Fowler, Rector of x^tcham, co. Salop (she died March 8, 1837, 
aged 93), he left 

I. Charles Bourchier, of Lincoln's Inn, barrister-at-law, 
solicitor to the Treasury, and recorder of Hertford, who 
died unmarried in 1845. 

II. James Claud Bourchier, K.H., a General in the army, 
Colonel of 3rd Dragoon Guards, sometime of 1 1th and 

" 22nd regiments of Light Dragoons, who died at Buxton, 
in Norfolk, 12 Feb. 1859, in his 79th year. He had 
three sons and two daughters by his wife Maria, second 
daughter of George Caswall, of Sacomb Park, co. Herts., 

viz. : 

i. Charles John Bourchier, of Speen-Hill-lodge, Newbury, 
Berks, born 1824, a Captain in the army, formerly in 
the Carabineers, and afterwards of the 8th Hussars, 
and Coldstream Guards ; who has issue a son Arthur 
ii. James Johnes Bourchier, of Felthorpe-hall, co. Nor- 
folk, late Major 52nd regiment of Light- infantry, who 
has issue a son Cecil Edward Bourchier. 
iii. Claud Thomas Bourchier, V.C, Knight of the Legion 
of Honor, of the Medjidie, &c., Lieutenant-Colonel Rifle- 
Brigade, served in the Caffir War, and in the Crimean 
Campaign, and was at the battles of Alma, Balaklava, 
and Inkerman, the seige of Sebastopol, the night attack 
and capture of the Ovens, where he succeeded to the 
command of the riflemen on the death of General 
Try on, for which he was mentioned in the despatches 
and made brevet Major. He was also present through- 
out the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58, and was at the siege 
and capture of Lucknow, and the battle of Nawab- 
iv. Mary Diana, born at Bray field, and married 8 Aug. 
1849, to the Rev. William James Stracey, M A., Rector 
of Buxton with Oxnead and Skeyton, co. Norfolk, by 
whom she has issue eight children. 


V. Susan Ann, married 17 May, 1853, to Rowland Francis 
Walbanke Childers of Cantley, co. York, by wliom she 
had one son. She died 25 November, 1858. 

III. Diana (eldest daughter of James Bourchier, Esq.) 
married to John Newell Birch of Henley on Thames, but 
died s.p. 1867. 

IV. Emma Audrey Bourchier, who died unmarried, and was 
buried at Fawley, co. Bucks. 

Edward Bom-chier, M.A. (of whom before on p. 368, 2nd son of 
Charles Bourchier, M.P.), born 7 April, 1707, was Rector of 
Bramfield from 1740 to 1775, and Vicar of All Saints and St. 
John's in Hertford from 1741 to 1771, and a J.P. for co. 
Herts. He died 17 Nov. 1775, and was buried in Bramfield 
chm'ch. By his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Edward 
Gattacre, Rector of Mursley cum Salden, Bucks, who died at St. 
Alban's, at the age of 75, on 4 July, 1790, he had ten childi-en, 
viz. : — 

I. Mary, born 1 Oct. 1737, married to Rev. James Tork- 
ington, D.D., Rector of Little Stukeley, co. Hunts, by whom 
she had {intei' alios) James Torkington, who married his 
cousin Eliza, daughter of Charles Bourchier and Barbara 

II. Edward Bom-chier, M.A., born 6 Sept. 1738, who suc- 
ceeded his father as Vicar of All Saints and St. John's, 
Hertford, in 1771, and as Rector of Bramfield in 1775. He 
died 14 Dec. 1785, and left by his wife Catherine, second 
daughter of William Wollaston of Finborough, co. Suffolk, 
M.P. for Ipswich, a son, 

Edward Bourchier, M.A., who succeeded his father as Rector 

of Briimfield, and married, 7 Feb. 1804, Harriet, youngest 

daughter of Robert Jenner, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn Fields, 

by whom he had issue (J,nter alios) a son, 

Sir George Bourchier, K.C.B., Major-General R.H.A., who 

served in the Gwalior campaign of 1843-4, and at the 

battle of Punniar, for which he received the Bronze 

Star. During the Indian Mutiny he commanded a 

field-battery, and was at the actions of Trimmooghat, 

the siege of Delhi, the relief of Lucknow, and the 

defeat of the Gwalior Contingent at Cawnpore. His 

services were repeatedly named in despatches, and he 

is author of a touching and deeply interesting narrative 


of the dreadful scenes of this terrible insurrection, entitled 
Eight Months' Campaign against the Bengal Sepoy Army 
during the Mutiny of l^hl . (Svo. London-, 1858.) Ho 
commanded the late (1872) Looshai expedition, and by 
his able, active, and vigorous generalshij) contributed 
to its successful termination. He married July 10, 
1853, Georgiana-Clementson, younger daughter of John 
Graham Lough, the celebrated sculptor, and by her, 
who died at Calcutta, 2 March, 1868, had issue, 1. 
George-Lough; 2. Edward-Herbert; 3. Ina-Maude- 
Mary ; 4. Mary-Blanche (d. inf.); 5. Arthur- Charles- 
Francis Clementson. He married secondly, 23 May, 
1872, Margaret-Murchison, second daughter of the late 
Colonel Bartleman, Bengal Army. 

III. Charles Bourchier (son of Eev. Edward Bourchier 
and Elizabeth Gattacre), born 13 March, 1739, died 
28 Nov. 1818. Was Member of the Council of Bombay; 
afterwards of Sandridge Lodge, of Tittenhanger, and of 
Hadley-Barnet, Herts. He married firstly, 7 Oct. 1773, 
Barbara, daughter of James Kichardson, of Knock- 
shinnock, co. Dumfries ; and by her, who died at sea 
18 Nov. 1784, he had issue, 

i. Charles, and ii. Edward, born in Bombay, and died young. 

iii. Eliza, born 1777, married, 22 Oct. 1799, to her cousin 
James Torkington, of the Temple, barrister-at-law, who 
died Feb. 6, 1852; by whom she had fourteen children, 
and died about 1856. 

iv. Samuel Bourchier, born Oct. 1781, was of the H. E. 1. 
Company's Civil Service, and died at Bombay, 1813, 
leaving issue by his wife, Harriet, ^ daughter of Major- 
General Robert Lewis, E. L Co.'s Service (by his wife 
Mary Prittie, daughter of Richard Prittie and Barbara 
Bourchier, see p. 368), five sons and two daughters : — 

1. Robert Francis Bourchier, Captain 4th Bombay N. L, 
who married, 21 July, 1832, Antoinette Anna Louisa, 
ninth daughter of the Hon. John Rodney, Capt. R. N., 
Chief Secretary to the Government of Ceylon (by his 

' The widow of Mr. Samuel Bourchier was married to Capt. Eoberton,andhad 
issue Nigel Roberton, ob. s. p., and Eliza, married in 1853 to Richard AViggius, 
escj. Major-General Robert Lewis was the elder brother of Frederick Lewis, 
Commander R.N. (ob. 18611), Avhose eldest daughter Lucy is the wife of John 
Cough Nichols, esq., F.S.A., editor of Tlie Herald and Genealogist. 


third wife iVntoinette, only daughter of Anthoine Pierre 
Reynes). He died 1837, leaving two children, Harriet 
E. L. Bourchier and Robert Lennox Bourchier, Captain 
R. M. A., who married, 14 Oct. 1859, Mary, elder 
daughter of Philip Hast, Lieut. R. N., by whom he has 
a son, Philip Lennox Walter Bourchier. 

2. Henry Bourchier, in the E. L Company's Service, died 

in India, unmarried. 

3. George Bourchier, a Lieutenant in H.M.'s 36th Foot, 

died in 1837, unmarried. 

4. John Bourchier, a Lieutenant in H.M.'s 26th Cameronians, 

died in Bengal, unmarried, 

5. James, who died young. 

6. Harriet, married to John Burnett, Esq., of the Bombay 

Civil Service, son of Thomas Burnett, of Aberdeen, 
Purse-bearer to the Lord High Commissioner to the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and 
nephew to the celebrated Lord Monboddo. 

7. Jane, married to Capt. William Chambers, Bombay N. 

Lifantry, second son of Richard Chambers, Esq., of 

Whitbourne Court, co. Hereford, and had issue one 

daughter, Jane, married to Captain George Geech. 

Mr. Charles Bourchier married 2ndly, 25 Jan. 1787, Elizabeth, 

daughter of the Rev. Benjamin Preedy, D.D.. Rector of Brington, co. 

Northampton, by whom he had — 

V. (1) Georgiana, born 1787, died at Boulogne-sur-Mer 
8 March, 1862 ; married to James Garden Seton of the 
Hanaper Office in the Court of Chancery, by whom she 
had issue, 
vi. (2) Charles Spencer Bourchier, M.A., Rector of Great 
Hallingbury, Essex, and Vicar of Sandridge, Herts ; born 
22 Feb. 1791, died 22 July, 1872, ^ married 13 April, 
1814, Eliza, daughter of Samuel Harman of Hadley- 
Barnet, by whom he had issue, Georgiana Anne (wife 
of Richard Weller Chadwick); Marianne Frances Bour- 
chier, unmarried, twin with John Henry James Bourchier, 
who died in infancy ; Emilia Bourchier, unmarried ; and a 
son, Legendre Charles Bourchier. born at Hadley-Barnet, 
13 March, 1815, Colonel 98th Regiment, and sometime 

' He possessed, as heir-looms, two fine nnd •well-painted portraits of his 
anccstijrs Sir John Bourchier, of Bcningborough, " the Regicide," and of his wife 
Dame Anne, daughter and sole heiress of William Rolfe of Hadlcy, co. Suffolk. 


provisional Governor of Demerara. He was present at 
the battle of Gliiznee, 1839, and subsequently at 
the storming and capture of Khelat, where he was 
twice wounded. He was also in the campaigns of 
Afghanistan and Belochistan. He was commandant of 
Kurrachee during the mutiny, and by his promptitude 
and energy wholly suppressed it in that garrison. He 
married, in 1846, Margaret, daughter of Rev. Thomas 
Beane Johnstone, Rector of Chilton, Somerset ; and, 
dying at Ramsgate, April 27, 1866, left issue by her a 
son, Charles Legendre Johnstone Bourchier, and two 
vii. (3) Caroline, born 16 Feb. 1792, married 31 March, 
1814, to Rev. Theodore Dury, Rector of Keighley, co. 
York, by whom she had a daughter Caroline, 
viii. (4) Richard James Bourchier, born 10 June, 1793, 
of the Island of Malta; married Istly Miss Lander, by 
whom he had three daughters and one son ; and 2ndly 
Dorothy, daughter of Captain Darby of Hadley-Barnet, 
but had no issue by her. 
ix. (5) Frederick Bourchier, born 16 March, 1795, who 
died, unmarried, at Malta, 5 March, 1862. 
IV. George Bourchier (son of Rev. Edward Bourchier and 

Elizabeth Gattacre), born 11 May, 1741. 
Y. Frances, born 6 June, 1745, was wife to Rev. William 
Lloyd, Preacher at the Charterhouse and of Much-Hadham, 
by whom she had issue. 

YI. Elizabeth, born 6 Sept. 1746, wife of Howell. 

YII. John Bourchier, born 26 Sept. 1747, Captain R.N. and 
Lieut.-Governor of Greenwich Hospital, who served much 
afloat, particularly in the West Indian Seas. He was espe- 
cially commended by and received the thanks of the Admiralty 
for his gallant and intrepid conduct in an encounter, in 1782, 
between " 1' Hector " and two large French frigates ; for, 
notwithstanding the immense superiority of the enemy, the 
disabled and shattered condition of his own ship (an old 
French prize) and a severe wound received in the action, he 
refused to surrender, and successfully repelled the attack. 
He died 30 Dec. 1808. He married Istly Mary, daughter 
of Rev. Richard Walter, Chaplain R.N., author of Lord 
Anson's Voyage Round the World, and by her, who died 
26 Nov. 1789, he had issue— 


I. George Pocock Bourchier, who died young. 

II. Jane Bourcliier, who died young. 

III. Mary Sophia, born Aug. 1786, married to Rev. Edward 
Ince, M.A., Vicar of Wigtoftcum Quadring, by whom she 
had a son, Rev. Edward Gumming Ince, M.A., Vicar of 
Christchurch, Battersea, and a daughter, Mary Jane Ince, 
married to her cousin Henry Prescott Pellew Bourchier. 

IV. Henry Bourchier, Rear-Admiral of the Blue, born 
Oct. 1787. Whilst commanding H. M.'s sloop <'the 
Hawke " he much distinguished himself by the chasing 
of a large and well-protected French convoy, which resulted 
in his driving nineteen of them ashore and capturing four 
others, one of his prizes being a brig mounting 10 guns. 
He died at Lille, Oct. 14, 1852, leaving surviving issue by 
his wife Mary, eldest daughter of Lieut.-Colonel Macdonald 
(she died at Ostend, Feb. 9, 1852, aged 62)— 

i. Macdonald Bourchier, commander R.N., born 6 Aug. 
1814, married, 5 Dec. 1843, Mary Eliza, eldest daughter 
of the late Rear-Adm. John Hancock, C.B., and by her, 
who died 1872, he had Macdonald Augustus Henry 
Bourchier, who died 28 April, 1850, Seton Longuet 
Bourchier, Mary Eliza Sophia Bourchier, and Alice 
Gertrude Bourchier. 
ii. Henry Prescott Pellew Bourchier, Captain P. and 0. 
ship " Bentinck," died 1856, leaving issue by his wife 
and cousin, Mary Jane Ince, a son, Henry E. Bourchier, 
sub-Lieutenant R.N, and three daughters. 
Captain John Bourchier married secondly, at St. James', West- 
minster, December 1790, Charlotte, second daughter of 
Thomas Corbett, of Lincoln's Inn, barrister-at-law, and of 
Darnhall, Cheshire, and Elsham, co. Lincoln. By her, who 
died 5th January, 1839 (having remarried Feb. 27, 1810, 
Capt. Piatt of the Royal South Lincoln Militia and afterwards 
J. S. Sandars Lang of Keaton, co. Devon), he had issue — 
v. (1. ) "William Bourchier, Commander R.N., born 1791, died 
in Canada, 22nd January, 1.844; who was author of J. A^£?r- 
rative of a Passage from Bomhay to England^ describing 
the Author^ s SJiipwrech in the Nautilus in the Bed Sea; 
Journeys across the Nubian Desert, &c. (8vo. London, 
1834.) He married firstly, in Canada, 8th April, 1821, 
Amelia, daughter of John Mills Jackson, by whom he had 
only one child, 


i. Eustace Fane Bonrclner, C.B., Knight of the Legion ol 
Honour, of the Medjidie, &c. Colonel R.E. who served 
throughout the Kaffir cami^aign of 1846, during a por- 
tion of which he commanded a native levy ; and who 
also served throughout all the operations of the Eastern 
campaign of 1854 — 55, including the battles of the 
Alma, lukerman, and Tchernaya, and as brigade -major 
to the Royal Engineers at the siege and fall of Sebasto- 
pol. He married firstly, Anne Jane, daughter of Charles 
Stuart Pillans, merchant, of Rosebank, Rondebosch, 
C. G. H., by whom he had issue, Charles Edward Bour- 
chier, Alfred Heseltine Bourchier, and five daughters. 
Colonel Bom-chier married secondly, in Canada, the relict 
of Wilmot Seton, of the Treasury. 
Captain Bourchier married secondly Laura, daughter of 
Richard Preston, of Connaught Terrace, London, and widow 
of Robert Wrangham Lukiu, Lieutenant Bombay amiy, 
and had issue by her four daughters and a son, 
ii. Henry Seton Bourchier, lieutenant R.M., who was 
sometime the British Resident at Lukoja on the Niger. 
He married, 1868, Jessie Caroline, daughter of Robert 
Hawkes, Colonel 80th Regiment, and has issue one 

VI. (2.) Charlotte Margaret, married to Richard Parke, 
Captain R.M. by whom she had Richard Parke, Colonel 
R.M. ; Frederick Parke, Lieutenant R.N. ; Charlotte 
Parke, Mary Parke, who both died unmarried ; and 
Caroline, the wife of Rev. Philip Prescott, M.A., son and 
heir-presumptive of Admiral Sir Henry Prescott. 

VII. (3.) Anne, married to John Spicer Hulbert, of Stakes- 
hill-lodge, CO. Hants, and had issue three sons and three 

VIII. (4.) Caroline, married to George Lamburn Greetham, 
late deputy-judge-advocate at Portsmouth, but had no 

IX. (5.) Thomas Bourchier (twin), who, by his wife Anne, 

daughter of Graham, of Deal, had three sons, viz, ; 

i. Edward Bourchier, who perished at sea. 

ii. William Sutherland Bourchier, master R.N., vrho was 
born 15 Nov. 1823, married firstly, 8 Sept. 1850, Mina- 
GloYcr, daughter of J. Aldrich, master R.N., by whoni 


he Irnci two (laughters; and secondly, 1 May, 1856, 
Mary, daughter of Isaac Halse, of Sloane-street, Chelsea, 
by whom he has two daughters, 
iii. Thomas Bouchier, master E.N., born 10 Sept, 1827, 
who was much employed in the several searches for Sir 
John Franklin's ill-fated Arctic expedition, and died 
on active service in Victoria, Australia, 9 July, 1866. He 
married, 22 Jan. 1853, Anne-Bourchier, daughter of J. 
Aldrich, master R.N., and by her left issue six children. 

X. (6.) James O'Brien Bourchier (twin), who settled in 
Canada, where he was a justice of the peace, and died in 
his 75th year, 28 Aug. 1872, leaving issue by his wife, 
Jeanne, daughter of James Lyall, of Canada West, six 
daughters and two sons, William Bourchier and John 
Eaines Bourchier, who are both married and have issue. 

XI. (7.) Susanna, born 13 April, 1801, married at Waltham 
Abbey, 1827, to John Cole, of Easthorpe Court, in Wigtoft, 
CO. Lincoln, by whom she had surviving issue, 1. John 
Charles Cole ; 2. James Edwin-Cole, of the Inner Temple, 
barrister-at-law ; 3. Mary Anne, widow of Hugh Williams, 
second son of late Henry Williams, of Tre' larddur and 
Tre'r Castell, co. Anglesey. 

XII. (8.) John Bourchier, M.D. died in India, and left by 
his wife, Sophia, daughter of John Phillips, M.D. of Win- 
chester, an only child, the Rev. Walter Bourchier, M.A. 
Fellow of New College, Oxford, and Vicar of Sibford. 

XIII. (9.) Julius Bourchier, clerk in the Privy Seal Office, 
died unmarried about 1818. 

XIV. (10.) Frances, born 13 Dec. 1807, married to John 
Overington, but has no issue. 

VIII. Richard Bourchier (son of Edward, by Eliz. Gattacre), 
born 11 May, 1749. 

IX. and X. Julia and Charlotte Bourchier (daughter of Edward, 
by Eliz. Gattacre), twins, born 11 Feb. 1752 ; one of them 
was married to Tonge, of London. 

Arms : Argent, a cross engrailed gules between four waterbougets 
sable. Crest : On a wreath, a Saracen's head in profile proper, couped 
at the shoulders, habited vert, collared and ducally crow^ned or, capped 
gules and tasselled of the third. 

]Rasthorpe Court, Wigtoft, near Spalding, 
jMay, 187a. 



The name of Croker has been associated in modern times almost 
exclusively with literature, ^ and even the political services of the kite 
Secretary to the Admiralty have been forgotten in the interest which 
attaches to his career as a Reviewer. But John ^Yilson Croker and 
Thomas Crofton Croker are but the latest fruits off an old tree which 
flourished for many centuries in Devonshire before its successful 
transplantation to the sister kingdom. Prince,- in his Worthies of 
Devon, claims the highest antiquity for the family, and cites in 
support of its traditional importance " that old saw often used among 

us in discourse, 

Crocker, Crewys, and Coplestone, 

When the Conqueror came were at home." 

We have not been able to trace the family in a connected line from 
an earlier period than the commencement of the fourteenth century, 
at which time it was seated at Crocker's Hele in Meeth, a parish 
situated about four miles from Hatherleigh, on the northern side of 
Dartmoor. Crocker's Hele continued in the possession of the family 
till the middle of the seventeenth century, though Lineham, in the 
extreme south of the county, had then been the seat of the Crokers 
for several 2'enerations. The most eminent member of the familv of 
whom we have any authentic information is Sir John Croker of 
Lineham, who was Cuj) and Standard Bearer to King Edward IV. 
and received from that monarch many proofs of attachment and 
respect. The date of his knighthood is unknown, but it must have 
been conferred previous to September 1471, when Sir John Paston 
thus wrote : — 

Sir Thomas Fulforth escaped out of Westminster with 100 spears, as men say, 
and is into Devonshire, and there hath stricken off Sir John Crokker's head, and 
killed another knight of the Courtenays as men say. (Paston Letters.) 

There Avas no truth in this report so far as concerned Sir John 
Croker, for he survived many years, and in 1-475 received from Louis 

' Perhaps we ought not to omit all mention of " Sir Christopher Croker, knight 
and vintner," one of The Nine Worthies of London commemorated in the old ballad, 
and "Sweet Alley Croker" (afterwards Alicia Langley, see p. 6), the subject of nioro 
modern song. 

2 Prince was himself connected with the Croker family. Bernard Prince married' 
circa 1640, Mary Crocker of Lyneham, sister (apparently) of Sir Hugh Cicchcr, 
Mayor of P^xeter. 

yoL: Yiii, 2 C 


XI. of France, whom he visited in attendance on his royal master, an 
honourable augmentation to the crest which King Edward had con- 
ferred on him. {See Pedigree.) 

Sir John died 14th March, 1508, and was buried at Yealmpton, the 

. parish church of Lineham, where a brass, representing the knight in 

plate armour, and bearing the following inscription, may still be seen : — 

Wt facet Jofj'fg Croftftfr, mi\n, (inontra' cip'^orarius ac stgnifpr illus^ 
trtsstmi regis (iJ^titDartrt tiuarti, qfui obt't't itiij trie i^Harrij ?lnno Doni missi'o 
(luigentesnno octabo.— [J^m/zes's Manual.'] 

His son was squire of the body to King Henry VII. ; and a later 
descendant, Hugh Crocker, was knighted by King Charles I. in 1644, 
when he visited Exeter during the camj^aign with the Earl of Essex. 

The main line of the family terminated in an heiress, Mary Croker, 
who brought Lineham to the Bulteels, of Flete, co. Devon, and from 
them it has passed by sale to the Bastards of Kitley, its present 
owners. Junior branches of the family were seated at Ugborough, 
Exeter, and elsewhere in Devon, and also at St. Agnes in the ad- 
joining county of Cornwall. The last of these is now represented by 
the Crokers of Ireland, whose ancestors migrated thither in the time 
and service of Cromwell, and acquired property in the counties of 
Limerick,^ Cork, and Waterford. The founder of the Limerick line, 
Edward Croker, was slain in the Irish rebellion of 1641. He resided 
at Rawleighstown, which continued to be the seat of his descendants until 
Ballyneguarde Castle- was acquired 'oj his grandson John Croker, 
from whom it has devolved in regular succession to the present John 
Monck Croker, who may be regarded as the head of the family. In 
the subjoined pedigrees the authority for each statement is as far as 
possible inserted ; but it must be borne in mind that the parochial 
registers in Ireland are sadly defective, and that it is almost impossible 
to secure undo